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Case. /.. Shel f /K - 

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i 1 • JAN ' 



Journal of Pharmacy. 













34 s/3 



JANUARY, 1878. 


By J. U. Lloyd, Cincinnati, O. 

The Pharmacopoeia directs to make this extract with stronger alco- 
hol. I will not in the present article report any of my experiments 
with different menstruums ; this paper can embrace only a few inves- 
tigations without being longer than I desire it to be, consequently I 
select those in which I operated upon small amounts of material, as 
such correspond with the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia. They 
were instituted and form the part of a series intended to instruct me 
for my laboratory work, so that I could as nearly as possible under- 
stand the comparative value of the processes which have from time to 
time been recommended for the preparation of fluid extracts. I assume 
that the menstruum directed by the U. S. P. is capable of completely 
extracting the principles which give to dry cimicifuga its therapeutical 
value. It may not be out of place to say that my experience teaches 
me that either water or glycerin injures the fluid extract of this drug. 
I also assume, in the part of the line of experiments which are 
embraced by this paper, that every grain of dry extractive matter has 
the same therapeutic value ; that one grain of dry extractive matter 
taken from the first part of a percolate will produce the physiological 
action of a grain from any other portion. This, to an extent, may be 
inaccurate ; the principle will not, I believe, hold good for articles like 
cinchona, hydrastis, and even podophyllum ; but with such the rela- 
tive values of different processes of percolation may be quite correctly 
determined by comparing the amounts of extractive matter at similar 
stages of each operation, providing the strength of the menstruum is 
not changed. 

My experience is that I save time by instituting parallel examples of 


Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I Jan., 1878. 

each experiment, and generally carry on three, unless very large 
amounts are being worked ; thus an error at any point in one of the 
experiments, or the neglect to secure a percolate at the proper time, 
will not cause the loss of time necessitated by the repetition of an 
extended experiment. 

It is necessary, for proper comparison, to use material of the same 
quality throughout the entire operation. This point I always endeavor 
to provide for by supplying myself with an abundance before com- 
mencing. For these experiments I directed that 1,000 pounds of 
crude cimicifuga root be taken from a large pile, just as it came. I 
object to selecting a superior quality, as my aim is to experiment with 
such as is found upon the market, and we may expect the majority 
afterward to operate with. One-half of the thousand pounds was 
powdered in a chaser ; the other half was coarsely ground. 

In evaporating percolates, I find it almost impossible to work large 
amounts with any degree of satisfaction. A skim usually forms over 
the surface, which frequently almost completely prevents evaporation 
from beneath ; from eight to ten days it may be expected will be 
required when this is the case, and even then all the liquid may not be 
driven off. The addition of a known amount of dry sand facilitates 
the operation ; but I seldom use this plan, as frequently the residuum 
is to be examined, and the sand interferes. I favor moderately small 
portions of liquid, and in the experiments recorded here the second 
part of the first is the only example where more than one cubic centi- 
meter was evaporated. Great care must be taken to expel all the alco- 
hol from residuums, but too great a heat must be guarded against with 
an equal degree of caution. All extractive matters are not like that 
obtained from cimicifuga. A heat of 150 to 160 Fah. is sufficient 
for this article. I obtain the requisite temperature from a steam-coil 
drying-room ; cold air passes over the coil of pipes at the bottom of 
the room, and, circulating around alternate ends and over the shelves, 
escapes at the top. 

I take three equal amounts of each percolate ; if there is sufficient 
variation to justify, I average the weight of the residuums. Mistakes 
may be very easily made, and often it is a satisfaction to have dupli- 
cates, especially where the result is contrary to preformed opinions. 

For a base to compare with in this line of experiments I sought to 
find the amount of dry alcoholic extract a given number of grains of 

Am j J a n" r, x8 P 7 h 8 arm *} Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga. 3 

cimicifuga contained. A half-inch glass tube was drawn at the bot- 
tom like a syringe, and plugged with a wad of cotton. 438 grains of 
powdered cimicifuga was moistened with alcohol, and carefully and 
firmly pressed into the tube ; the powder was covered with a closely 
fitting paper, and alcohol added from a self-regulating supply-vessel 
until 112 fluidounces had passed. 

One cc, carefully evaporated in watch glass, gave . . . '018 grain 

Total yield of 1 12 fluidounces, ..... 59*51 " 

The powder was removed from the tube, dried, rubbed in a mortar, 
and again moistened with alcohol and replaced in the tube ; alcohol 
supplied until 64 fluidounces had passed. 

One fluid dram yielded *oi grain dry extract. 
Total yield of 64 fluidounces, ..... 5*12 grains 
Total amount extracted from 438 grains of powdered cimicifuga 

by 176 fluidounces of alcohol, ..... 64*63 " 
One troyounce will contain ..... 70*83 " 

7680 grains (16 troyounces), ..... 1133*26 " 

About 14! per cent. , 

The extraction of the resin from the powder may not have been 
absolute, but I think the operation was carried as far as could be 
desired. The first percolate, 112 fluidounces, was deep straw-color, 
the second very light. 

I assume that if a fluid extract of cimicifuga represents the amount 
of powder employed, each portion of 16 fluidounces will contain 
1 133*26 grains of dry extractive matter, soluble in strong alcohol, and 
the ratio between the number of grains actually contained and 1133*26 
represents the value of the fluid extract as compared with what it 
should be. 

Experiment 1, U. S. P. — 7,680 grains powdered cimicifuga, properly 
moistened and pressed into a cylindrical tube, three inches internal 
diameter, filled it ten inches in height. I had ten tubes constructed, 
of such diameter that the first would allow 7,680 grains to stand 
fifteen inches high ; the second required twice 7,680 grains ; the third 
three times 7,680, and so on until the tenth required ten times 7,680, 
the powder in each of the ten percolators occupying fifteen inches in 
height. The tubes were thirty-six inches long. To arrive at these 
sizes, I calculated the number of cubic inches the tube three inches in 
diameter and ten inches long contained (70*68), and from these known 
terms arrived at the diameter of the percolators (see tables). 

4 Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga. {^jZZ'JSF* 

Moveable diaphragms were made of perforated tin ; they were cov- 
ered with muslin and so arranged as to rest at the bottom of each tube, 
nicely fitting into each. A round piece of filtering-paper was placed 
over them. Below the diaphragms the percolators tapered, funnel- 
shaped, to a small tube, where was attached a stop-cock. Commenc- 
ing at the smallest, the ten percolators were arranged, in natural order, 
in a frame. 

7,680 grains of powdered cimicifuga was moistened with 4 fluid- 
ounces of strong alcohol, and pressed into the smallest percolator ; the 
powder occupied 15 inches in height. The operation was repeated 
until 7,680 grains had been pressed into each of the ten, the powder 
being made to occupy a proportional less height as the diameter of the 
percolator increased. To reduce the powders to the height desired, I 
used cylindrical boards which accurately fitted each percolator, they were 
attached to graduated handles. Circular papers were placed over each 
powder, and held in place with pieces of perforated tin. The remainder 
of 16 fluidounces of alcohol was then poured upon each powder, the 
percolators covered with panes of glass and allowed to macerate four 
days. At the end of this time no liquid appeard at the exit tube of 
any percolator. 33 fluidounces of alcohol were then added (16 troy- 
ounces of powdered cimicifuga will absorb and hold from 24 to 25 
fluidounces alcohol). 

Amount of powder 
in each percolator. 

Diameter of perco- 

Height of powder. 

Am't of dry ext ve 
matter cont'd in 
1 cc. of the per- 
colate, 14 floz. 

Total amount of 
extractive matt'r 
in 14 floz. 

Amount of dry ex- 
tractive matter 
cont'd in i cc. of 
the percolate, 10 

Total dry extrac- 
tractive matter 
in 10 floz. perco- 

Total am't of dry 
extractive matt'r 
in the finished 
fluid extract. 

Finished fluid ex- 
tract represents 
powdered Cimi- 













r 4 i 



53 H 

635 86 

4309 16 




1 25 

516 60 




434i' I 5 























334 76 















6- 4 8 








































Am j J a°n" r i8 P 7 8 arin '} Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga. 5 

Percolators 6, 7, 8 and 9 allowed the alcohol to run directly through 
until from 4 to 8 fluidounces had passed, it was uncolored, then the 
flow slackened and the percolate became dark. I regulated the drop- 
ping and returned the alcohol which had passed, this last I had no 
authority for doing as our direction is positive to percolate 24 fluid- 
ounces and reserve the first 14. The operation was finished as the 
Pharmacopoeia directs. See table No. 1. 

Recapitulation. — According to the Pharmacopoeia the powders are to 
remain in the percolators four days to macerate, but 16 fluidounces of 
alcohol are used, and the reading of the general directions leads me to 
expect a percolate will appear. This is not the case, however, 16 troy- 
ounces of powdered cimicifuga will absorb and hold 24 or 25 fluid- 
ounces of alcohol ; to remedy this discrepancy the alcohol must be 
increased to at least 24 fluidounces. At the end of four days I care- 
fully removed the tin and papers, the powders were found filled with 
numerous fissures from a mere fracture to one-eighth of an inch in 
diameter, in every case the powder had contracted and separated from 
the side of the percolators ; they were not in a condition to percolate 
satisfactorily, but my object was to follow the process of the Pharma- 
copoeia, and, after replacing the papers, I proceeded with the operation 
according to directions. By refering to the table it will be seen that 
the most successful pint of fluid extract represents nearly 9 troyounces 
of cimicifuga, the poorest a fraction over 5 troyounces. As regards the 
directions given in the U. S. P , I believe in all instances, except that 
mentioned which favored the extract, they were followed exactly ; 
true, it may be said, a good pharmacist will not be likely to use a per- 
colator 7*35 inches in diamater to work 16 troyounces of cimicifuga in, 
and, yet as the Pharmacopoeia does not mention the diameter of the 
percolator to be employed, it might be answered that the diameter of 
the percolator is likely not a consideration of much importance else it 
would be named — that each of the extracts found in table No. 1 are 
official fluid extracts, inasmuch, as the requirements of the Pharmaco- 
poeia were met in the preparation of them all, and that an official fluid 
extract of cimicifuga may contain the virtues of from 5 to 9 troyounces 
of cimicifuga in 16 fluidounces of the fluid extract. 

It will be seen that the first three percolators produced extracts 
which contained more extractive matter than any of the others, but 
the second contains more than the first, which is rather an exceptional 

6 Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga. } ^ji^t"*' 

example. From the fifth there was no regularity, the difference in the 
height of the powders did not influence the result; indeed, the tenth 
percolator furnished an extract stronger than the sixth. This irregu- 
larity, to the greater extent, resulted from the cracks in the powder,, 
which were caused by the four days' maceration with an insufficient 
amount of alcohol, when fissures form or the mass of the powder con- 
tracts and separates from the percolator ; the menstruum, when added, 
passes through the crevices instead of permeating the material. This 
was particularly evident in percolators 6, 7, 8 and 9, where the alcohol 
run at once in an uncolored stream. My experience is that the powder 
should be kept covered with liquid from the commencement until the 
end of the process. There will be no greater loss of alcohol from 
evaporation if the entire amount to be used is added at the commence- 
ment. Extent of surface controls evaporation, and increase of bulk 
will not increase the surface if the percolator is cylindrical. Now, as 
16 troyounces of cimicifuga will absorb 24 fluidounces of alcohol, and 
24 fluidounces of percolate are to be obtained, it follows that the word 
forty-eight, substituted for sixteen in the official directions for making 
the fluid extract of this article, would make the percolate appear from 
the exit, as the wording of the directions leads us to anticipate, would 
prevent the formation of crevices, would add at one time sufficient 
alcohol to furnish both the percolates, and would not increase the 
expense. I will pass on now, and briefly notice experiment No. 2,, 
differing from this only in the fact that the powders were not macerated. 

Experiment 2. — The same percolators were prepared ; 7,680 grains 
of powdered cimicifuga were moistened with 4 fluid ounces, of alcohol. 
This amount was placed in each of the ten percolators, pressed until it 
occupied the same height as in the corresponding percolators of previ- 
ous experiment, and covered in like manner with circular papers. 
Forty-four fluidounces of alcohol were added to each, and percolation 
proceeded with at once. The percolate from each was collected in 
portions of 14 and 10 fluidounces, after which the fluid extract was. 
finished as the Pharmacopoeia directs. See table 2. 

Recapitulation. — In this series no cracks formed in the powders. The 
first percolator gave the largest total vield of extractive matter, repre- 
senting about 1 1 J troyounces of cimicifuga. The ninth contained a 
little more than enough to represent seven. Compared with the pre- 
ceeding table, there is a decided increase in the value of each extract,. 

Am jan'-ifyt™' } Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga. 7 

with one exception, the eighth, where, by a somewhat remarkable coin- 
cidence, corresponding percolates contain the same amount of extrac- 
tive matter. There is a rapid decrease in the value of the extracts 
from the first to the seventh, beyond which the diameter of the per- 
colator does not influence the result. The seventh, with a height of 
powder 2*14 inches, furnishes an extract inferior to the tenth with only 
1*5 inches ; indeed, this last is superior to any above it, until the sixth 
is reached. It will be remembered that in my comments upon the 
first table I imputed this (much larger) irregularity to be mainly due to 
the fissures in the powder, caused by the process of maceration. There 
are other causes why a powder of little depth cannot be exhausted with 
any degree of certainty — causes which I believe the most careful can- 
not easily overcome, or sufficient usually to about counterbalance the 
advantage accruing from so slight an increase of depth as there was 
between the powders in each of the latter five percolators. I believe 
these variations in every case are governed by natural laws, which I 
cannot dwell upon just now. The ten pints of finished fluid extracts 
contained a total of 41965*88 grains extractive matter an average of 
8*7 troyounces to the pint. The extracts from table No. 1 represented 
only 7*2 troyounces, being a difference of 21 per cent, in favor of per- 
colation without maceration. Taking the first percolator of each table, 
the difference is 30 per cent, in favor of percolation without maceration. 

Amount of pow- 
dered Cimicifuga 
in each percola- 

Diameter of perco- 

Height of powder. 

Am't of dry ext've 
matter cont'd in 
1 cc. of the per- 
colate, 14 floz. 

Total dry extrac- 
tive matter in 14 

I Amount of dry ex- 

tractive matter 
cont'd in 1 cc. of 
the percolate, 10 

To'l extract'e mat- 
ter contained in 
percolate, 10 floz. 

Total extractive 
matter contained 
in the finished 
fluid extract. 

Finished fluid ex- 
tract represents 
powdered Cimi- 













r6 7 










628 19 















4 9° 


II 9 





4473 -I 7 
















123 98 




6' 4 8 






487 67 


































8 Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga. { ^'^J^ 

I come now to the third experiment, where the plan recommended 
in the U. S. D., page 1164 (note), for cinchona was applied to cimici- 
fuga, the operation being suspended when the official amount of per- 
colate was obtained. 

Experiment 3. — Ten portions, each 7,680 grains of powdered cimici- 
fuga, were intimately mixed, each separately, with 32 fluidounces of 
alcohol, and allowed to macerate 30 minutes, when each portion was 
transferred to a percolator — the ten percolators being those before used. 
When the liquid disappeared below the surface of the powder, alcohol 
was added until a sufficient amount of percolate had been obtained, said 
percolates being reserved in portions each of 14 and 10 fluidounces. 
The fluid extract was completed according to the directions of the U. 
S. P. See table 3. 


Amount of powder 
in each percolator. 

Height of powder 
in each percola- 

Diameter of perco- 

Am't of dry extr't 
contained in i cc. 
of the percolate, 
14 floz. 

Total extract in 
14 floz. 

Am't of dry extr't 
contained in i cc. 
of the percolate, 
10 floz. 

Total dry extract 
in 10 floz. 

Total am't of dry 
extractive matt'r 
in the finished 
fluid extract. 

Finished fluid ex- 
tract represents 
powdered Cimi- 












2 '45 








7 5 







3388 93 









3168 81 







147 60 



















438 67 



2 14 










6 93 


















7" 75 












Although the maceration is continued only 30 minutes, it strikes me 
the process may better be called percolation with maceration, than that 
of the U. S. P. A marked peculiarity of the result of the ten experi- 
ments is the regular amount of extractive matter contained in the fluid 
extracts ; but while there is more certainty as to the regularity of the 
extracts made by this method, judging from these experiments, each 

Am *j J a°n U ) r ^7 h 8 arm } Fluid °f Cimicifuga, 9 

extract is, with one exception, inferior to the corresponding extract in 
the former tables. The total amount of cimicifuga represented is 
3516*97 grains less than represented by the U. S. P. process, and 
10897*51 grains less than by simple percolation. The average of the 
ten pints makes each 16 fluidounces of fluid extract represent 6*5 troy- 
ounces of cimicifuga, which is 34 per cent, in favor of percolation with- 
out maceration, as represented by the second experiment. One very 
great objection to the process just described arises from the fact that 
the powders settle in a tough mass, so compact as to almost prevent 
the passage of the alcohol ; percolator No. 1 with a diameter of 2*45 
inches requires considerable pressure when the moistened powder is 
made to occupy 15 inches in height. But by this process the powder 
settles until it occupies only 11 inches. Indeed, with this percolator 
the liquid ceased to drop at all, and I was compelled to stir the powder 
with a spatula. It will be remembered that this operation was discon- 
tinued when the amount of percolate directed by the official formula 
for fluid extracts was obtained. I will now call attention to the fol- 
lowing experiment, where the entire process recommended for solid 
extract of cinchona, as I understand it, was applied to cimicifuga. 

3,840 grains of powdered cimicifuga were mixed with 16 fluidounces 
of alcohol, allowed to stand 30 minutes, and poured into an ordinary 
glass percolator, diameter of top 10 inches, bottom ij inches. When 
the liquid disappeared below the surface of the powder alcohol was 
added, until the total amount of percolate desired (56 f^) was obtained 
in fractions, as explained by table 4. 

3,840 grains of powdered cimicifuga was mixed with the first per- 
colate (16 f^) from the preceding fraction, allowed to stand 30 min- 
utes, and poured into a percolator similar to the preceding. When 
the liquid disappeared beneath the surface of the powder it was followed 
with the succeeding percolates in the order they were obtained, each 
being permitted to disappear before the following one was added ; finally, 
the operation was completed with alcohol. The percolates were 
reserved in portions, as explained by table 4, until 60 fluid ounces were 
obtained. The first percolate (16 fj) of the preceding operation was 
mixed with a third portion of 3,840 grains of powdered cimicifuga, 
allowed to macerate 30 minutes, and poured into a percolator like those 
used in the preceding examples. This was followed with the remain- 
der of the percolates, the result being also separated, as obtained, into 

io Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga. { Am -j{Z*£ Tm ' 

fractions — see table 4. Towards the last, alcohol was added to obtain 
the requisite amount. The first two fractions were mixed and reserved, 
the remaining were mixed and evaporated until reduced to 3 fluid- 
ounces, then added to the reserved 21 fluidounces. See table 4. 


Percolate from first 
8 oz powdered 

Dry extraet con- 

Percolate from 2d 
8 oz powdered 

Dry extract con- 

Percolate from 3d 
8 oz. powdered 


Dry extract con- 

Extractive matter 
contained in 16 
floz. finished fld. 

Fluid oz. 


Fluid oz. 


Fluid oz. 














































540 82 






Recapitulation. — The 56 fluidounces of percolate obtained from the 
first 8 troyounces of powder contained 540*82 grains of dry extractive 
matter. This percolate with the extractive matter contained was 
passed through the second portion of powder (8 troy ounces), being 
followed with enough fresh alcohol to make 60 fluidounces, containing 
a total of 1036*10 grains of dry extractive matter. Deducting that 
derived from the first portion of powder leaves us 495*28 grains as the 
result of the second operation. The third 8 troyounces of powder was 
percolated with a menstruum already containing 1036*10 grains of ex- 
tractive matter. Fresh alcohol enough was added to produce 68 fluid- 
ounces of percolate, which contained 1 167*72 grains of extract, deduct- 
ing that obtained from the 16 ounces of powder of the two former 
operations leaves 131*62 grains. Sixteen fluidounces of the finished 
fluid extract contained 778*48 grains; of this, 665*77 g ram s were con- 

Am jIn" r i8 P 7 h 8 arm '} Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga. 1 1 

tained in the first 24 fluidounces of percolate, consequently 44 fluid- 
ounces of alcohol were required to extract 112*71 grains of extractive 

This operation I found very tedious and troublesome. As mentioned 
in connection with experiment third, cimicifuga settles into a tough 
mass when worked in this way, so compact as almost to prevent the 
menstruum from passing. More than three weeks were consumed in 
preparing this 24 fluidounces of fluid extract. I gave the experiment 
every attention possible for me to spare from other operations. I 
stationed a boy part of the time to reserve the percolates, and with all 
my care occasionally the surface of the powder would become exposed 
and crack. Necessarily, I was compelled to suspend the operation 
nights and upon the sabbath. 


Percolate from 24 
oz. powdered 

Dry extract contained. 

Extractive mattercontained in 16 floz. 
finished fluid extract. 

Fluid ounces. 















40 16 


26 88 




When this line of experiments was commenced I also instituted an 
example with simple percolation, corresponding excepting that the 
powder was placed in a single percolator. The percolate was received 
in similar portions ; table No. 5 tabulates the result. Comparing the 
two operations I find that simple percolation extracted 69*02 grains of 
extractive matter more than repercolation. In the first thirty-six fluid- 
ounces, corresponding with the amount of percolate derived from 24 troy- 

1 2 Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga. { Am j J a ° n u y- I 8 7 h 8 arm - 

ounces of powder by the official process, repercolation falls 79*66 grains 
short of simple percolation ; this will make sixteen fluidounces of fluid 
extract by repercolation, lack 53*11 grains of the simple percolation, 
equivalent to 359*01 grains of cimicifuga. Repercolation represents 
nearly 9 J troyounces of cimicifuga ; percolation about 10 troyounces, 
being 5 per cent, in favor of simple percolation. These experiments 
can only compare repercolation and percolation by this (to me) unsatis- 
factory process. The theory of repercolation, as T understand it now, 
presents quite a different aspect. I will introduce two similar experi- 
ments, intended to compare percolation and repercolation ; both were 
instituted at the same time, both had the same total height of powder, 
and to both I gave all the care possible. 

Repercolation. — 3,840 grains of powdered cimicifuga were moistened 
with 2 fluidounces of alcohol and pressed into a cylindrical percolator 
three inches in diameter until the powder occupied 5 inches in height. 
It was covered with a circular paper, held in place with a perforated 
piece of tin, and 35 fluidounces of alcohol added. The percolate was 
separated as it passed into portions of 6, 3, 4J and 9 fluidounces. The 
first, 6f^, was reserved. 

TABLE 6. Result of Experiments by Repercolation. 


rt <D 

rv e 

« S 0- 

16 floz. of finished fluid extract 

Amount of powder 


*£ v . 


operated upon. 

a . 

«. > u 

S \2 ° 

« .2 i 

represent powd'd 

3 O H 

contain dry ex- 



<u « u 




< *"~ 


8 oz. 

i*57 gr. 

278*08 grs. 




292 25 


10 5 





973 28 

648 85 grs. 

4397 20 grs. 

3,840 grains of powdered cimicifuga were moistened with the second 
portion of the percolate (3^) from the last powder. It was pressed 
into a three inch percolator until it occupied five inches, and was then 
covered with paper like the last, and the two remaining fractions of the 
percolates added in the order they came. The first (4|f^) being per- 
mitted to disappear before it was followed with the other. Alcohol was 

Am j J a°n U , r "i8 P 7 8f rm } Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga. 1 3 

finally added until the desired amount of percolate was obtained. This 
was divided as it came into three portions, 7J, and \\ fluidounces. 
The first, 7J, was reserved. 

3,840 grains of powdered cimicifuga were moistened with 2 fluid- 
ounces of the second percolate obtained in the preceding operation ; 
pressed into a three inch percolator until it occupied five inches in 
height. The remainder of the \\ fluidounces of percolate was added, 
allowed to disappear, followed with the last percolate, 4^f§, and then 
at once with alcohol. Ten and a half fluidounces of percolate were 
obtained ; this and the two reserved percolates were mixed together, 
representing 24 fluidounces of the fluid extract of cimicifuga made by 
the repercolation process. Table No. 6 shows the result. 

Simple Percolation. — 24 troyounces of powdered cimicifuga were 
moistened with 6 fluidounces of alcohol, and pressed into a three inch 
cylindrical percolator until it occupied 15 inches in height. After 
being covered with a circular piece of filter paper, 60 fluidounces of 
alcohol were added and percolation continued until 24 fluidounces of 
percolate were obtained \ this was reserved in three fractions to corres- 
pond with the three reserved percolates of the repercolation proccess. 
Table No. 7 places the result where the two processes can be compared. 

TABLE 7. Result of Experiments by Percolation. 

O « u 

a! cu 


** E 

16 floz. of finished fluid extract 

Amount of powder 

-0 c 
V . 


operated upon. 

a . 

*j > u 

represent powd'd 


in 1 cc. 






24 02. powder 

io-5 f3 

r 9 6gr. 

607-52 grs. 

The same powder 


r 3 8 


The same powder 






718-51 grs. 

4869-28 grs. 

Recapitulation. — The total amount of extractive matter obtained by- 
the repercolation process was 973*28 grains, by simple percolation 1077*- 
79, being an excess in favor of simple percolation of 104*51 grains, 
which represented 708*25 grains of cimicifuga. Sixteen fluidounces of 
the finished fluid extract represented near 9 troyounces of cimicifuga 

i 4 

Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga. 

( Am. Jour. Pharntu 
( Jan., 1878. 

by the repercolation process, and 10 by simple percolation, being a 
difference of 1 1 per cent, in favor of simple percolation. 

10 J fluidounces of percolate, the third reserved portion by reperco- 
lation, I represent as corresponding with the first percolate — simple 
percolation — because this is the only fraction which passes through the 
entire 24 troyounces of powder by the repercolation process, but it 
should be remembered that 16 troyounces have been submitted to the 
action of two previously reserved portions, consequently it must not 
be expected that an equal amount of matter will be extracted by the 
two percolates, and a comparison of results shows that the repercola- 
tion fraction contains less than percolation by 204.57 grains. The 
second percolate, 7J fluidounces, passes in the repercolation process 
through 8 troyounces of powder, which have not been submitted to 
the action of any previous percolate, also through 8 troyounces, which 
have been partly extracted by the reserved percolate (6fg). The cor- 
responding fraction in simple percolation passes through 24 ounces of 
cimicifuga, all of which has been partly exhausted by the preceding 
percolate, the result shows us that this fraction contains 13*30 grains 
more extractive matter in the simple percolation process. 

The other reserved portion, 6 fluidounces, is the first by the reperco- 
lation process, and is actually simple percolation where the first 6 
fluidounces of a percolate, from 8 troyounces of cimicifuga, are 
reserved. By simple percolation the corresponding percolate is the 
last, and passes through 24 troyounces of cimicifuga, which have been 
depleted to a large extent of soluble materials by the action of two 
preceding percolates, (reserved as two). It is seen that this percolate 
contains 113*36 grains less by simple peercolation than by repercola- 
tion, but the excess of extractive matter contained in the first two 
portions, in favor of simple percolation, makes the total result 104. 51 
grains in favor of that process. 

In the preceding, I have illustrated, by seven tables, my experience 
with four different processes for making fluid extract of cimicifuga, 
embracing 34 experiments. The following table (No. 8) gives the 
value of the best fluid extract of each process. 

Am Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan., 1878. J 

Distillatory Apparatus, 



16 fluidounces of fluid 
extract made by 

Represents dry extrac- 
tive matter. 

Represents grains of 

Or of tbe total am t 
of extract in the 
root, taken as the 

No. 2 


without maceration 

825-97 grs. 

5597*52 grs. 








U. S. P. 





U. S D 

Page 1 1 64 (note) 




None of the experiments produced with the official amount of alco- 
hol, an extract to represent the powder, operated upon. To arrive at 
any certainty, many times this number of disinterested investigations 
must be put upon the official fluid extracts. The result of the line 
I offer, unmistakably favors simple percolation without maceration; but 
fluid extract of cimicifuga may possibly be exceptional, and it would 
not be well for those who have not experimented farther to prepossess 
themselves in favor of any theory from the summing up of the few 
experiments I offer in this paper. Of primary importance, to pharma- 
cists, is the question, "can we practically produce a liquid extract 
each fluidounce of which will contain the medicinal principles of one 
troyounce of crude material, on operating with such quantities as the 
U. S. P. directs ?" 


By Joseph P. Remington. 

Having occasion to use frequently the ordinary forms of pharmaceu- 
tical stills, for recovering alcohol, in making fluid extracts, and for 
other purposes, and noticing some defective points in their practical 
operation, the writer finally contrived the apparatus which is figured 
in the cut, and a continuous use of over three years, having proved 
its efficiency, it is herewith submitted. 

The greatest objections to the pharmaceutical stills, usually sold by 
the makers, are the use of the water joint, and the short distance 
remaining between the delivery-pipe and the source of heat when the 
still is in position. The water-joint is always objectionable ; when the 
still is in use, constant care and attention is required to keep it full of 

1 6 Distillatory Apparatus. {^'^I'S?^ 

water on account of evaporation, and a sudden tilt or shake requires a 
readjustment. In some of the stills, where the spirit is condensed upon 
the dome, the water in the joint gradually evaporating, is replaced by 
the condensed alcohol, which is wasted by the evaporation, even if more 
serious consequences do not result, /. the sudden bursting into flame 
by contact with the fire used as a source of heat. The second objection 
may be counterbalanced, if care is used ; but it sometimes happens that 
the water-supply, used for condensation, suddenly fails, and if alcoholic 
vapor issues from the delivery-tube, instead of condensed spirit, explo- 
sion will likely ensue if it comes in contact with flame. 

As expense has usually to be considered in the construction of ap- 
paratus for pharmaceutical use, especially if intended for occasional 
employment, the effort was made to keep the cost down to the lowest 
point consistent with utility and convenience of application. 

It is presumed that most pharmacists use a low stove, such as here 
figured, or a gas stove, or have access to a kitchen range or furnace. 
The still proper, A, thirteen inches in diameter, may be constructed of 
copper, and if a copper can, in which oils of lemon, bergamot, orange, 
etc., etc., are imported, can be procured, a new bottom may be brazed into 
it by a coppersmith, and the whole tinned inside ; the top is cut off, 
and two flat brass rings, B and C, one and a half inches wide and half 
inch thick, are obtained and soldered or riveted to the top and body of 
the can, as shown in the cut ; two half inch short copper tubes D and 
E are fastened to the body of the still, communicating with the inside 
for use as a water level ; a glass tube bent at right angles at top and 
bottom is fastened by two short pieces of rubber tube to the copper tubes 
for this purpose ; when the water bath is used (hereafter described) the 
upper end of glass tube is drawn out of the rubber tube, in order to 
afford egress for the steam through the upper tube D. A three quarter 
inch copper tube is let into the top to supply the liquid to be distilled, 
of course furnished with a cork, when the still is used. A water bath 
of tinned copper or tinned iron of the shape shown in F, with a flat 
rim, which accurately fits the brass flat ring, should be provided. 

A four inch opening is made in the copper top G, to which is fitted 
the elbow H ; this elbow is best made of tinned copper, but this may 
be replaced by a tinned iron, " lobster back," gutter-pipe elbow, if 
first cost must be curtailed. There is an advantage in widening this 
tube : first, in affording more space for the accommodation of vapor 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan., 1877. f 

Distillatory Apparatus. 


rapidly forming, and, secondly, for the greater facility with which it 
may be cleansed, there being no difficulty in getting the hand inside to 
scour it out. 

The condenser, J, however, is the most important part of the appara- 
tus and consists of seven tubes one inch in diameter, thirty-two inches 
long, surrounded by a cylinder five inches in diameter and twenty-four 
inches long ; the seven tubes are arranged as seen in sectional view I. 
A cap, K, two inches deep, soldered to the condenser, fits tightly over 
the elbow H, so that a tight joint is made here — this may be rendered 
perfectly tight by tying around it a strip of moistened bladder. 

A short tube, L, at the bottom of condenser is connected with a 
rubber tube from hydrant for supplying cold water, and a similar tube 
at M conveys the heated water into the sink. 

The ends of the condenser tubes are drawn together and tapered so 
that a bottle with an inch and a half mouth may be used for collecting 
the distillate. 

1 8 Distillatory Apparatus. { A ^Z^8 P 7 8 arm * 

An iron stand, N, adjusted by raising or lowering the U-shaped sup- 
port, and fastening at any required angle, by means of the screw in the 
centre, is a convenient way of supporting and keeping in place the 
whole apparatus — but this may be replaced by a wooden box, cut so as 
to receive the condenser and blocked up from below to the proper 
height as required. 

The joint between the still and dome is best made by inserting a 
wetted hempen cord — as used in Dr. Squibb's laboratory, Brooklyn — 
(the thick twine which is used by the paper manufacturers to bundle 
reams of wrapping paper answers very well), between the two brass 
rims B, C, and clamping together, placing the clamps at equal dis- 
tances, and arranging alternately, so as to secure a uniform pressure. 

The advantages which seem to be possessed by this distillatory appa- 
ratus are as follows : All parts may be readily cleaned, and, as it is 
intended for the use of the pharmacist, in the limited space usually 
afforded for manipulations, care has been taken to make it as compact 
as is consistent with safety and efficiency. The condenser has the 
advantage of the worm in affording extent of surface to the refrigerating 
action of the cold water, and is seven times more efficient than the 
ordinary Liebig's condenser, from the fact that seven tubes are employed 
instead of one. The advantage of the Liebig is retained — that of the 
facility with which it may be cleaned by simply passing a rattan, armed 
with a sponge or muslin rag, which is tied around the end, through 
each straight tube in turn, and rinsing with warm water or suitable 
liquid. The disadvantage of the worm for pharmaceutical use, i. e., 
the great difficulty in cleaning, especially when the still is needed for a 
variety of purposes, is thus avoided. 

The principle of increasing the extent of surface to obtain greater 
efficiency without adding materially to the size, which has been used 
so long in the construction of locomotive boilers, was taken advantage 
of here, with the view of getting similar advantages by the reverse 
effect. The diameter of the tube being I inch, and length exposed to 
the refrigerating action of water 24, the area would be slightly over 
75 inches ; this, multiplied by seven, gives the whole extent of surface, 
525 inches. Now, the diameter of the outside cylinder surrounding 
the tubes is 5 inches, this multiplied by 3*1416, and this by 24, would 
give the surface of the cylinder, nearly 377 inches, and this lacks about 
30 per cent, of the extent of surface of the seven inside tubes ; so that 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1878. 

Glycerin in Pharmacy. 

l 9 

there is 30 per cent, more surface exposed by the condensing tubes than 
is possessed by the containing cylinder. 

To the pharmacist, occupied by many various duties, it is an object 
to be able to save time and trouble, and, with a little practice, it is not 
difficult with a good fire and the ordinary water supply, in moderate 
weather (water at 50°F.) to recover a gallon of alcohol from weak 
tincture in fifteen minutes ; the whole apparatus maybe set up, the 
distillation finished, and all finally cleaned and put away easily in 30 
minutes. Seven streams issue from the delivery tubes of the condenser 
instead of one, and the danger arising from alcoholic vapor issuing 
uncondensed on account of urging the fire, and communication with 
flame, is almost prevented by the increased power of the condenser. 

The condenser should have the inside surface protected from rust by 
a thick coat of red lead and oil, if made of tinned iron. 
Philadelphia, Twelfth mo. 10th, 1877. 


By C. J. Biddle, Ph.G. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, December 18, 1877. 

Of the discoveries of Scheele, glycerin is one of the most impor- 
tant and useful ; although nearly a century has passed since its discov- 
ery, it has not been in extensive use but for comparatively few years ; 
improvements in the mode of production have both increased its purity 
and reduced its cost to the consumer, so that at present its uses in the 
arts and manufactures are innumerable. 

Glycerin entered the list of preparations of the Pharmacopoeia in 
1850, and was transferred to the materia medica list in i860; about 
this period it appeared to be beginning to claim the notice of pharma- 
cists, as in 1865 Mr. Alfred Taylor, of this city, recommended its 
use in the manufacture of fluid extracts, 1 and since then numerous 
formulas have appeared in the pharmaceutical journals, the result of 
which was that our present edition of the Pharmacopoeia contains a 
list of preparations called " Glycerita," and glycerin enters into about 
thirty-six other officinal preparations. But its use is not limited to the 
few now officinal, and it can be advantageously used in many more 

1 "Am. Jour. Pharm.," 1865, p. 50. 


Glycerin in Pharmacy, 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1878. 

preparations. Every pharmacist has a just pride in having his prepara- 
tions to present an elegant appearance, and glycerin will be found use- 
ful as a help to accomplish this purpose. 

The property glycerin possesses of preventing tincture of kino from 
gelatinizing has been known for some time, and frequently published. 1 

In 1874, at the request of Mr. Wm. F. Bender, Chief Apothecary 
at the Philadelphia Hospital, I began to use glycerin in syrup of wild 
cherry, and have used it since that time, always obtaining a much 
richer-looking syrup than the officinal, which contains all the virtues of 
the bark. The formula is as follows : 

Take of Wild cherry, in moderately fine powder, . 2jv 

Sugar, granulated, .... ^xxvi 

Glycerin, concentrated, . . !|ii 

Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Mix one ounce of glycerin with four of water, moisten the powder 
and allow it to stand 36 hours in a close vessel ; then pack it firmly in 
a conical percolator, and gradually pour water mixed with the remain- 
ing glycerin until a pint of filtered liquid is obtained ; then proceed as 
usual. A formula somewhat differing from this in the details has been 
recommended in the "Druggists' Circular," 1874, p. 59. 

Glycerin has also been found useful in the preparation of several of 
the officinal tinctures, for the different classes of which it is used in 
different proportions. For the resinous tinctures, half an ounce in a 
pint is quite sufficient ; it will produce a percolate of much richer 
color, and will more thoroughly exhaust the drug. For the astringent 
and those containing large quantities of coloring matter, one ounce 
in a pint will prevent precipitation for a much longer time than with- 
out it. 

By following the general formula given below I have been able to 
produce very fine tinctures, taking tincture of myrrh for example : 

Take of Myrrh, in fine powder, . • . ^iii 

Glycerin, concentrated, . • 
Stronger alcohol, . . . Oi 

Alcohol, a sufficient quantity. 

Mix the glycerin with five ounces of stronger alcohol, and pour 
upon the myrrh, previously placed in a wide mouth bottle of sufficient 

1 "Am. Jour. Pharm.," 1877, p. 299. 

Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
Jan., 1878. J 

Glycerin in Pharmacy, 


capacity ; cork tightly, and allow it to stand for four days, with occa- 
sional agitation ; then place it upon a filter, in a funnel, and allow the 
first added menstruum to filter through ; mix the remaining stronger 
alcohol with one pint of alcohol, and gradually pour upon the myrrh, 
adding sufficient alcohol to obtain two pints of tincture. 

Maceration followed by percolation produces a much finer tincture 
than direct percolation ; in all tinctures for which glycerin is used I 
endeavor to keep them of full alcoholic strength of the Pharmacopoeia. 

Glycerin has another very desirable effect in resinous tinctures, as it 
prevents the accumulation of resin about the stopper and lip of the 
bottle, and will prevent the stopper from becoming fastened ; also 
" the drop " that falls on the outside of the bottle, from time to time, 
can be easily removed with a dampened cloth ; for these advantages 
alone it would more than compensate for the amount of alcohol neces- 
sarily used to cleanse the bottles containing such tinctures. Glycerin 
was recommended in compound tincture of cinchona as early as 1872. 1 

In the officinal wines it may be used with advantage also. Wine of 
ergot, of superior quality, possessing a stronger odor and a richer color 
than the officinal, is made as follows : 

Take of Ergot, in moderately fine powder, . . ^iv 

Glycerin, concentrated, . . . 3iss 

Sherry wine, a sufficient quantity. 

Mix the glycerin with five ounces of sherry wine, moisten the pow- 
der with this ; place in a close vessel and let stand four days ; then 
transfer to a funnel or percolator ; press firmly and gradually ; pour 
sherry wine upon it until two pints of filtered liquid are obtained. This 
method is to be preferred to making this preparation from the fluid 
extract, and would suggest that wine of ipecac be made in a similar 
manner, and that glycerin be used in the remaining wines. 

In the preparation of solid extracts a small proportion has been 
recommended to be added, after evaporation to the proper consistence, 
to give them a plastic firmness, which is at times very desirable, and 
also prevents moulding. 2 

As an excipient, in pill masses, its virtues are too well known to 
need repetition here. 

It may be substituted for honey in compound tincture of cardamom, 

1{ 'Drug. Circular," 1872, p. 96. 2 " Drug. Circular," 1872, p. 139. 


Elixir of Nux Vomica, etc. 

Am Jour Pharm, 
Jan., 1878. 

and produce quite as richly colored tincture ; but in the camphorated 
tincture of opium the color is not so rich as in the officinal. 

Glvcerin has been recommended to take the place of carbonate of 
magnesium in the officinal waters made from oils ; but I have failed 
to produce as good results as with the latter. It will not answer for 
camphor water, as camphor is not sufficiently soluble in glycerin, even 
when heated ; for the camphor will volatilize before the glycerin is hot 
enough to dissolve it. But in extracts, mixtures, tinctures and wines 
of the Pharmacopoeia glycerin will be found useful. 

Philadelpia Hospital^ Philadelphia^ Pa. 


By E. J. Davidson, Ph. G. 
A pleasant aromatic tincture of angustura, which is a fair imitation 
of the so-called Angustura bitters, is obtained by the following formula 1 

Take of Powdered Angustura, . . . ^ii 

" Cascarilla, .... giv 

" Bitter orange peel, . . . 51V 

" Cinnamon, .... £iv 
" Cardamom, .... 
" Cloves, .... 

*' Nutmeg, . . . . .ad 

" Coriander, . . . . gii 

" Anise, . . . &v 

Glycerin, ...... f^ii 

Dilute alcohol, sufficient. 

Mix the glycerin with a pint of the diluted alcohol, moisten the 
mixed powders, pack into a percolator and displace first with the mix- 
ture, afterwards with diluted alcohol until two pints of tincture are 

This tincture will assist in disguising the disagreeable bitter taste of 
nux vomica, and an elixir of the latter, not unpleasant in taste, may be 
obtained as follows : 

Take of Tincture of nux vomica, . . . gtt. cxx 

Curacoa cordial, .... fjiii 
Syrup of orange peel, .... f^iiss 
Aromatic tincture of Angustura, . . f^ss 


Am j J a°Ci8 P 7 h 8 arm ' } Short Weight in Sugar-coated Pills. 23 

The dose of this elixir will be about a tablespoonful, representing 
10 drops of tincture of nux vomica ; the proportion of the latter may, 
of course, be varied if desirable. 


By E. M. Wells, Ph.G. 

Pharmacists are cautioned not to purchase or use sugar-coated pills 
without carefully examining them. A large lot was recently received 
from a manufacturer in New York. When those marked Compound 
Cathartic Pills, U. S. P., were opened for dispensing, their small size 
attracted my attention. The dry material for three comp. cathartic 
pills, U. S. P., weighs iof grains. The officinal formula was on the 
wrapper accompanying each box and bottle. The average weight of 
three of the bought pills, with coating, was found to be 11 grains, and 
after the coating was removed, 6 grains. The sugar-coating weighed, 
therefore, 5 grains, and there was a deficiency of 4§ grains of what 
the dry material should weigh, equal to 44 per cent. The moisture 
contained in them was not considered. 

So-called improved compound cathartic and Cook's pills were only 
33 per cent, short in weight. 
Fort Worth, Texas, Nov. 15th, 1877. 


By Rich. V. Mattison, Ph.G. 
Read at the Alumni Meeting, December 7. 
The statement having been currently made by a number of manu- 
facturers of solution of dialyzed iron that this article was of great 
value as an antidote in cases of arsenical poisoning, and this statement, 
having subsequently been either doubted or u damned with faint 
praise " by recent writers, led the author to undertake, for personal 
satisfaction no less than the general good, to perform the following 
experiments, with the idea of directly confirming one or the other of 
the above views. In furtherance of this object, a careful test was 
made of the glassware and reagents employed for the presence of 
arsenic, with negative results. 


Solution of Dialyzed Iron. 

{ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 Jan., 1878. 

A. Ten centigrams of arsenious acid was dissolved in 25 cubic cen- 
timeters of distilled water, and tested for arsenic, abundant evidence 
of which was readily shown. To this solution 5 cubic centimeters of 
a 5 per cent, solution of dialyzed iron was added, and the whole 
diluted with distilled water to the measure of 100 cubic centimeters, 
and filtered. No apparent change was effected, the filtrate giving abun- 
dant evidence of the presence of arsenic. The experiment was again 
performed, substituting ordinary water, with like result. 

B. A like quantity of arsenious acid was dissolved in the same 
amount of distilled water as before, with the addition of a few drops of 
hydrochloric acid, and to this solution 5 cubic centimeters of solution 
of dialyzed iron was added, and the filtrate tested as before, with like 
result. The experiment was then varied by the substitution of ordi- 
nary water and the addition of, first, 1 cubic centimeter of the iron solu- 
tion, and afterward the addition of 25 cubic centimeters, and dilution of 
the whole with water to the measure of 100 cubic centimeters ; the 
various testings were without change, the abundance of arsenic being 
readily shown. 

C. A third experiment was now instituted. Ten centigrams of 
arsenious acid being taken as before, and dissolved in the same quantity 
of water, this was added to 1,000 cubic centimeters of a solution made 
to represent the gastric secretion of the human stomach, and composed 
as follows : 

Water, .... 994*40 Chloride calcium, . . 0*06 
Pepsin, .... 3-19 Hydrochloric acid, . . . 20 

Chloride sodium, . . 1-46 Phosphate magnesium, . 0*12 
Chloride potassium, . . 55 

The quantity of this fluid taken (1,000 cubic centimeters) was 
believed to represent about the normal quantity of gastric juice present 
in the human stomach during digestion, or that would be induced upon 
the ingestion of a quantity of arsenic. Immediately after the addition 
of the iron solution, the whole was transferred to a filter, and the 
colorless filtrate tested by Fleitmann's and Marsh's test. No evidence 
of the presence of arsenic could be discovered, and the experiment was 
repeated with like result. 

The experiment was then varied by dissolving 50 centigrams of 
arsenious acid in the above quantity of artificial gastric fluid, and allow- 
ing the whole to remain at a temperature of 38°C. (ioo°F.) for two 

Am j J a°^ r i8 P 7 8 arm '} Solution of Dialyzed Iron. 1 5 

hours, with occasional agitation. The mixture was then transferred to 
a filter, and 100 cubic centimeters of the filtrate evaporated to 5 cubic 
centimeters, and this added to a Marsh's apparatus of 100 cubic centi- 
meters capacity, without the slightest trace of arsenic being shown on 
the application of the test. 

This experiment was repeated with like result, with both Fleitmann's 
and Marsh's tests, without a trace of arsenic being obtained. 

After the repeated unsuccessful attempts, to detect the presence of 
arsenic in this way, one drop of liquor arsenii chloridi was added to 
each flask (still containing the filtrates as above described), and the 
result was immediate, the presence of arsenic in considerable quantity 
being instantly shown by the characteristic reactions. 

Through these experiments, then, the facts seem clearly set forth, 
(1) that dialyzed iron, to be of vulue as an arsenical antidote, must be 
first precipitated by the action of some neutral salt, (2) that this pre- 
cipitation, and the consequent production of ferric hydrate, is accom- 
plished when this preparation is taken into the stomach, and that, (3) 
therefore, the solution of dialyzed iron is a valuable antidote for arseni- 
cal poisoning, and should be administered promptly in cases of emer- 
gency, followed, of course, by an emetic until more efficient remedies 
can be used. 

It, however, may readily be conceived that an antidote may be neces- 
sary in cases where the enfeebled stomach of the invalid may not be 
able to secrete sufficient gastric juice, even under the direct stimulus of 
the poison, or that the arsenic may be ingested into a stomach that is 
free from the presence of any gastric secretion. Now, while under 
these circumstances the mucous secretion might prevent absorption for 
a certain length of time, yet in these cases, and, indeed, we believe in 
all cases, the administration of solution of dialyzed iron as an antidote 
for arsenical poisoning should be immediately followed by a teaspoon- 
ful or more of sodium chloride, thus insuring the formation of ferric 
hydrate and the consequent neutralization of the poison. 

With this addition, solution of dialyzed iron is the most convenient 
antidote, certainly, to be obtained, and should be kept in every well- 
regulated pharmacy for cases of emergency ; and manufacturers should 
make the addition to their labels directing the additional use of this 
salt (sodium chloride), as through its use, while no harm can be done, 
many valuable lives might be saved, which, through the use of dialyzed 
iron alone, would possibly be sacrificed. 


Oil of Hempseed. 

{Am. Jour. Pharm, 
Jan., 1878. 

Since the above was in the hands of the publishers, we note a case 
of arsenical poisoning successfully treated by the administration of solu- 
tion of dialyzed iron alone, as reported in the Philadelphia u Medical 
Times," Dec. 8th, pp. 104, 105. The patient, a young lady of nor- 
mal health, inadvertently swallowed a considerable quantity of arsenic,, 
which had became by accident mixed with some confectionery, and 
when the attending physician saw her she presented the symptoms of 
poisoning in a well marked degree. Solution of dialyzed iron was 
administered with prompt relief, yet, strange to say, this was not fol- 
lowed by an emetic, but the use of the dialyzed iron, continued in doses 
of 2 fluidrachms, largely diluted with water. The doctor notes the 
recovery of the patient. 

The occurrence of this case and the treatment pursued, while suc- 
cessful, does not convince us that it would in a similar case be at all 
proper or justifiable to rely entirely on the solution of dialyzed iron as 
an efficient antidote, if not followed by the free use of sodium chloride ^ 
as we contend that where any doubt exists the patient should have the 
benefit of it, and, through the exhibition of other remedies, so multiply 
the chances of escape that death should ensue only from neglect of these, 
Philadelphia, 12th mo. 15th, 1877. 


By H. Betz. 
{Read at the Alumni Meeting, December 7.) 

This oil is obtained from the fruit of Cannabis sativa by expression. 
By means of a hydraulic press, and 2,000 pounds to the square inch, a 
good commercial quality of hempsed yields from 15 to 18 per cent.,, 
though according to some statements 24 to 30 per cent, can be obtained. 

Oil of hempseed has a peculiar hemp odor, a sweetish, mild, oleagin- 
ous taste, deep-green color, and, if held before a flame, shows the 
complementary hue scarlet, if the column has fifteen sixteenths of an 
inch or more in diameter ; at thirteen-sixteenths, it is red with a yellow- 
ish shade ; at twelve-sixteenths, yellow ; at ten-sixteenths, yellow with 
a greenish tinge ; at eight-sixteenths, green with a yellowish shade,, 
and at six-sixteenths and below it has lost this power of dichroism. 

The specific gravity is C9319, it boils at 550°F., and from 180 
gives off very disagreeable and irritating fumes. At 5°F. it acquires a 

Am 'jan u .!'i878. rm '} Notts on Casual Drugs. 27 

thick, honey-like consistence. Proximately, it consists of a large pro- 
portion of olein and a rather small one of stearin ; its color is not 
extracted by cold or boiling water nor alcohol. It is insoluble in alco- 
hol, but freely soluble in benzin, oil of turpentine, ether and olive oil. 
Boiled with an equal part of a solution of 18 per cent, of potash, a 
translucent homogenous mass or soap, of a deep-green color, is pro- 
duced. The soda soap is of a lighter green color, and of a more flaky 

The pure oil, I think, may be distinguished from some of the fatty 
oils as follows : If mixed with cocoanut oil the mixture [in which pro- 
portion ? — Editor] will congeal at 12 above zero ; if mixed with 
expressed oil of laurel, alcohol will extract the green color of the latter,, 
and should castor oil be the admixture, alcohol will detect it. 


By E. M. Holmes, F L.S. 

Occasionally drugs which have no recognized value in England are 
sent over on speculation from foreign countries. These find their way 
into the dock warehouses at the principal ports, such as London and 
Liverpool, and if no commercial use is discovered for them, they 
remain in the warehouses until the expense of housing them necessi- 
tates their sale. Such sales are known as " rummage sales " and take 
place periodically. 

Inasmuch as the drugs thus sent to English ports are in most cases 
of value, or at least are thought to be so in the countries from which 
they are exported, a short notice of them may, perhaps, present some 
points of interest. 

At a sale of the kind alluded to, which took place last month, the 
following articles were noticed : 

Tamarisk Galls. — These small galls came from Mogadore. They 
vary in size from that of a pea to a horsebean, or more rarely reach 
the size of a small nut. The taste is powerfully astringent. Inter- 
nally they are found to be full of small cavities, in which, however, 
the insect that forms them is very rarely found in a state to be exam- 
ined. So far as I am aware, the name of the insect has not yet been 

1 Read at the Evening Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain^ 
November 7, 1877. 

28 Notes on Casual Drugs. { Am ){l u %w* rm 

determined. The galls contain about 40 per cent, of a very pure 

In Morocco these galls are known under the name of Tacout, and 
are produced upon the twigs of Tamarix articulata, Vahl. In India, 
similar galls are produced upon Tamarix Gallica, L., and Tamarix ori- 
entalis^ Vahl. ; those of the former plant are usually rather larger, and 
are called Bara-mai in Hindostanee ; the smaller ones, from Tamarix 
orientalis, being called Chota-mai. The Tamarisk galls of India also 
occasionally find their way into English commerce, and if better known 
would probably be largely used for tanning purposes. 

A strong infusion of these galls has been recommended in India as 
an application to foul ulcers, and by the natives they are used in diar- 
rhoea and dysentery. 

Calophyllum inophyllum, L. — The fruits of this plant were 
imported from the Mauritius under the name of oil seeds. The fruits 
as imported consist of the hard woody endocarp. They are about the 
size of an English oak gall, nearly globular, with a small projecting 
point at one end, and contain a yellowish-white oily kernel. Accord- 
ing to the official report of the products in the India Museum, the seeds 
yield 60 per cent, of a fragrant green oil, fluid at ordinary temperatures, 
but beginning to solidify when cooled below 50 Fahr. 

In India it is used as a lamp oil and also as an outward application 
for rheumatism. Although apparently unknown in the commerce of 
this country in 1847-8, nearly 4,000 gallons of the oil were exported 
from Madras to Ceylon and the Straits settlements. The tree yield- 
ing these seeds bears handsome white fragrant flowers, and it may not 
be out of place here to remark that there is a wide field for experiment 
among the native plants of India for those interested in perfumery. 
The following note, extracted from Seemann's "Flora Vitiensis," will 
show how highly the oil obtained from these nuts is esteemed in Fiji, 
as well as the method of extraction : 

" The most valuable oil produced in Fiji is that extracted from the 
seeds of this tree, the dilo of the natives, the tamarind of Eastern 
Polynesia, and the cashumpa of India. It is the bitter oil or woondel 
of Indian commerce. The natives use it for polishing arms and greas- 
ing their bodies, when cocoa-nut oil is not at hand. But the great 
reputation this oil enjoys throughout Polynesia and the East Indies 
rests upon its medicinal properties as a liniment in rheumatism, pains 

Am j J a^• 1 8 P 7 8 arIn •} Notes on Casual Drugs, 29 

in the joints and bruises. Its efficacy in this respect can hardly be 
exaggerated, and recommends it to the attention of European practi- 
tioners. The oil is kept by the Fijians in gourd flasks, and there being 
only a limited quantity made I was charged about sixpence per pint for 
it, paid in calico and cutlery. The tree is one of the most common 
littoral plants in the group ; its round fruits, mixed with the square 
ones of Barrtngtonia speciosa, the pine cone-like ones of the sago palm, 
and the flat seeds of the walai (Entada scandens, Benth.), densely cover 
the sandy beaches. Dilo oil never congeals in the lowest temperature 
of the Fijis, as cocoa-nut oil does during the cool season. It is of a 
greenish tinge, and very little of it will impart its hue to a whole cask 
of cocoa nut oil. Its commercial value is only partially known in the 
Fijis, and was found out accidentally. Amongst the contributions in 
cocoa-nut oil which the natives furnish toward the support of the Wes- 
leyan missions, some dilo oil had been poured, which on arriving at 
Sydney was rejected by the broker who purchased the other oil, on 
account of its greenish tinge and strange appearance. On being shown 
to others a chemist, recognizing it as the bitter oil of India, purchased 
it at the rate of c£6o per tun, and he must have made a good profit on 
it, as the article fetches =£90 a tun. 

" In order to extract the oil the round fruit is allowed to drop in its 
outer fleshy covering and rot on the ground. The remaining portion, 
consisting of a shell somewhat of the consistency of that of a hen's 
egg, and enclosing the kernel, is baked on hot stones in the same way 
that Polynesian meat and vegetables are. The shell is then broken,, 
and the kernels pounded between stones. If the quantity be small, 
the macerated mass is placed in the fibres of the vau [Hibiscus tiliaceus 
and tricuspis), and forced by the hand to yield up its oily contents; if 
large, a rude level press is constructed by placing a boom horizontally 
between two cocoa-nut trees and appending to this perpendicularly the 
fibres of the vau. After the macerated kernels have been placed in 
the midst, a pole is made fast to the lower end of the fibres, and two 
men, taking hold of its end, twist the contrivance round and round till 
the oil, collecting into a wooden bowl placed underneath, has been 
extracted. Of course, the pressure thus brought to bear upon the 
pounded kernels is not sufficiently great to express the whole of the oil, 
and there is still much waste." 

Boomah Nuts. — These are the fruits of Pycnocoma macrophylla, 


Notes on Casual Drugs. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Jan., 1878. 

Senth., a small tree belonging to the Euphorbiacea. These fruits were 
imported from Natal under the name of galls, probably on account of 
their bearing a strong resemblance to Aleppo galls in shape and size. 
Externally they have a black color, and when broken open exhibit a 
hard three-celled endocarp, each cell containing a single seed. The 
seeds in shape and color are not unlike a castor oil seed, but are less 
than half the size and have no appreciable taste. 

The Boomah nuts are said to be used for tanning in Natal. The 
tannin is contained in the outer coat, or sarcocarp, and must be very 
small in amount, considering the size of the fruit, since so large a por- 
tion is occupied by the woody endocarp. These nuts are not likely, 
therefore, to be able to compete in this country with other tanning 

Barosma ericifolia, Andr. — This drug is a species of buchu leaves. 
The leaves are very small, resembling in size and shape the leaves of 
the heath, whence the specific name. The odor of the leaves is pow- 
erful, but differs somewhat from that of the official species, having a 
slight resemblance to the odor of caraways. These leaves are used 
by the Hottentots in the same way as the official kind, and also as a 
perfume, and in the form of tincture as an application to wounds. 

Empleurum serrulatum, Alt. — The leaves of this plant are men- 
tioned in " Pharmacographia " as being offered for buchu in this coun- 
try. The characters pointed out in that work render it an easy matter 
to distinguish it from the leaves of Barosma serratifolia, Willd., the 
species which it most closely resembles. One feature, however, not 
noted in that work, is very easily observed. When a leaf of Barosma 
serratifolia is held up to the light the lateral veins are seen to be much 
straighter, longer, and more strongly developed than in the leaves of 
Empleurum serrulatum. 

Loomoonderfall. — The large fruits which bear this name were 
imported from Zanzibar, and are, I am told, possessed of properties 
similar to those of cocculus indicus. I have not as yet been able to 
ascertain the name of the tree which produces them. 

Cassia Tora, L. — These seeds were imported under the name of 
Fantupa seed. They are about the size of an apple pip, greenish- 
brown, polished, pointed at one end and irregularly angular. The 
leaves of this plant ars used in India for ringworm, and the seed of 
another species (Cassia absus, L.) has been used in purulent ophthalmia, 
but the object with which the seeds of C. Tora were sent to this coun- 
try, I am not able to conjecture. — Pharm. Journ. and Trans., Nov. 10. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. I 
Jan., 1878. J 

Java Rhubarb. 

3 1 


By Professor Husemann. 
Upon the Gunung Unarung and other mountains in Java there grows, 
at an elevation of two to four thousand feet, a species of Rheum, the 
root of which forms an article of commerce, and is used by the Java- 
nese as a purgative under the name of " akar kelomba." Three varie- 
ties of this drug are met with in commerce : (1) akar kelomba bras, the 
top part of the root, with fragments of stock still adhering ; (2) akar 
kelomba ketan, the middle portion of the root ; and (3) akar kelomba 
keteba, the bottom portion. Of the three the second named kind is 
the most valuable, whilst the top portion of the root, combined with 
fragments of stalk, is of the least value. 

A detailed description of the best kind of Java rhubarb has been 
given by J. H. Schmidt in the "Tydschrift voor Nederlandische Inde" 
{xvii, p. 98), according to which the root is fleshy, and long conical, 
or somewhat napiform. In some places it is still covered with a dark- 
brown rind, whilst the remainder is peeled, and appears marbled with 
white and red. In a transverse section the rays run from the centre 
to the circumference, traversing the concentrical red-colored rings, and 
appearing to break off at the cambium, which forms a dense dark- 
brown, resinous looking layer, from i*i to 1*5 millimeter thick. The 
most central concentric rings are bright red and alternate with yellow 
ones. At the centre, in some fissures resulting from the drying, are 
seen some white felt-like threads, having a silky lustre ; the structure 
of these can be recognized under the microscope. In a longitudinal 
section are seen in the centre the almost rectangular parenchyma cells, 
partially filled with chrysophanic acid. With the aid of a glass, cells 
containing crystals of oxalate of lime can be detected. 

The Java rhubarb resembles the Chinese in smell and taste almost 
completely ; but according to some experiments made by Dr. v. Vogel- 
poel its activity is one-fourth less. 

In 1874, Schmidt brought under the consideration of the Dutch 
East Indian government the advisability of experimenting whether it 
was possible to increase the activity of this species of Rheum by culti- 
vation, and thus to obtain a drug equal to the Chinese rhubarb, but 
very much lower in price. The plant appears to be very abundant in 
Java, and the best kind of root, the akar kelomba ketan, is sold there at 
about is. Sd. per kilogram. As the therapeutic value of the Chinese 

3 2 

Java Rhubarb. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm, 
t Jan., 1878. 

rhubarb root increases, within certain limits, with the age of the plant, 
even if the experiment be carried out, it will be some years before the 
result is known, but it would be possible in this way to secure roots of 
one age instead of a mixture of roots of all ages, as at present. 

The comparative analyses carried out by Schmidt between the official 
rhubarb and the best Java rhubarb show, however, some differences, 
and raise a doubt as to how far the Java root possesses the tonic pro- 
perties of Chinese rhubarb. 

In the first place, the amount of ash differs. Calcined in a platinum 
dish the official rhubarb gave 12*15 to 12*24 P er cent, of ash; the 
Java root yielded 6*27 to 6*91 per cent. A more detailed representa- 
tion of the proportion of the inorganic constituents is given in the 
following table, in which unfortunately oxalic acid does not appear, the 
analyst having been prevented from completing the estimation : 

Radix Rhei officinalis. Radix Rhei Indicae Javanicje, 

CaO, . . . 46*80512 41-68051 

MgO, . . 4'*4359 526484 

KO and NaO, . . 7*35024 16*89486 

C0 2 , . . . 35*34188 19*25190 

S0 3 , . . . 1*11452 2*82191 

P0 5 , . . . 5*11709 6*78689 

CI, . . . 0*60683 2 *°9575 

Si0 3 , . . . 0*59828 1*97869 

Carbon and sand, . . 0*76923 2*98934 

101-94678 99*76469 

Schmidt has also attempted to estimate quantitatively some of the 
organic bodies which play a part in the therapeutic action of rhubarb \ 
the result is shown in the following table : 

Radix Rhei officinalis. Radix Rhei Indicae Javanicae. 
per cent. per cent. 

Rheotannic acid, . . 2*106 o*43o 

Phaeoretin, . . 0*151 0*090 

Chrysophan, . . 0*056 0*107 

Chrysophanic acid, . 4*700 1*646 

Emodin, . . . 0*580 2*000 

From this it would appear that the rheotannic acid and the chryso- 
phanic acid are present in the Java root in much smaller proportion 
than in the Chinese, whilst chrysophan and emodin are present in 
larger proportion in the Java root. Although the figures in this table 
cannot be taken as absolutely correct, in consequence of the great 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan., 1878. J 



difficulty attending the separation of the organic constituents of rhubarb, 
it may be assumed that to a degree it is an expression of the differences 
between the two kinds of rhubarb. If chrysophanic acid be the active 
principle, then the inferior activity of the Java root depends probably 
upon the smaller quantity of chrysophanic acid present in it, and the 
activity might have been still further reduced if it were not for the 
simultaneous diminution in the proportion of tannic acid, which by its 
antipurgative action might act antagonistically to the chrysophanic acid. 
Professor Husemann considers it highly probable that the relative pro- 
portions of these constituents might be altered by cultivation so as to 
approximate the two rhubarbs more closely. 

At present no information exists in botanical literature as to the 
plant from which the Java rhubarb is derived. Rosenthal's "Synopsis 
Plantarum Diaphoricarum" does not refer to any species of rhubarb 
growing in Java. Still, the Dutch East Indian botanists ought not to 
find any difficulty in deciding how far the plant should be treated as a 
new species or as one of the many continental East Indian species. 
But certainly the investigation throws no light upon the origin of the 
true rhubarb root. — Phar. Jour, and Trans. , Oct. 27, from the Pbar, 
Handelsblatt, No. 94. 


Tests and Effects of Sophoria. — Dr. H. C. Wood describes this new alkaloid , 
obtained by him from the seeds of Sophora speciosa, Benth., as follows : 

I obtained it of a grayish-white color, but did not succeed in crystallizing either 
it or its acetate. Its reactions, as far as I have examined them, are as follows (the 
tests were made by placing a speck of the alkaloid upon a porcelain plate and apply- 
ing the reagent). 

With concentrated sulphuric acid, no color. 

With chromic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, a dirty, deep purple, passing 
rapidly into bright green, then into blueish and finally into yellowish-brown. 

With tincture of the chloride of iron, a deep, almost blood-red, after a time 
acquiring an orange tint. 

With nitric acid, no color. 

With chromic and nitric acid, a very faint, evanescent reddish color. 
With nitromuriatic acid, a dirty reddish-brown. 

From the solution of its acetate, compound tincture of iodine throws down a 
yellowish precipitate. 




Am. Jour Pharm. 

Jan., 1878. 

I have made physiological experiments with an alcoholic extract of the bean upon 
the lower animals sufficient to outline its general action. 

In frogs it produces a rapid loss of reflex activity and power of voluntary move- 
ment. The loss of power is not due to any action upon the motor nerve-trunks, 
as after death these were found to preserve their normal susceptibility. Further, 
tying the sciatic artery upon one or both sides of the frog did not influence the 
action of the drug upon either voluntary or reflex movements. This would indicate 
that the poison is a spinal sedative and has little or no effect upon either motor or 
sensitive nerves. In all cases the heart continued beating long after the cessation of 

Upon mammals the effect varies somewhat in accordance with the dose. An 
amount of the extract estimated at two grains (?) produced, in a full grown tom- 
cat, in one minute marked weakness in hind legs, in two minutes inability to stand, 
with evident effect upon the respiration, in three minutes convulsive movements 
with loss of consciousness, continuing with ever-increasing embarrassment of the 
breathing for three minutes, when all attempts at respiration ceased. The heart 
kept on beating for one and a half minutes longer. The pupils were unaffected at 
first, afterwards dilated. 

In small quantity the extract produces in the cat vomiting, great muscular weak- 
ness, profound quietude, and deep sleep, lasting some hours, and ending in recovery. 
In dogs the symptoms were similar to those noted in cats. Death always took place 
through the respiration. In a single cardiac experiment the drug had no decided 
effect upon the blood-pressure until towards death, but appeared to accelerate the 
cardiac beat. — Philada. Med. Times, Aug. 4, 1877. 

Salicylic Acid and Salicylate of Soda in the Treatment of Neuralgia. (The 
"Medical Record," Sept. 1, 1877). — Descroizilles has employed salicylic acid 
and salicylate of soda in seven cases of neuralgia with satisfactory results. The 
number of cases is too small to permit a judgment to be formed from them of the 
therapeutic value of the two drugs, but they demonstrate the advantages which the 
salt possesses over the acid in the treatment of this disease. All the cases were 
cured, but in the three cases in which the acid was administered it produced a certain 
amount of deafness. In two of these cases it also exerted an energetic irritant 
action on the mucous membranes of the digestive and respiratory tracts, and in the 
other it caused vertigo, general weakness and well-marked hebetude. The salt did 
not exert any injurious action either on the mucous membranes or on the nervous 
system. It was not necessary to give it in as large doses as the acid, and the cure 
was rapidly effected. From 1 to 5 grams of the salt were given daily, while in one 
of the cases treated by the acid as much as 7 grams were given in one day. In all 
the cases the treatment was begun with small doses (1 to 2 grams), which were 
increased by a gram a day until the desired effect was obtained. — Phila. Med. Times , 
Sept. 29. 

Apomorphia as an Expectorant ("The Clinic," Sept. 1, 1877). — Dr. Moritz 
Wertner records (" Wiener Med. Presse ") his experience with this agent in a large 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan., 1878. J 



number of cases. He employed it with both adults and children in quite minute 
(1-16 grain) doses, frequently repeated. He considers it a perfectly safe remedy, as 
he has never observed any ill effects follow its administration. — Ibid. 

Starch-gloss was found to be made by fusing together 60 parts of paraffin with 
40 parts of stearin. — Industriebl. 

The souring of milk during thunderstorms is attributed by Dr. M. W. lies to 
the formation of ozone and the production of lactic, and most probably some acetic 
acid. Fresh milk introduced into an eudiometer tube, together with pure oxygen 
gas, curdled very perceptibly after sparks of electricity from an ordinary battery and 
a small Ruhmkorff coil had been passed through the gas for about ten minutes. — 
Chem. News, Nov. 30. 

The coloring matter of Tagetes patula, according to Latour and Magnier de la 
Source, appears to have the composition C 27 H 22 13 , and while its reactions are iden- 
tical with those of quercitrin, it differs from the latter in its crystalline form and 
solubility. The authors proposes to call it quercetagetin. — Comp. Rendus, Nov. 12. 

Water as Oxidizing and Reducing Agent. By E. Erlenmeyer. — When lactic 
acid is heated with dilute sulphuric acid, it is resolved into aldehyd and formic acid. 
In this reaction the hydrogen exerts a reducing action on the carboxyl and the 
hydroxyl, an oxidizing action on the rest. As glycollic acid is decomposed in an 
analogous way, it appears possible that the lowest homologue, carbonic acid, might 
in a similar way yield formic acid and hydrogen dioxide, which would then be 
resolved into water and oxygen. This reaction explains very simply the exhalation 
of oxygen by plants. — Jour. Chem. Soc, 1877, 581, from Deut. Chem. Ges. Ber. 

The Volatile Acids of Croton Oil. By J. Berendes {Deut. Chem. Ges. Ber., x, 
835-837). — Geuther and Frohlich presume that the tiglic acid which they found in 
croton oil was identical with Frankland and Duppa's methylcrotonic acid. The 
author has confirmed this statement. Both acids form plates having a peculiar 
smell like that of gum benzoin, melting at 64 , and boiling at 196 — 197 . The cal- 
cium salts form small, foliated, warty masses, and contain 3 mols. of water ; the 
barium salts are similar, but contain 4 mols. of water. The silver salts are white 
crystalline precipitates, and the two ethyl ethers boil at 154 — 156 . By fusing with 
potash the acids are resolved into acetic acid and propionic acid. Bromine converts 
them into a dibromovalerianic (dibromomethylethylacetic) acid, melting at 82 — 83°} 
and hydriodic acid forms moniodovalerianic acid, melting at 86*5°. They are not 
changed by the action of sodium-amalgam and water, but on heating them with 
hydriodic acid and phosphorus to 160 , methylethylacetic acid is formed, boiling at 
173 — 175 . and yielding an amorphous barium salt. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1878. 

The higher-boiling portion of the volitile acids contains small quantities of higher 
homologues, one of which, C 6 H 10 O 2 , boiling at 204 , was isolated. Of volatile 
fatty acids the following were found : formic, acetic, isobutyric and common valeri- 
anic (isopropylacetic). The calcium salt of the latter forms with calcium tiglate a 
molecular compound crystallizing, in long needles. — Jour. Cbem. Soc, Nov. 

Commercial Oxalic Acid Contaminated with Sulphuric Acid. By O. Binder. 
— In analyzing oxalate of ammonium, the author found that it contained a large 
quantity of sulphuric acid. The oxalic acid used for the preparation of the former 
also contained sulphuric acid to the extent of 0*4 per cent. The acid was present 
in the free state, enclosed in the crystals, but also as acid sulphate. Wicke found 
the same contamination in oxalic acid in 1857. — Jour. Chem. Soc„ Nov. 1877, from 
Zeitschr. Anal. Chem.. xvi, 334. 

Estimation of Nitrous and Nitric Acids. By G. Lunge. — 1. Estimation of Nitric 
Acid. — The author finds that the estimation of nitric acid by oxidation of ferrous 
sulphate (Pelouze), determining the excess of the latter by permanganate, gives 
accurate results ; he recommends adding 20 per cent, of its weight of sulphuric acid 
to the solution before heating with the nitrate, to facilitate the oxidation. Siewert's 
method, reduction in alkaline solution by zinc and iron, gives low and variable 
results. Hager's modification and Schulze's process are also untrustworthy. 

2. Estimation of Nitrous Acid. — The methods were tested on a solution of pure 
silver nitrite in sulphuric acid. Feldhaus"' permanganate method gives good results, 
but the standard solution must not be too strong, and the nitrite solution should be 
added to it, not 'vice versa, or there will be loss from the decomposition of the 
nitrous acid and escape of nitrogen dioxide. It is advisable to keep the solution at 
40 — 50 , as at lower temperatures the reaction does not take place instantaneousiy, 
so that the point of decolorization cannot be so accurately observed. Gerstenhofer's 
modification of the bichromate method does not give equally good results, as it is 
difficult to observe the exact point when all the chromate is reduced. The other 
processes examined, namely, Siewert's, Hart's and Crowder's, did not give accurate 
or constant results. 

3. Estimation of Nitrous and Nitric Acids. — The nitrous acid in the mixture is first 
determined by oxidizing it to nitric acid by standard permanganate, and then the 
total quantity of nitric acid present in the solution is estimated by means of ferrous 
sulphate. The amount of nitric acid originally present is found by subtracting 
from the result that formed by the oxidation of the nitrous acid. 

4. Analysis of a "Nitrose." — This " nitrose " (sulphuric acid used to absorb nitrous 
fumes) from a soda factory, had a density of 1*691 at 15 , and was saturated. It 
contained 413 grams N 2 3 in 100 cc, but no nitric acid. This result differs from 
those obtained by Winckler, who found nitric acid present. This, however, was 
probably due to the analytical method employed j for Winckler added the perman- 
ganate solution to the nitrose, and experiments made by the author with a solution 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan., 1S78. J 



of silver nitrite in sulphuric acid showed that in this case not only was nitric acid 
formed, but that nitrogen escapes as dioxide. It should be stated, however, that 
Kolbe found nitric acid in nitrose, although the nitrous acid determinations were 
made by adding the solution to the permanganate. — Jour. Chem. Soc. [Lond.], Nov., 
1877, from Deut. Chem. Ges. Ber., x, 1873 — 1076. 

Determination of Nitrous Acid in Potable Waters. By R. Hercher. — Schon- 
bein's test for nitrous acid is condemned as of little value. 

Separation of iodine from an iodide — zinc iodide is the best — is recommended as 
a good test. The test depending upon oxidation of ferrous sulphate serves to detect 
0*00025 mgm. nitrous acid in 100 cc. of water. 

The amido benzoic acid test is much less delicate than the preceding. 

Of the quantitative tests for nitrous acid, the permanganate is the best, but even 
this is not very satisfactory. — Jour. Chem. Soc. [Lond.], Nov., 1877, from Arch. 
Pharm [3], x, 436—439. 

Action of Tartaric Acid on Calcium Carbonate. By B. J. Grosjean. — Both 
precipitated carbonate and whiting were digested in 20 parts of boiling water con- 
taining 4 pts. of tartaric acid. Neither carbonate was dissolved, even when the acid 
was doubled and concentrated to a syrup. But addition of water caused solu- 
tion even in the cold. Thus a weak solution of tartaric acid acts better than a 
strong solution of the same weight of acid on calcium carbonate. If, however, the 
carbonate is treated with 20 parts of water saturated with tartaric acid, solution is 
brought about by heating, even without dilution. — Jour. Chem. Soc, Nov., from 
Chem, Ne<ws, xxxv, 190. 

Adulteration of Santonin with Boracic Acid. — The Lyon Medical says that the 
high price of santonin has led to its adulteration with boracic acid, and that nearly 
25 per cent, of the acid has been found in some parcels. The crystals of the two 
bear some resemblance, but it is easy to detect the fraud by exposing the article to 
the light for several days, when the crystals of santonin will become yellow from 
the formation of photo-santonic acid, whilst the other crystals will remain unchanged* 
Further, pure santonin burns without residuum. If the mixture be calcined and the 
product treated with boiling water, boracic acid crystals will be deposited on cool- 
ing. Chloroform will dissolve santonin, but not boracic acid — Pacif. Med. and 
Surg. Jour., November. 

On the Antagonism between Nicotin and Strychnia.— Dr. Francis L. Haynes, 
Assistant Surgeon to the Episcopal Hospital, Philadelphia, from a number of experi- 
ments detailed in a monograph published in the Proceedings of the American Phil- 
osophical Society, January to May, 1877, draws the following inferences: 

38 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. { Am jj^aJJ™** 

1. Strychnia and nicotin are in no degree antagonistic poisons. 

2. Strychnia increases the convulsive action, and does not diminish the motor 
paralysis of nicotin. 

3. Nicotin (even in paralyzing doses) increases the convulsive action of strychnia. 

4. Both poisons cause death by paralyzing the respiratory apparatus. They may 
affect respiration in different ways, but the result is the same. 

5 Animals may be killed by injecting together doses of the two drugs, which 
singly are not fatal. — American Med. Journal — Pac. Med. and Surg. Jour , Nov. 

John Broughton, the chemist of the cinchona plantations in British India,, 
has not been heard of since undertaking a journey from Ootacamund to Madras 
during last year. As he was known to have a large sum of money in his posses- 
sion, it is supposed that he has been waylaid and murdered. — Dublin Med. Press 
and Circ, Nov. 14. 


Philadelphia, Dec. 18, 1877. 
The third pharmaceutical meeting of the series was held at the College Hall, 
President Dillwyn Parrish calling the meeting to order 5 the minutes of the last 
meeting were read and approved. The history of the origin of these meetings was 
briefly stated by the president : Prof. Wm. R. Fisher, in 1842, having suggested to 
several of the most active members of the College the great advantage that would 
almost certainly accrue to those attending them and to the readers of the "Journal," 
induced seven of them to sign a paper asking for the use of the hall and library to 
carry out the plan. 

The following donations to the library were made by Prof. Maisch in behalf of 
the publishers: "Transactions of the International Medical Congress of 1876," 
"The Chemists' and Druggists' Diary for the year 1878" and " Farquarhson's 
Guide to Therapeutics." On motion of Wm. B. Webb, the Registrar of this meet- 
ing was directed to return the thanks of the meeting to the respective donors. 

Chas. J. Biddle, Ph.G., read a paper upon the use of glycerin in pharmacy, which, 
elicited some discussion and was referred to the publication committee (seepage 19). 

Mr. Shinn asked whether any of the members had experimented upon the removal 
of the fixed oil from ergot when preparing the fluid extract ? In reply, Prof. Maisch 
stated that the fixed oil was generally acknowledged to be inert, and his rule was to 
remove it by filtration ; the British Pharmacopoeia directed it to be removed by 
ether, previous to preparing the extract, and very likely petroleum benzin would be 
found serviceable for this purpose. 

Salicylate of lithia has been prescribed lately to considerable extent, and it was 
stated that the salt was now made by several manufacturing chemists, and that it 
was used as a remedy for rheumatism. 

Am 'jLn" r i878*" n *} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 39 

A memorandum from Hermann Betz, a member of the present class, was read in 
which it was stated that he had experimented upon himself with the seed of 
Sophora speciosa shown at the last meeting, by taking one-fourth of a seed in powder. 
He found the hard shell nearly tasteless, the kernel of a peculiar bitter taste ; after 
an hour a slight dizziness and numbness in the spine was experienced, which, in 
another hour, increased to such an extent as to impair the walking, and was followed 
by headache and several evacuations. The headache had increased after a sleep of 
i\ hours; the temperature of the body was now 97°F., and the pulse had decreased 
from 83 to 60 beats in the minute. The effects decreased very slowly and were still 
perceptible after 24 hours, together with the peculiar numbness in the spinal column. 

Several members announced that they were unable to report at this meeting, as 
they had hoped, on certain subjects which had claimed their attention lately, but 
would endeavor to do so at the next meeting. The subjects of ne<w indigenous drugs, 
alteration of chloral hydrate, and the pharmaceutic uses of oil of benne were men- 
tioned ; and on motion of Chas. L. Mitchell all were requested to inform the 
Registrar one week before each meeting of such subjects which they intend to 
report on or to bring up for discussion. In connection with oil of benne, it was 
stated that the fixed oils of mustard and cottonseeds appeared likewise to be uesful 
for some purposes, and might be experimented with. 

The meeting then adjourned. T. S. Wiegand, Registrar. 


Alumni Association, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The third social 
meeting was held Thursday, December 6, 1877, President Mattison in the chair 
and some sixty odd members present. 

Mr. Kennedy noticed a case of the poisoning of a child, who took a half ounce of 
chlorate of potassium in crystals, and, despite the remedies employed, expired in great 
suffering. Mr. Mclntyre referred to a similar case which happened sometime since 
in Wisconsin. 

Mr. Kennedy gave a description of a drug-store in the coal regions, which he 
assisted in appraising. The manner of conducting the business seemed rather curious. 

Mr. H. Betz read a paper on the expressed oil of hemp seed, handed to him for 
examination at the last meeting (see page 26). 

Dr. Miller showed specimens of oils of mustard-seed and flax-seed, the latter 
expressed cold. The former oil is said to emulsify with aqua ammoniae, thus being 
fitted for use in Linimentum ammoniae. 

Mr. Mattison read an interesting paper on the use of dialyzed iron as an antidote 
for arsenic (see page 23). The question of its efficacy was established, if its 
administration was followed by some salt which would induce the formation of the 
magma in the stomach. Chloride of sodium, as the most convenient, was chosen for 
this purpose. 

40 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { Am jin U , r if^ arm ' 

Mr. Neppach, a member of the class, from Portland, Oregon, promised a paper 
for a future meeting on the Chinese drug-stores of the Pacific coast, and showed a 
specimen of Chittem or barberry bark, which was presented to the College. 

Dr. Miller explained the terminations of the five Latin declensions, and showed 
their connection with pharmaceutical names. A table of them was placed upon the 
blackboard for the use of the students. The relative merits of the different systems 
of pronunciation was discussed, the sentiment generally being in favor of the Eng- 
lish method, though Dr. Miller stated that the Roman was fast being adopted. 

The meeting then adjourned to Thursday, January 3, 1878. 

Wallace Procter, Secretary. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — At the pharmaceutical meeting held 
December 5, Mr. J. Williams read a paper on Nitrite of Ethyl, which he recom- 
mended to prepare by slowly passing nitrous acid gas, evolved by acting with nitric 
acid upon starch, into strong alcohol kept as cool as possible. When the gas ceases 
to be absorbed, the liquid is distilled at a very gentle temperature, and the vapors 
passed first through a small empty flask and then through one containing a little 
water, in which all the alcohol, free acid and most of the aldehyd are retained; the 
vapors are now passed over a strong solution of potassa contained in a third flask, 
whereby the remaining aldehyd is absorbed, and the gaseous nitrous ether may then 
be condensed in a tube placed in a freezing mixture, which must afterwards be her- 
metically sealed, or, preferably, conducted into a known weight of absolute alcohol, 
the increase in weight indicating pure nitrous ether. This solution, if containing 
50 per cent, of the ether, has the spec. grav. '850; if 25 per cent., -824, and if 10 
per cent., -8io spec grav. If treated with twice the bulk of saturated solution of 
calcium chloride, they separate respectively 48, 23 and 5 per cent, of oily liquid by 
measure; a 5 per cent, solution separates only a very thin oily film. The mixing 
of the two liquids must be effected slowly and with care, to avoid loss of ether in 
consequence of the rise in temperature ; a stream of cold water should be kept con- 
stantly running over the tube, and even then some loss of the very volatile ether is 
probably incurred. The 5 per cent, solution appears to represent the best samples 
of sweet spirit of nitre obtainable in the shops of London. 

The author called attention to the convenience of obtaining solutions of very 
volatile liquids of definite strength by the method indicated, viz., by absorbing the 
gases in a known weight of alcohol, and mentions beside nitrite of ethyl, which 
boils at about 6i°F., nitrite of methyl (boiling point 1 7°F.='i 2°C.) and chloride of 
ethyl (boiling point i2'5°C.=54"5°F.) He likewise suggested that the preparation 
of the pure nitrite of ethyl was the only correct method for obtaining spirit of nitre 
of definite strength. 

Professor Attfield alluded to the difficulty in assaying spirit of nitre; in estimat- 
ing its value he had found it necessary to isolate the pure nitrite of ethyl, and often 
from 12 to 20 fractional distillations would be necessary. The present official 
(British) process would yield a spirit of five per cent, strength or less; even if all 
the nitric acid ordered was converted into nitrite of ethyl, it would only be of 7 or 
7§ per cent, strength If aldehyd be present in the spirit, it would likewise, at least 

Am jIn U , r i8 P 7 8 arm } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 41 

to some extent, be separated with the nitrite of ethyl. Regarding pure nitrite of 
ethyl, the speaker hoped that it would not be demanded of pharmacists, and con- 
sidered it extremely undesirable the public should have undiluted chemical principles 
of such great activity and danger placed in their hands. 

Mr. R. H. Davies, in preparing nitrite of ethyl had generated nitrous acid from 
nitric acid and arsenic, and followed Liebig's process, of which Mr. Williams 1 is an 
improvement. He had observed a separation of about 5 per cent, from an alcoholic 
solution containing 10 per cent, of commercial pure aldehyd, on being treated with 
solution of calcium chloride. 

Mr. Umney had worked with the Pharmacopoeia process on a large scale, having 
never less than tour gallons of spirit in the still, and met with no difficulty in obtain- 
ing a concentrated solution of hyponitrous ether by that process. Working with 
such quantities some extra attention is required to moderate the action. 

Prof. Redwood had also seen the process worked for many years in quantities 
quite as large as those mentioned. The distillate would, with solution of calcium 
chloride, separate from 38 to 40 per cent, of etherial liquid, probably about one- 
half of which was nitrite of ethyl. He felt that the process which he had been the 
means of introducing, was the only known process of producing sweet spirit of 
nitre of a tolerably definite composition. 

Mr. Williams stated that his paper referred not to spirit of nitre, but to solutions 
of pure nitrite of ethyl in absolute alcohol. Aldehyd usually contains acetic ether 
and acetone ; pure aldehyd would not separate with chloride of calcium. 

Tke color of podophyllum resin was the title of a paper presented by Dr. A. Senier 
and A. J. G. Lowe. The authors observed that the color ot the resin is affected by 
the relative proportion of water, an increase of which renders it lighter and more 
yellowish, and that hot water darkens the resin by partial fusion. The authors 
found several samples to be free from alkaloid. Alum water gives a bright 
yellow resin and increases the ash j prepared with water or acidulated water, only 
•1 per cent, of ash was found 5 in 8 commercial samples it varied between -2 and 4*1 
per cent The authors conclude that the variations of shade and color do not affect 
the physiological activity of the resin. 

Mr. Martindale thought that the part of podophyllum resin insoluble in ether was 
of a bright-yellow color, 1 and would partly account for the difference of color. 

Mr. Harold Senier read a paper on Rheum officinale gro^wn in England. The root 
yields a brighter powder than East Indian rhubarb and Rheum rhaponticum, and 
also a slightly darker infusion. By the officinal process for extract of rhubarb it 
yielded 25, the others 45 and 29 per cent, respectively. By rectified spirit 17, 38 
and 21 per cent, of extract was obtained, and this yield is regarded as a more relia- 
ble basis for comparison. The three kinds yielded 4-66, i2 - 72 and 7 9 per cent, of 
ash. The results point to the conclusion that the root of Rheum officinale is of less 
commercial value than that of Rh. rhaponticum, and are what one might expect 
from the rapid growth of the root, this particular sample being produced in about 
three years. The extract was found to be decidedly cathartic in 10 grain doses. 

False Angostura Bark and Brucia. By W. A. Shenstone. — The author found the 

This does not agree with our observation. See also "Am. Jour. Phar.," 1877, p. 549 — Editor. 



{ Am. Jour. Phaim, 
\ Jan., 1878. 

bark (of Strychnos nux vomica) to contain strychnia, though only in small quanti- 
ties. The following provisional process has been adopted for proving its presence 
in brucia : About '5 grm, of this is placed in a test-tube, with 3 or 4 cc. of 5 per. 
cent, nitric acid, and warmed gradually by immersion in hot water; when yellow 
crystals of cacothelin make their appearance, potassa solution is added in excess, 
and the solution cooled by placing in cold water ; it is then extracted by agitation 
with chloroform, this solution evaporated and the residue tested in the usual way. 
When the amount of strychnia is small, it is necessary to char the residue with sul- 
phuric acid before testing it, as the chloroform usually extracts a small quantity of 
a resinous substance which masked the reaction of the strychnia. The author also 
observed that brucia seems to undergo alteration by heating with pure, slightly acid 
or alkaline water, and intends to investigate the products produced. 

Russian turpentine oil was found, by Dr. W. A. Tilden, to have the spec grav. 
8682 at i5°C, to be dextrogyre and to consist of a liquid having the same compo- 
sition and properties as common turpentine oil, but of a stronger action on polarized 
light ; of a liquid having the same composition, but boiling at about i7i-5°C, and 
of some high boiling hydrocarbons, polymeric with turpentine oil. 

Oleum foliorum pini sylvestris, examined by the same author, was of '8756 spec, 
grav. at i2°C, to be detrogyre and to commence to boil below ioo°C. It consists 
of a liquid boiling at 156 to 159 which is almost certainly identical with common 
turpentine oil ; and of a liquid boiling between 171 and i76°C, which has nearly 
the same odor as the chief terpene of the Russian turpentine, but is lasvorotatory. 

The use of Russian turpentine oil was recommended by Mr. A. W. Postans in 
liniments and other preparations in place of the common turpentine oil, on account 
of its agreeable, attractive and aromatic odor and its by no means unpleasant taste. 


Physicians as Dispensers, is the title of several communications which have 
recently appeared in the " Philadelphia Medical and Surgical Reporter," and were 
initiated by a communication from J. W. P. Bates, M.D , to the Medical and Sur- 
gical Society of Baltimore, published by our cotemporary, November 10. The first 
portion of this paper is a reproduction of the same charges against " druggists " as 
were preferred in the same society five years ago (see "Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1873, 
p. 88), with this addition, that, "if the medicine (prescribed by a physician) proves 
to be a very efficient combination and have some local reputation, the druggist will 
keep it always prepared and labeled with his own name." Further on, the "drug- 
gist " is accused of charging exorbitantly for the medicines, and the danger result- 
ing for the general practitioner from the inroads of homoeopathy are alluded to, the 
success of which is attributed to the pleasantness of its medicines ( ? Editor) and 
that there is no "drug bill" to pay, since the homoeopath furnishes the medicines 
himself. For all this Dr. Bates can see but one remedy, namely, to furnish, as far 
as possible his own medicines, and, to carry out this idea, suggests that the whole- 
sale druggist manufacture all the available articles of the materia medica in mini- 

Am Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan., 1878. J 



mum doses, in granules. The intent and purpose of the paper is summarized in the 
following concluding paragraph : 

To illustrate : say we have granules of a quarter of a grain of hyoscyamus, an 
eighth of a grain of mix vomica, half a grain of quinia, and half a grain of iron. 
If we wished to put up the following prescription — 

B Quiniae sulph., .... grs. ii 

Ferri citrat., . . . gr. i 

Ext. hyoscyami, . . . . gr. ss 

Ext. nucis void., .... gr. 7} 

we would use four granules of the first, two of the second, two of the third and 
two of the fourth, put them in a powder paper, and the dose would be ready for 
administration. The number of granules in a dose would make no difference, and 
the combination would be entirely in our own hands, and could not be repeated 
without our knowledge and consent. The objection to this might be the cost to 
the physician. True, he would lose on the first prescription 5 instead of making a 
dollar, he would clear only seventy-five cents 5 but then we should remember that 
for every time it is repeated he would get the money, and not the druggist ; that the 
paper could not be loaned to all the neighbors ; that you are not telling everybody 
the secrets of your business as you now do ; and that the satisfaction to the com- 
munity would be greater, as the medicine would be at hand, and no drug bills. 

Regarding the charges preferred against apothecaries, they must be looked upon as 
chronic complaints on the part of certain individuals, who delight in speaking in 
general terms of the usurpation and the unscrupulousness of the former, and fail to 
see that the shortcomings of one or a few are not chargeable to the many. That 
some physicians are guilty of unscrupulous and dishonest practices and of unprofes- 
sional conduct is no secret j yet who would accuse the whole profession of the 
offences and crimes of the minority ? 

Regarding the proposed remedy, if carried out, it would doubtless be hailed with 
the utmost satisfaction by the manufacturers of medicinal specialties, the number of 
which would still more rapidly increase than they have done in the past under the 
fostering care of physicians, who are following the plan now proposed to be univer- 
sally extended. As to the final result we have no fear, and are convinced that the 
intelligent public would prefer the " drug bills " to the " dispensations of physi- 
cians." In our opinion, the surest way to secure reform is to encourage professional 

Chloriastos is the name proposed by a correspondent of the " Dublin Medical 
Press and Circular," Oct. 17, for a saturated solution of chloride of lead, recom- 
mended by Dr. Goolden as a disinfectant. And the reason for thus baptizing the 
solution ? Merely to secure its use ! 

Pharmaceutical Meetings. — Many local pharmaceutical societies in this and 
other countries hold meetings at regular, usually monthly, intervals, at which scien- 
tific and practical observations connected with pharmacy are discussed. Such dis- 
cussions are often of considerable merit and importance, and a resume thereof, in 
many cases deserves to become more widely known. Colleges of pharmacy, at 
which such meetings are held, are invited to send accounts thereof to the editor, for 
publication in the " Journal." 

44 Obituary.— Catalogue of the Class. { Am y a ™;?£ rm - 

While these meetings give to the pharmacists an opportunity of exchanging their 
views on many subjects, the younger members of the profession and the students 
frequently profit by listening to the discussions without actively participating therein. 
Their opportunity for comparing notes is mostly restricted to the students' societies, 
of which two — a junior and a senior — have been organized at the Philadelphia Col 
lege of Pharmacy, and are doubtless in existence at other institutions. More 
recently efforts have been made to induce these younger men to scientific researches 
and close observations outside of the subjects more immediately connected with 
their studies, such as the quarterly meetings of the Alumni Association of the New 
York College of Pharmacy and the monthly social and conversational meetings of 
the Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. We commend 
these meetings to all who value habits of attentive observation and recognize the 
importance of judicious training in such habits. 


Marshall Spring Bidwell died at Elmira, N. Y., Nov. 21, 1877, after a long 
illness and decline, being then in the forty-third year of his age. He was born in 
Toronto, Canada, but his parents moving to New York city, he was educated there 
and graduated at Columbia College in 1856. His health failing, he remained for 
ten years in the country in Western Massachusetts, and during this time, from being 
treated with preparations of silver, his face acquired a blueish-grey tint, which it 
permanently retained. In 1868 he commenced business at Sheffield, Mass, and in 
1872 moved to Elmira, having purchased the store of Owen & Morse 

The deceased was a fine scholar, an upright and amiable man and a warm and 
devoted friend. 



Class of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 

For the Fifty-seventh Session, 1877-8. 



Aaron, James Polk, 
Albright, Franklin Pierce, 
Alleman, Emanuel, Alison, 
Allen, Alexander Bonnell, 
Allen, Jno. Hays, Jr. 
Allen, Jno. Reese, 
Allen, Joseph Ingersol, 
Ancker, Louis, 
Angier, James Watson, 

Town or County. 





Frank H. West. 



Van Buskirk & Apple. 



W C. Bakes 



C C. McGlaughlin, M.D. 





James Kemble. 

Gloucester City, 


Edwin Tomlinson. 


S. C. 

Geo. W. Notson. 



Wardle Ellis. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan., 1878, J 

Catalogue of the Class, 


Ashmead, Alfred C. 
Bache, Benjamin Franklin, 
Bancroft, Geo. Hickman, 
Barnitz, Jno. Stevenson, 
Bartlett, Walter Edward, 
Barton, Charles Edwin, 
Bassett, Fenwick, 
Beale, Charles, 
Beavis, Wm. Henry, 
Beetem, Jacob Samuel, 
Belleville, Allen Leslie, 
Bellows, Charles Edward, 
Bennett, Jno. Knight, 
Berger, Charles Edward, 
Betz, Herman, 
Beyer, Jno. Jacob, 
Bicker, Francis Joseph, 
Biddle, Richard, 
Bidwell, Edwin Hugh, 
Bigelow Israel, Jr. 
Blackstone, Thomas Wise, 
Blankenhorn, Jno. 
Bobb, Wallace Geary, 
Brakeley, Joseph, 
Bourn, Dudley Leo. 
Brown, George Walbridge, 
Brown, Thomas Trew, 
Brunner, Norman Isaac, 
Bullock, Lawrence Minor, 
Burns, Seymour Snowden, 
Button, Charles Edwin, 
Cahoon, Charles Thomas, 
Campbell, Henry Moffitt, 
Carpenter, Frederick White, 
Carslake, Wm. Henry, 
Castleton, Edward Ligon, 
Caterson, Wm. Henry, 
Chabot, Wash. Jackson, 
Chapman, Richard Alex. 
Clapham, Hesser Charles, 
Cochran, Alfred William, 
Costelo, David, 
Cox, Harry, 
Cox, Harry Oscar, 
Craig, Thomas Canby, 
Craighead, Thomas, 
Crane, Henry Bedell, 
Cravens, Harry Otis, 
Crawford, Walter, 
Crenshaw, Edmund Anton, Jr. 
Cribbs, James M. 
Curran, John P., Jr. 
Curtis, Frank Alfred, 
Custis, Daniel Parke, 
Dare, Charles Wm. 
Davies, Chas. Sumner, 
Davis, Isaac, 

Davis, Marshall Moses Andre, 
Davis, Nehemiah, 
Davy, George Wm. 
Deacon, Geo. Frank, 
Dean, Norman R. 
Deprez, Wm. Henry, 
Dibert, Josiah Henry, 
Diehl, Benjamin Harper, 
Dinges, Robert Pitcairn, 
Drake, Theodore, 
Eckels, Geo. Morris, 
Eyler, Maurice Edgar, 
Eyre, Clarence Preston, 
Fahnestock, Levi, 
Falck, Jno. Aiken, 
Farnsworth, Jas. Tarring, 
Farwell, Charles Darius, 
Fawkes, David Wilmot, 
Federer, Ernest Charles, 
Feil, Joseph, 

Town or County. 











Delaware City, 

































Cloucester City, 







Homer City, 















Lock Haven, 







Lock Haven, 












N. J. 





N. J. 







N. Y. 
N. J. 

N. Y. 



N. J. 





N. Y. 







N. J. 






S- J- 




















N. J. 



N. J. 






Albert L. Helmbold. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
R. W. Cuthbert. 
A. J. Miller. 
Newbold Bros. 
W. W. Moorhead. 
James T. Shinn. 
Edmond Beale, M.D. 
Henry Mueller. 
S. S. Bunting. 
A. W. Test. 
Wm. Notson, M.D. 

F. S. Hilliard. 

W. A. Heckenberger. 
C. P. Squires & Co. 
A. F. Vogelbach. 
W. B. Bicker 

E. C. Bidwell, M.D. 
T. W. Ruete. 

Wood & Tittamer. 
V. H. Smith & Co. 
George I. McKelway. 
Thadeus Everhard. 
A L. Helmbold. 
Jno. Wyeth & Bro. 
S. D. Everett. 
Wm. Procter, Jr. Co. 
W. A. Cantrell. 
Samuel F Boyce. 
Wm. H. Wallace. 
A. F. Stull. 
Wood & Tittamer. 

G. W. Carslake. 
R. Cotter. 

Wm. M. Caterson, M.D. 
Jno. W. Wirgman. 
Lemoyne & Haley. 
J. A. Milliac. 
Samuel W. Cochran. 
Geo. F. Traub & Co. 
Wm. E. Lee. 
Duncan Blake, M.D. 
W. D. Robinson. 
Geo. S. Craighead. 

H. H. Ross. 

T. A. Andrews, M.D. 
Geo W. Dougherty. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
J. R. Stevenson, M.D. 
A. Hohl. 

B. B. Mitchell. 
McKeown, Bower & Ellis. 
Geo. H. Davis. 
F. E. Himmelwright. 
Jno. R. Haney, M.D. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
Bunting Hankins. 
Israel J. Grahame. 
Jacob Weingarth. 
H. Heckerman & Son. 
Levi K. Slifer, M.D. 
Wm. H. Hickman 
J. M. Higgins, M.D. 

A. B. Wenrich. 
H. C. Blair's Sons. 
Jno. Wyeth & Bro. 

B. L. Fahnestock & Co. 
Robert C. Snarp. 

D. Farnsworth & Bro. 

C. W. Peck, M.D. 
Z. James Belt. 

M. Eisner. 

P. Fitch, M.D. 

4 6 

Catalogue of the Class. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 

Jan., 1878. 


Fleming, Wm. Scott, 
Flowers, Hiland, 
Forbes, Wm. Henry, M.D. 
Fosselman, Charles, 
Foster, Wm. Malcolm, 
Freas, Wm. Kerr. 
Frederick, John Henry, 
French, Charles Stanley, 
French, Harry Banks, 
Frey, Andrew G. 
Gadd, Samuel Wesley, 
Gahn, Henrie, 
Garcia, Amado de Jesus, 
Gardner, Charles Herman, 
Gerhard, Wm. H. 
Graham, James Lord, 
Gray, Geo. Washington, 
Graybill, Peter, 
Griffin, Edwin Clarence, 
Gross, Percival Franklin, 
Gubbins, Charles Henry, 
Hall, Harry Augustus, 
Hallam, Daniel, 
Hammer, Edwin Howard, 
Hano, Simon Louis, 
Haring, Henry Gettman, 
Harker, Frank Scott, 
Harmanson, John Henry, 
Harrison, Jno. Windham. 
Harrold, Charles Albert, 
Hart, George Franklin. 
Hayhurst, Susan, 
Hendricks, Elwood Gould\ . 
Henry. George Wm 
Hetrick Dick Russel, 
Higgate, Wilford Oldham, 
Higgins, Charles Austin, 
Hilton, George Perry, 
Hoell, Conrad Gabriel, 
Hoguet, Wm. 
Horner, James W. 
Hudgin, Edward Lee. 
Hull, Morris Albert, 
Humrich, Wm. Beetem, 
Hurley, David George, 
Jacobs, Joseph, 
Johnson, John George, 
Jones, Isaac Penrose, 
Jones, Roland Davis, 
Jungmann, Emil, 
Kain, Wm. Wilkins, 
Kays, Loran Dewey. 
Keeney, Wm. Reynolds, 
Kelly, Patr ck Mulcany, M.D. 
Kemble, Robert Hayes, 
Kern, James Pecor, 
Kernan, Jos. Halbert, 
Kernan, Thos. Edward Barron. 
Keys, Thomas Franklin, 
King, George Henry, 
Klemet, J ohn, 
Koehler, Franklin, 
Kohlerman, Jno Wm. 
Koons, Wm. Harland, 
Kratz, Mahlon, 
Kroeg, Andrew Alex. 
Krogman, Jos. Francis, 
Krout, Albert, 
Lawall, Henry Clarence, 
Lehman. Jno. Wesley, 
Lentz, Charles Wm. 
Lerchen, Herman, 
Levering, Howard Malcolm, 
Levi, Alexander Benjamin, 
Lilly, Charles Foster, 
Lins, Jno. Allen, 
Lits. Walter Kulp, 

Town or County. State. Preceptor. 

Greencastle, Pa. Ch. L. Mitchell. 

Gettysburg, Pa. A. D. Buehler. 

Indianapolis, Ind. J S. Forbes, M.D. 

Emporia, Kan. J. W. Read. 

Honedale, Pa. C. C. Jadwin. 

Norristown, Pa. Wm. Stahler. 

Allentown, Pa. W. C. Bakes. 

Camden, N. J. French, Richards & Co. 

Philadelphia, Pa. French, Richards & Co. 

Mountville, Pa. A. Lineweaver. 

England. S. Creadick, M.D. 

Upsala, Sweden. Jno. Wyeth & Bro. 

Santiago, Cuba. A J. Schick. 

Spruce Creek, Pa. J. P Remington. 

Philadelphia. Pa R Shoemaker & Co. 

Camden, Del. S. D. Marshall, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Isaac l ull. 

Annville, Pa. G. A. Bachman, M.D. 

Niles. Mich. Stevens & Belknap. 

Allentown, Pa C. C. Klump. 

Vineland, N. J. S. T. Jones 

Danville, 111. J. A. Hall, M.D. 

Gloucester City, N.J. Thomas Hallam. 

Cleveland, Ohio. Daniel S. Jones 

Philadelphia, Pa. C H. Brutton, M.D. 

Quakertown, Pa. Wm. N Bowen. 

Hampton, Va. C. N. Wills. 

Pungoteague, Va. James Bluffworth. 

Wheeling, Va. Logan, List & Co. 

Washington, D. C. F. Brown. 

Williamsport, Pa. Louis Dembinski. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Centre Point, Pa. Wm K. Mattern. 

Camden, N. J. Winfield S. Plank. 

Indiana, Pa Delos Hetrick. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Wm B Webb. 

Flemington, N. J. J F. Hayes. 

Belvidere, N. J. R. A. Boyd. 

Camden, N. J. T. G. Rowand, M.D. 

Bristol, Pa. L. A. Hoguet. 

Stratford, Canada. H. Blithe. 

Galesburg, 111. Wm. Trinder. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Samuel W. Brown. 

Carlisle, Pa. H C. Blair's Sons & Co. 

Lebanon, Pa. Jos. L Lemberger. 

Athens, Georgia, R. T. Brumby & Co. 

Minneapolis, Minn. T. K. Gray & Co. 

Williamsport, Pa. L. A. Dix, M.D. 

Milton, Del. C. B. Lowe. 

Heidelberg, Germany, Chas. C. Spannagel. 

Camden, N.J. Herman W. Miller. 

Scranton, Pa. Chas. Henwood. 

Philadelphia, Pa. C. R. Keeney. 

Mifninsburg, Pa. J. I. Weaver. 

Phliadelphia, Pa A. H. Yarnall. 

Carlisle, Pa. T. J. Husband, Jr. 

Philadelphia, Pa. McKelway & Borell. 

Philadelphia, Pa. R. Keys, M.D. 

Belvidere, N. J. A. G. Smith. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Wm. Klemet. 

Philadelphia, Pa. William Bell. 

Wilmington, Del. A. Nebeker, M.D. 

Coatesville, Pa. J. Garman, M.D. 

Hilltown, Pa. A. J. Shick. 

Charleston, S. C- G. J. Luhn. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Benj. Falkenburg/ 

York, Pa. J. T. Hoskinson, Jr. 

Catasauqua, Pa. Jacob S. Lawall. 

Barren Hill, Pa. W. R. Warner. 

Lehighton, Pa. Chas. L. Mitchell. 

Davenport, Iowa. Gustavus Schlegel. 

Manayunk, Pa. W C. Todd, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. C C. Hughes 

York, Pa. Samuel Campbell. 

Allentown, Pa. F. P. Lins. 

Frankford, Pa. J. Frank Wilgus. 

Am. Jour. Pharm 1 
Jan., 1878. J 

Catalogue of the Class. 

Matriculants. Town or County. State. 

Llewellyn, John, Johnstown, Pa. 

Lloyd, Evan Davis, Pittsburg, Pa, 

Lock, John Herman, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Longaker, Daniel, Schwe ksville, Pa. 

Loper, Lorenzo Dow, Bridgeton, N. J. 

Love, Louis Francis, Philadelphia, Pa. 

McComas, Chas. Edgar, Hagerstown, Md. 

McCullogh, Clement, Oxford, Pa. 

McFadden, Eugene Anson, Hollidaysburg, Pa. 

McFeeters, Andrew J. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mackenson, A onzo Geo. Middletown, Pa. 

McKinley, Wm, Samuel Morrison, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Maguire, Jno. Hunter, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Maier, John, Bridcsburg, Pa. 

Malloch. Jno Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mann George Wagner, Chester, Pa. 

Marley, Richard Cordeleon, Newark, Del. 

Matthews, Albert Hudson. Bethel, N J. 

Meade, Julian Franklin, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Megill, Watson, Owensboro, Ky. 

Miller, David Patrick, Lynchburg, Va. 

Millington, Jos. Thomas, St. Clair, Pa. 

Mitchell, Jacob Myers, Jr. Salem, N. J. 

Mittelbach, Wm. Booneville, Mo. 

Moffatt, Walter Ely, Perryville, Ind. 

Moffet, David Philadelphia, Pa. 

Morgan, James Hamilton, Wilmington, Del. 

Morrison, Charles, Shelbyville, Ind. 

Moser, Jno. Hendricks, Norristown, Pa. 

Mossberg, Jno. Frederick, Carlstad, Sweden. 

Menger, Edward Frederick, Crete, Neb. 
Mullins, Michael Martin Ambrose. Gloucester City, N, J. 

Murray, Bayard, Phil idelphia, Pa. 

Murray, Bernard James, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Musser. Omar Henry, Lancaster, Pa. 

Myers, Clayton Ricker, Mount Joy, Pa. 

Neppach, Peter Frederick, Portland, Oregon. 

Newcomer, Edward Jacobs. Culpeper, Va. 

Noss, Henry. Norwich, Conn. 

Oberholtzer, Jno. Vanderslice, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Orsell, Jacob Francis, Jr. Conshohocken, Pa. 

Ott, Emiie, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Owens, Samuel, Ashiand Pa. 

Packer, Geo Harmon, Beverly, N J. 

Patterson, Wm. Renick, Hillsborough, Ohio. 

Payne, Geo. Alex. Woodson, Lynchburg, Va. 

Peat, Edward, Delphos, Ohio. 

Pechin, Wm. Joseph, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pennypacker, Nathan, Chester county, Pa. 

Peters, Horatio Gates, New Oxford, Pa 

Phillips, Thos Jefferson Woodworth, Deerfield, N. J. 

Pleibel Frederick, Jr. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Plumer. Wm S.. Jr. Columbia, S. C. 

Podolski, Louis Adolph, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Porter. Geo Cooper, Kennett Square, Pa. 

Porterfield, Wm. Perry, Falling Waters, W. Va. 

Prall, Delber Elwyn East Saginaw, Mich. 

Raab, Ernst Philip, Belleville, 111. 

Rad'ey, Aaron Wm. Easton, Pa. 

Reche, Htmry Charles, Dubuque, Iowa. 

Reed, Willoughby Henry, Phcenixville, Pa. 

Reeve, Walter Sharpless, Medford, N. J. 

Reichard, Chas. Wolf, Wilkesbarre, Pa. 

Reimann, George, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Reinecke, Ernest Wm. Pittsburg, Pa, 

Resag Charles Edward, Wilmington, Del. 

Retel, Michael, Buffaio ; N. Y. 

Richards, Alfred Nathan, Easton, Pa. 

Roberts, Charles Haines, Atlantic City, N. J. 

Roberts, Charles Henry, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Roberts, Victor Christopher, Salem, N.J. 

Robinson, Samuel E. McConnelsburg, Pa. 

Roche, Edward Manning, Jr. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rosenthal. Edwin, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ross, Augustus H. Camden, N. J. 

Ross, David Hambleton, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Saalfrank, Charles Wm. Philadelphia, Pa. 


P. P. Fox. 
M. M. Schneider. 
L. W. Hildebrand. 
Jno. Gilbert & Co. 
Christopher Petzelt. 
A. B Taylor 
Jas. G. Wells. 
M Lovett. 
S. C. Snyder & Son. 
W R. Warner & Co. 
Jno. W. Rewalt. 

C. H. Lambert, M.D. 

L. Murjahn 

W. W. Johnson, M.D. 

W. L. Matthews, M.D. 
Samuel Beidler. 
Henry Megill, M.D. 
Lumsden & Hamner. 
A. P. Carr, M.D. 
J. B. McElroy. 
E Roeschel. 

Thos C Van Nuys, M.D. 
Jno. Moffet. 

Jno. H. Leefers. 
A. R. Slemmer. 
Samuel Campbell. 
Alex. Kennedy 
Michael Mullins. 
R. Shoemaker & Co. 
Geo. V Eddy. 
J T. Shinn. 
Thos. R. Coombe. 
S. A. Neppach. 
J. B. Gorrell. 
R. F. W. Opperman. 
Levi Oberholtzer. 
James Van Court. 
Gust. Krause 
W. Owens, M.D. 
H. C. Van Meter. 
Chas Shivers. 
Geo. P Craighill & Co. 
W. C. Bakes. 
F. C. Clemson. 
S. Mason McCollin. 
T. V. S. Quigley, M.D. 
J L. Bispham. 
F. Pleibel. M.D. 
L. T. Silliman. 

Geo C. Evans. 

T. W. Taylor, M.D. 

H. C Blair's Sons & Co. 
E. B. Garrigues & Co. 
A. W. Miller. 

E. D. Ri'tter. 

I M. Buckwalter. 
Henry P. Thorn. 
Jno. Wyeth & Bro. 
L. P. Reimann. 
Jos. W. Stenger. 
E. Mclnall, Jr. 
Peter H. Davis, 
Dr. J. A. Hanly. 
Wm. Wright. 

I. R. Landis. 

Chas. W. Warrington. 
W. D. Robinson. 
E. M. Roche. 

Jas. S. Everton. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
O. L. Coles. 

4 8 

Catalogue of the Class, 

(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Jan., 1878. 


Sample, George Wm. 
Schandein, Harry, 
Schimminger, George Wm. 
Schlosser, Gerhard, 
Selinger, John Anthony, 
Shull, David Franklin, 
Siglinger, Charles Jacob, 
Simpson, S. Moses, 
Si tier, Alpheus, 
Slough, Chas. Edward, 
Smedley,Harry Leedom, 
Smeltzer, Jacob Daniel, 
Smith, Augustus Swartz, 
Smith, Frank Roop, 
Smith, George Henry, 
Smith, Wm. Harrold. 
Sparks, Alfred Denney, 
Sparks, James Mitchell, 
Speaker, George, 
Spenceley, Cornelius Ederson, 
Spencer, Wm. 
Spnssler, Theodore Joseph, 
Staples. Byron, Elwood, 
Starck, Albert August Gustav, 
Sterner. Oliver Henry, 
Stevenson, Chas. R. 
Stites, Albert Harvey, 
Stollenwerk, Chas. 
Strickler, Jacob, 
Strunk, Samuel W. 
Suess, Paul Jno. 
Sweitzer, Morris Kemerer, 
Talbot, Stephen Liversidge, 
Thomas, Emil Conrad, 
Thorp, Alexander Proudfit, 
Titcomb, Jos. Alexander, 
Trimble, Frank Fremont, 
Troll, Conrad Wm. 
Turner, Alexander, 
Turner, Curtis Waugh, 
Turner, Jno. Basketter, 
Uhland, Jno. Augustus, 
Vansant, Robert Hays, 
Vowell, Louis Sweitzer, 
Wade, McClanahan, 
Wagener, Charles Hugh, 
Wallace, Wm. Sampson, 
Wallington, Edward Morrell, 
Warrington, Edward, 
Waterland, Samuel, 
Waterman, Benj. Carpenter, 
Watson, Charles Wesley, 
Weis, William, 
Wendel, William, 
Werckshagen, Otto, 
Wessels, Jno. Louis, 
White, Andrew Allison, 
White, Delaware Meigs, 
Whitehill, George Wm. 
Whiteside, Wm. Elder, 
Whitney, Henry Clay, 
Wicks, Milton Barton 
Widdicombe, Thos. C. 
Williams. Frederick Tyacke, 
Wilson, Thomas Winfield, 
Wilson, Wm. Rufus. 
Wingert, Joseph Vincent, 
Wolf, Francis Xavier, 
Wolf, Louis, 

Woodnutt, Wm. Warren, 
Woods, Jno. Charles, 
Woolsey, Jno. Richard, 
Zaegel. Max Robert, 
Zaun, Henry, 
Zeller, Chas. Frederick, 
Ziebach, Edwin Robert, 

Town or County. 











Croskill Mills, 
S. Bethlehem, 
Fort Smith, 
Chestnut Hill, 
Jersey Shore, 
N. Bloomfield, 
S. Bethlehem, 
Rocky Mount, 

St. Clairsville, 





























Potts ville, 












N. C 
N. J. 
N. J. 

N. J. 
N. J. 
N. Y. 


C. R. Haig. 
Jas. B. Weaver. 
J. W. Dallam. 
Wm J. Shaeffer. 
Jno Oddy, M.D. 

B. M. Magill. 
H. A. Godshalk. 
Thomas Dover. 

C. K. Christman & Co. 
A. H. Yarnall & Co. 
P. M. Ziegler. 
Valentine H Smith & Co. 
N. B Danforth, Ph.G. 
Jos B Shaw. 

W. R. Warner & Co. 
T. M. Baldwin. 
N. D. Woods. 

Wm. A. Whittem. 

A. H. Yarnall & Co. 

H. C Blair's Sons. 

I. M. Thomas. 
A. B. Taylor. 

W. W. W. Woodbury, M.D 

W. H. Rinker. 

Simonds & McConaughy. 

S. P. Thatcher. 

A. Stollenwerck. 

M. B. Strickler, M.D. 

Stephen F. Penrose. 

Jno. N. Shoffner. 

S. E. R. Hassinger. 

R. F. Fairthorne. 

Jno. Knorr. 

H. R. Thorp, M.D. 

Titcomb & Fowler. 

R. P. Trimble. 

J. B. Hoge. 

W. L. Turner. 

F. S. Boisnot. 

R. Reed Stewart, Ph.G. 
Dr. Geo Ross & Co. 
Henry B. Chumar. 
W. D. Roberts. 
J. E. Waddell. 
T. C. Orth. 
Hugh Campbell. 
Randal Richey. 
Charles Warrington. 
A. Mayell. 

A. M. Burden, M.D.. 
L. M. Pratt, M.D. 
Jules Muringer. 

W. L. Wittcamp. 
C. A. Werckshagen. 
T. C. Lange. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 

B. Downs, M D. 
Henry N. Bryan. 
P. S. P. Whiteside. 

G. Krause. 

J. M. Wirgman. 
Hugh H. Ross. 
Thomas Hunter. 

C. W. Seary, M.D. 
F. C. Clemson. 

J H. Stein. 
J, T. Shinn. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
Jas. N. Marks. 

D. G. Weare, M.D. 
J. A. Heintzelman. 
W. W. Moorhead. 
Jos. P. Remington. 

J. A. Armstrong, M.D. 



FEBRUARY, 1878. 


By John M. Maisck. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, January 15, 1878. 

The genus Viburnum, which belongs to the natural order Caprifo- 
liaceae, tribe Sambuceae, attracted my attention more closely when, in 
July last, a correspondent in Georgia sent me some branches of a 
woody plant, stating that the specimens came from near Orange 
Springs, Florida, where it was regarded as possessing valuable medi- 
cinal properties as a substitute for quinia ; the shrub was said to bear 
a small black berry, and to be called there black haw, but it was men- 
tioned that it differed from what is known by the same name in other 
parts of the country. Although the specimen was not accompanied 
by flowers or fruit, its characters were such as to lead to the supposi- 
tion that it might belong to the genus Viburnum, and this was verified 
by comparing it with the plants in the College herbarium, with one of 
which it entirely agrees. 

Viburnum obovatum, Walt. — This species is mentioned in Gray's 
"Manual" and in Chapman's " Flora of the Southern United States," 
the latter of which describes it as a shrub or small tree, while the for- 
mer states it to be a shrub 2 to 8 feet high. It occurs on river banks 
from Virginia to Florida and westward. The branches are opposite 
and covered with a thin brown or reddish-grey bark, which adheres 
firmly to the white wood ; in the youngest branches the bark is more 
green, but soon becomes covered with minute brownish, corky warts, 
which, on becoming confluent, give the older bark a somewhat irreg- 
ular striate appearance. A distinct ridge runs from the base of each 
petiole downward to the next internode, and may be observed, also, on 
somewhat older branches, but gradually becomes indistinct through the 
development of the surrounding corky tissue. The leaves are small, 


50 The Useful Species of Viburnum. { * m 'j£*J£ m ' 

about \ to i inch long, opposite, thick, varying in shape from broadly 
obovate to spatulate, obtuse at the apex, wedge-shaped at the base 
towards the short petiole, and on the somewhat revolute margin either 
entire or slightly crenate or denticulate, chiefly towards the apex. 
Both surfaces are smooth, the upper one being dark-green and glossy, 
the lower one more greyish-green and marked with numerous minute 
brownish dots. The inflorescence consists of small sessile three-rayed 
cymes, with white perfect flowers, which produce small ovoid-oblong 
black and one-seeded drupes. The wood is tasteless, the bark has 
quite a distinct bitter taste j but the bitterness of the leaves is by far 
more persistent. As far as may be judged from the taste, the leaves 
would appear to mainly possess whatever medicinal virtue may reside 
in the plant ; how effectual they may be as an antiperiodic I am unable 
to say. 

Viburnum prunifolium, Lin. — Dr. Phares, of Newtonia, Miss., 
in 1867, called attention to the properties of the bark of this species, 
ascribing to it nervine, antispasmodic, tonic, astringent and diuretic 
properties, and recommending it as particularly useful in preventing 
abortion and miscarriage. The species is a tall shrub or small tree, 
from 10 to 20 feet high, growing in thickets, and is readily recognized 
by its oval or obovate, sharply serrulate leaves, which are opposite, 
glossy above, about two inches long and raised upon short, slightly 
margined petioles. It occurs in the United States from Connecticut 
south to Florida and west to Mississippi, and is generally known as 
black haw, the fruit being a small edible blue-black drupe, containing a 
flat and smooth putamen. The leaves, like those of the allied Vib. 
nudum, Lin., and its variety cassinoides, have occasionally been used as 
a substitute for tea. 

Viburnum opulus, Lin. — This species is quite extensively distrib- 
uted. It is indigenous to Canada and found in the northern United 
States and southward along the Alleghanies to Maryland \ likewise 
throughout a great portion of Europe and of the northern section of 
Asia. In favorable localities it attains a height of 12 to 15 feet, but 
is more generally a lower shrub, with a grey or greyish-brown bark, 
broad, three-lobed, toothed or crenate leaves, aud globular, acidulous 
bright red drupes, having a flat, smooth putamen. From the resem- 
blance of the fruit to the cranberry, this species is known on this con- 

A Ve b u , r 'i8 > 7 h 8 arm '| The Useful Species of Viburnum. 51 

tinent as high cranberry or cranberry tree. The shrub preferring moist 
locations, and the inflorescence resembling that of the elder, its pop- 
ular German name is Wasserholder or water elder, sambucus aquaticus, 
under which name it was formerly officinal. A variety produced by cul- 
tivation, has all the flowers sterile and the cymes more or less globular 
and showy ; it is known by the names of snow-ball and Guelder-rose. 
The indigenous species was described by Pursh as Vib. oxycoccus and 
Vib. edule. 

The bark and flowers of the water elder were formerly employed 
for their supposed alterative and antispasmodic properties, the common 
name cramp bark indicating the popular estimation in which it was and 
is, perhaps, still held in some localities. The fruit has the general 
properties of acidulous fruits, and where it is frequent is sometimes 
used in place of the cranberry. 

Other North American Species of Viburnum. — Chapman enu- 
merates nine species as being indigenous to the Southern United States 
east of the Mississippi ; of this number only one, V. scabrellum, Tor. 
and Gr., is peculiar to that section, while the'remaining eight are like- 
wise found in the Northern States, some extending into Canada ; three 
additional species are found in the northern section, making twelve 
indigenous to the United States. Aside from V. prunifolium, referred 
to before, the following are met with from the New England States 
southward to Florida, the last two (perhaps all three) being likewise 
indigenous to Canada ; they are : V. nudum, Lin., or white-rod; V. 
dentatum, Lin., known as arrow-wood, and V. acerifolium, Lin., or 
dockmackie. Their leaves have a bitter taste, while the bark is bitter 
and astringent. I am not aware that they are medicinally employed 
in any part of North America. 

Exotic Species. — De Candolle's Prodromus enumerates altogether 
47 species, besides four doubtful ones from Japan, which are insuf- 
ficiently known. Deducting those which are at present regarded as 
mere varieties of other species, the number is reduced to about 40 spe- 
cies, 28 of which are exotic and distributed over Europe, the Canary 
Islands, Africa, Asia, the East Indian islands, the West Indies and 
South America. Only a few of these appear to be put to some use. 

Viburnum Dahuricum, Pall., produces a sweet fruit, which is eaten 
in its native country, the eastern section of Siberia. 

52 The Useful Species of Viburnum. {^gT 

Viburnum Tinus, Lin., is known as laurestine or bastard laurel, the 
laurier-thym of Southern France, on account of its evergreen, glossy 
leaves, which are entire and slightly revolute at the margin, and hairy 
on the nerves beneath. It is occasionally met with in cultivation, and 
produces black-blue drupes, which are said to possess cathartic proper- 
ties, and are, in some localities of the Mediterranean basin, employed 
as a remedy in dropsy. 

Viburnum odoratissimum, Ker., from China, is likewise occasionally 
met with as an ornamental shrub ; it is evergreen, and has the leaves 
somewhat toothed and dense cymes of white, very fragrant flowers. 

Viburnum Laniana, Lin., occurs in thickets of central and southern 
Europe, and is known as lithy tree and giddy berry (Schwindelbeere), 
The grey-brown, smooth, or, when young, mealy pubescent bark has 
an acrid taste and produces blisters when applied to the skin in the 
fresh state. The leaves are oval or ovate, sharply serrate, and mealy 
pubescent on the lower surface, have an astringent taste, and were 
formerly used in diarrhoea and similar complaints. The fruit when 
fully ripe is black, mucilaginous, sweet and astringent, and was em- 
ployed in various inflammatory diseases. The branches have been 
used for making pipe stems. 

Chemical Investigations. — The species mentioned above com- 
prise all, I believe, which have been more or less employed in medi- 
cine, and of those only two have been subjected to chemical investi- 

During his patient and elaborate researches on the constitution of 
fats, Chevreul observed in the berries of Viburnum opulus a volatile 
acid, which he recognized as identical with the phocenic acid discov- 
ered by him in the fat of the dolphin. Afterwards Dumas proved 
phocenic acid to be identical with valerianic acid. H. Kramer (1834) 
examined the volatile acid obtained from the bark of the same shrub, 
compared this viburnic with valerianic acid, and found it to differ from 
the latter in odor and in the characters of several salts ; however, the 
analytical results obtained by L. von Monro (1845) appear to establish 
the identity of the two. 

Valerianic, besides acetic and tartaric acids, was found by Enz 
(1863) also in the berries of Viburnum lantana, which contain likewise 
a tannin coloring iron salts green. Kramer found in the bark exam- 
ined by him malic acid and tannin, giving a blue reaction with iron 

Am F J e°bT'x8 P 7 h 8 arm '} Notes on a few American Drugs. 53 

The bitter principle called viburnin was isolated by Kramer from 
the etherial extract of the bark by treating it with hot water, removing 
the tannin from the solution by means of hide (parchment), and decolor- 
izing afterwards with animal charcoal ; the colorless liquid left on evap- 
oration a light-yellowish mass, which yielded a nearly white powder, of 
neutral reaction and purely bitter taste ; it was slightly soluble in water 
more freely in alcohol, and on incineration left a little ash. 

Enz found in the fruit of the species mentioned an acrid and a neu- 
tral bitter principle, the latter being yellow, hygroscopic, readily sol- 
uble in water, and uncrystallizable, even after dialyzing it ; the fruit 
was boiled with lime and water, the filtrate neutralized with muriatic 
acid and treated with animal charcoal \ the latter was washed, dried 
and exhausted with alcohol, the solution evaporated to a syrupy con- 
sistence, deprived of the acrid principle by ether, and then evaporated. 

Leo's experiments (1834) for determining the nature of the coloring 
matter of the fruit of Vib. opulus, did not yield any important results. 

The remaining constituents were those very generally distributed 
throughout the vegetable kingdom, such as pectin, resin, fat, gum, etc. 
It would be of interest to ascertain the nature of the bitter principles 
contained in the two first-named species, both of which are indigenous 
to this country and called black haw. 


By John M. Maisch. 
{Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, January 15.) 

Pterocaulon pycnostachyum, Ell— An imperfect specimen of 
the subterraneous portion of this plant was received from 'Georgia, 
where it is known as Blackroot, and enjoys some local reputation as a 
valuable alterative. The plant belongs to the nat. ord. Compositae, has 
a nearly simple stem, with decurrent lanceolate wavy-margined leaves, 
which are smooth above and densely tomentose beneath. The inflor- 
escence is spicate, the imbricated involucral scales are diciduous, the 
ray florets are white and the akenes are crowded with a long hairy 
pappus. The -plant grows in the damp pine barrens of our Southern 
States, from North Carolina to Florida. 

The portion used is the rhizome, which is horizontal or oblique in 
the ground, and when viewed from above has a compact but knotty 

54 Notes on a few American Drugs. {^i™;S$r*' 

and somewhat contorted appearance. Its most striking peculiarity is,, 
that on the lower side it divides into a number of closely-set tuberous 
branches, which are nearly perpendicular and somewhat conical, grow 
to the length of about an inch, and are then suddenly contracted, each 
into one thin, wiry rootlet of about one to two inches. The rhizome has 
a thin bark, which is externally of a black color, internally of a greyish- 
brown, and adheres but loosely to the tough wood, which is greyish or 
blackish-brown, and divided into numerous very narrow wedges, loosely 
connected by the shrunken, narrow medullary rays from which the 
tangential surface, after the removal of the bark, assumes a lace-like 
appearance. The rootlets have a similar character, only the bark is 
relatively thicker. The recent rhizome branches, from which over- 
ground stems had grown, are scarcely one- quarter inch in diameter, but 
on their lower surface show already the disposition of sending off the 
perpendicular, cylindric-conical branches described, and as the latter 
increase in size the stem bases become almost absolete, and are reduced 
to mere scars, more or less concave. The entire rhizome is inodor- 
ous, and the wood tasteless, while the bark has a slightly acrid and 
peculiar bitterish taste. 

" Blackroot " resembles in color the rhizomes of Cimicifuga race- 
mosa and Leptandra virginica, both of which are easily distinguished 
from it by the total absence of the perpendicular tuberous branches, 
and more particularly the former, by its stout ascending rhizome 
branches and the cross-shaped disposition of the meditullium of its 
rootlets; and the latter by the horizontal branches of the rhizome, its 
hard wood and rather large pentagonal or hexagonal central pith. 

In regard to its medicinal properties, Dr. F. P. Porcher (" Resources 
of the Southern Fields and Forests," p. 460) says that much use is 
made of it as an alterative, and that it is supposed to be possessed of 
decided value ; also, that it is well known as the blackroot of the 
negroes, and is given in the form of decoction (how strong ?) several 
times a day. Nothing is known of its chemical constituents. 

Ledum latifolium, Alt. — About nine months ago specimens from 
a shrubby plant were received from Michigan, in the northern part of 
which State the Indians claim for it great healing virtues, it being 
regarded to possess soporific and cathartic properties, and externally 
used as a sovereign remedy in fever sores, bruises and rheumatism. 
The dry fruit capsules still attached to the plant made it not difficult 

Am F J eb u , r i8 7 h 8 arm ' } Notes on a few American Drugs. 55 

to recognize it as a member of the Ericaceae and the above-mentioned 

species of Ledum. Subsequently, the same plant was received from 

Canada, with the statement that it was popularly used to some extent 

and considered a valuable medicine ; its supposed properties, however, 

were not mentioned. 

The plant is known jy the name of James Tea and Labrador Tea, 

and occurs in British North America, and in the United States, from 

New England to Wisconsin, and southward to the mountains of Penn- 
ey ' 

sylvania. It occurs in cold bogs and damp woods, grows to the height 
of two to five feet, and has alternate leaves about one inch in length, 
somewhat aromatic when bruised, elliptical or oblong, with an entire 
somewhat revolute margin, dark-green and shining above, whitish 
beneath, and covered with a rusty wool. The small white flowers have 
five or sometimes six stamens, and are in umbels situated at the end of 
the branches ; lateral branchlets with a smooth bark, growing from the 
base of the umbel. The fruit forms a five celled capsule, which splits 
from the base upwards, and contains many minute seeds. 

In Redwood's " Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia, " it is stated that 
the leaves are used for tea, and when infused in beer render it unusu- 
ally heady, producing headache, nausea, and even delirium, but have, 
nevertheless, been used, it is said, in tertian agues, dysentery and 

This little shrub is very similar to the Ledum palustre, Lin., which 
is indigenous to Northern Asia, Eastern and Northern and some parts 
of Central Europe, and likewise to British America. It differs from 
the former mainly by its linear-lanceolate leaves, the ten stamens of its 
flowers and its more oval capsules. It was formerly known as Rosma- 
rinus sylvestris, but the leaves are readily distinguished from rosemary 
leaves by the dense, rusty, felt-like hairs on the lower surface. The 
young and fresh leaves have an agreeable aroma and a bitter and 
astringent taste ; the old and dry leaves are less aromatic. They have 
been employed in intermittent and other fevers, in cutaneous diseases, 
croup and other complaints. 

L. latifolium has been analyzed by Bacon, but I have not been able 
to consult his essay. The other species has been repeatedly examined. 
The most complete, though now not satisfactory, analys is isby Meissner 
(" Berl. Jahrb.," xiii, p. 170), in which, besides the more generally 
distributed principles, he found notable quantities of tannin and 1-5 per 

56 Notes on a few American Drugs. {^JS^'JjP^ 

cent, of volatile oil. Rauchfuss (1796) had previously obtained 3 per- 
cent, of volatile oil. G. W. Grassmann (1831) noticed for the first 
time the stearopten, which he obtained to the extent of nearly seven-tenths 
per cent, of the weight of the fresh plant, and which L. A. Buchner 
subsequently (1857) subjected to elementary analysis, and found to be 
a hydrate of a terpene agreeing with the formula 5C 10 H 16 .3H 2 O. 
Willigk also examined the volatile oil, and besides the stearopten., 
determined it to consist mostly of a hydrocarbon of the same compo- 
sition as turpentine. Grassmann's ledum-camphor volatilizes readily, 
its vapor producing headache and vertigo. 

It is not improbable that our indigenous species may contain similar 
principles, and, aside from the volatile oil, may possess the tonic,- some- 
what astringent and diuretic properties of the leaves of other ericaceae. 

Dioscorea villosa, Lin. — This is the only representative in the 
United States of the nat. ord. Dioscoreaceae, and is known by the name 
of wild yam. A nu mber of species of the same genus occur in the East 
and West Indies, the most important of which are Dioscorea alata, 
Lin. ; the white negro yam, D. triphylla, Lin, ; the buck yam, D. 
trifida, Lin., or Indian yam, D. bulbifera, Lin., the Ceylon white yam 
and several others comprised in D, sativa of Linnaeus. They are gener- 
ally cultivated in tropical countries for their tubers, which attain a con- 
siderable size, weighing frequently thirty to forty pounds, and, though 
quite acrid in their fresh state, are cooked and used as food. They 
contain starch as their valuable constituent, which appears generally to 
be about 15 to 18 per cent, of the weight of the fresh tuber, but may 
occasionally reach 24 per cent., according to Sheir (1847), or accord- 
ing to Grouven (1856) fall to 8 per cent. 

The rhizome of the indigenous species has a very different appear- 

The wild yam occurs throughout the United States from New Eng- 
land southward to Florida and westward to the Mississippi, and is quite 
common in the southern section. It grows in thickets in moist locali- 
ties, its slender herbaceous stems running over bushes and attaining a 
length of 10 to 15 feet and more. The plant is dioecious, the greenish 
staminate flowers are in paniculate hanging bunches, the pistillate 
flowers in simple drooping racemes. The leaves are quite variable, 
frequently alternate, but sometimes opposite or even in whorls of 4 to 
6 ; the latter appears to occur oftener in the South. The leaves are 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb., 1878. / 

The Bedford Springs. 


broadly ovate, with a heart-shaped base, entire or wavy at the margin, 
conspicuously pointed, with 9 to 1 1 ribs, nearly smooth above and 
more or less downy but never villous beneath. The fruit forms a tri- 
angular capsule, which is conspicuously winged on the angles, and the 
pendulous bunches of which are quite striking and make the plant easy 
to identify. 

The rhizome is horizontal, about one-half inch in diameter, somewhat 
flattened from above, repeatedly forked or branched in various direc- 
tions, so that the entire rhizome covers a space 6 to 12 inches in diam- 
eter, the branches bearing a slight resemblance to ginger. Upon the 
upper surface at irregular distances are the circular, more or less concave 
scars, left by the overground stems ; beneath and on the sides, at a dis- 
tance of about half an inch, are the simple wiry rootlets about 2 to 4 
inches long. Rhizome and rootlets are of a light or yellowish-brown 
color, and break with some difficulty, exhibiting a compact white tissue 
with numerous scattered wood bundles of a yellowish color. Odor is 
absent, the taste at first insipid, soon becomes strongly acrid. 

It is regarded to possess antispasmodic, diaphoretic, expectorant and 
emetic properties, and has, among other complaints, been recommended 
in bilious colic in the form of an infusion, made with one ounce to the 
pint, one-half being taken at a dose. In Virginia, and probably in other 
States, it is known among the negroes as rheumatism-root^ it being con- 
sidered a sure cure in that complaint. 

Continued boiling impairs the acrid properties of wild yam, the prin- 
ciple being either volatilized or altered by heat ; it has not been inves- 
tigated. The rhizome contains also a considerable proportion of starch. 


By Henry G. Debrunner, Chemist. 
I. Bedford Mineral Springs. — The water of this spring possesses a 
strictly saline character ; it is perfectly clear, inodorous and of a slightly 
saline taste. Its reaction on litmus is neutral. One liter, evaporated 
to dryness on the water bath, gave 3*2592 grams of residue. Another 
sample, taken personally by Mr. James Park, Jr., left 3 2552 grams of 
saline residue per liter, the weight of which decreased on subsequent 
ignition to 2*5675 grams, or '25675 per cent, of ignited saline matter. 1 

1 This loss on ignition is due to the elimination of crystal water on heating. 


The Bedford Springs. 

Am. Jour. Pharm, 
Feb., 1878. 

The temperature of the spring has been found 58°F., while that of 
the surrounding air was jo°F. Specific gravity, 1*0035. 10,000 parts 
of this water contain the following quantities of constituents : 

Chloride of sodium, NaCl, 
Sulphate of sodium, Na 2 S0 4 , 
Sulphate of magnesium, MgS0 4 , 
Sulphate of calcium, CaS0 4 , 
Carbonate of calcium, CaCO s , 
Carbonate of strontium, SrC0 3 , 
Alumina, A1 2 3 , 
Iron, . 

Organic matter, 
Water, H 2 0, . 

. 0-0978 
. 5'48io 

. 1-2556 


Free carbonic acid, 0-42 parts, equal to 21-3 cc. per liter (32°F., 760 mm. Hg)„ 
Combined carbonic acid, . . 0-5525 ). 

Semi-combined carbonic acid, . °*55 2 5 ) I0 ' 000 P arts 

Total carbonic acid, . . . 1*57 in 10,000 parts 

Total Chlorine, CI, . . 0-0593 " " 

Total sulphuric acid, S0 3 , . . 14 6142 " " 

Total sodium, Na, . . 12041 " " 

The saline compounds were calculated from the data obtained as 
follows : 

CI as NaCl 

(Total Na) minus (Na of NaCl) as Na 2 SO v 
iMgO as MgSO v 

(Total S0 3 ) minus (SO s of Na 2 S0 4 and MgSOJ as CaSO v 
(Total CaO) minus (CaO of CaSOJ as CaCO v 
The latter result was confirmed by a direct estimation of C0 2 in 
the dry residue. 

The water was also examined for the following constituents, which^ 
however, were found to be absent, viz. : sulphur, ammonia, phosphoric 
acid, arsenic, nitric acid, potassa, lithia, iodine and bromine. 

Quantity taken for analysis, ten liters. I add an analysis of the 
same water, made in 1825 by Dr. Church, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

One quart contains : 

According to 

Dr. Church, 1825. 

H. G. Debrunner, 

Sulphate magnesium, . 

. 20 grains 

9l grains 

Sulphate calcium, . 



Chloride sodium, 

. - . a* 

• * < , C 

Chloride calcium, (? !) 



Carbonate iron, 

. 1} 


Garbonate calcium, 



Sulphate sodium, 


Loss, . 


• 4 

Residue on evaporation, 

• 3 1 


Specific gravity, . 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb., 1878. j 

The Bedford Springs. 


In comparing these two analyses, which differ so essentially in 
quality and quantity of the constituents, it must be remembered that 
it is possible — though not very probable — that the composition of a 
mineral spring may become essentially different in the course of half 
a century. The water on its way through the earth will extract the 
soluble matter of the rocks or strata it meets, and, after exhausting 
them, obtain its mineral constituents from other, may be different,, 
rocks it may come in contact with on its subterranean journey. This 
may explain the difference in our results ; one statement, however, is 
decidedly incorrect in Dr. Church's analysis, namely, the presence of 
calcium chloride, as, according to the well-established laws of chem- 
istry, calcium chloride cannot exist in an aqueous solution in presence 
of an excess of sulphate of magnesium. If a solution of calcic 
chloride is added to magnesium sulphate, the acids will change places, 
forming gypsum, calcic sulphate and magnesium chloride : CaCl 2 -f- 
MgS0 4 =CaS0 4 +MgCl 2 . 

However, it must be borne in mind that in 1825 chemistry, and 
particularly analytical investigations, had not yet reached so high a 
degree of perfection as now-a-days, where it ranks among the most 
exact of the exact sciences. Since gasometric estimations, and even 
spectrum analysis, have found their way into the laboratory of the 
"practical chemist," it is quite, excusable if an analysis of fifty years 
ago does not correctly correspond with one made in our days. 

II. The Bedford Sulphur Spring. — The water of this spring in many 
respects resembles that of the former one, with the sole exception that 
it contains sulphhydric acid, or sulphuretted hydrogen, the solid min- 
eral constituents being exactly the same. It is perfectly clear, strongly 
exhibiting the smell of rotten eggs, and contains besides sulphuretted 
hydrogen and carbonic acid, gypsum — the chief constituent — sulphate 
of magnesium, carbonate of calcium, sulphate and chloride of sodium^ 
traces of alumina, and no iron. On standing, it soon loses the odor 
of sulphuretted hydrogen and deposits a fine white precipitate of 
sulphur. One liter leaves on evaporation on the water bath 2*6792 
grams, which on ignition give 2*0475 grams, equal '20475 per cent, 
of saline matter. 

As to the medical qualities of these springs, I am indebted to my 
friend Franklin N. Staub, M. D., for the following notes on this 
subject : 

6o Analyses of Dialyzed Iron. { A VeC'iST" 1, 

u The waters of the Bedford Springs have been extensively used 
for many years and are regarded by many as efficacious in the treatment 
of a considerable number of chronic diseases, where almost generally 
the effects of mineral waters are more particularly noticeable. Gout 
and the different forms of rheumatism, essentially depending, as they 
do, upon an abnormal composition of the blood, are perhaps the two 
diseases most benefitted by the use of mineral waters, of course not 
without some special exceptions. The cure of dyspepsia may also be 
powerfully assisted by the use of such waters, especially those cases 
in which constipation and cardialgia are marked symptoms. Much 
advantage is also derived by dyspeptics by a sojourn, under agreeable 
circumstances, at a pleasant watering place. Indeed, it is frequentlv 
difficult to determine which has exerted the greatest influence, the use 
of the waters or the change of diet and habits, together with the 
renewed hopes of improvement and cure. Functional derangements 
of the liver are sometimes benefitted by the catharsis produced. 

" The preceding remarks refer more particularly to the effects of the 
water of the so-called Bedford Mineral Spring. 

"The water of the Bedford Sulphur Spring differs chiefly from that 
of the mineral spring in containing sulphuretted hydrogen. Its medical 
properties are, to some extent, identical with those of the mineral 
spring. Sulphurous waters have been greatly extolled in the treatment 
of various chronic skin diseases, especially the squamae (both simple 
and venerial), the itch, the various forms of eczema, etc. Especially 
are its effects more marked when accompanied by frequent baths in the 
water, the temperature of which has been elevated to about I50°F." 

Black Diamond Steel Works, Pittsburgh, Dec. 21, 1877. 


By Henry Trimble, Ph.G. 
(Read at Alumni Social Meeting, January 3, 1878.) 

No pharmaceutical preparation of recent times has met with such 
universal favor as dialyzed iron. The physician employs it with 
marked success, and the pharmacist refers to it as a type of the so- 
called elegant remedies to which he has of late years directed a great 
part^of his energy. So far it has chiefly been prepared by a few whole- 
sale manufacturers, who are constantly calling attention to its strength, 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Feb., 1878. / 

Analyses of Dialyzed Iron. 

purity and general superiority over the other iron compounds. Fearing 
that the strength of the solution might be sacrificed somewhat in attain- 
ing the much-desired elegance, I procured of the leading manufacturers 
of Philadelphia six samples, and estimated the iron and chlorine by the 
following process. 

About five grams of the solution were taken, diluted with water T . 
treated with ammonic hydrate and heated gently until all the iron was 
precipitated. This was then filtered off, washed thoroughly, ignited,, 
and weighed as Fe 2 3 . The filtrate and washings were heated to 
expel excess of ammonia, and treated with hydric and argentic nitrates. 
The mixture was heated and agitated until the resulting argentic chlo- 
ride cohered, then filtered and the collected precipitate washed, ignited 
and weighed as AgCl, from which the percentage of chlorine was. 

The following table, containing a summary of the analyses, explains 
itself : 

Per cent. 
Fe 2 3 . 

Per cent. 

Per cent, of 
the salt. 



3' J 43 



2 9 Fe 2 3 .Fe 2 Cl 6 . 


3 '442 



2 9 Fe 2 3 .Fe 2 Cl 6 . 





i 9 Fe 2 3 .Fe 2 Cl 6 . 




2 804 

nFe 2 3 .Fe 2 Cl 6 . 


4 677 



3 iFe 2 3 .Fe 2 Cl 6 . 





i6Fe 2 0. 3 Fe 2 Cl 6 . 

There would be no criticism to offer on these results, were it not 
for the fact that the circulars of these manufacturers state that the solu- 
tions contain five per cent, of ferric oxychloride, or, as one asserts, of 
ferric oxide free from hydric chloride, both of which statements are 
incorrect, and as yet the latter has proved impossible. 

Finally, we see that only the manufacturers are at fault, and that a 
solution of dialyzed iron can be and is prepared, which, compared with 
the iron, contains a much smaller proportion of chlorine than has here- 
tofore been supposed, three of the samples showing this, the only 
objection to them being that they contain too large a percentage of 

62 Comparative Test of Antiferments. { Am F J e b u , r - I 8 7 h 8 arm - 


By Rich. V. Mattison, Ph.G. 
Read at the Alumni Meeting, January 3. 
On the 8th day of November last, thirteen new bottles were taken, 
and in each of them was placed 100 cubic centimeters of a strong 
infusion of malted barley, the following quantities of anti-ferments 
added and the bottles placed at a constant temperature of j6°F. To 
bottle marked A nothing was added ; to the others as follows : 

Schering's Salicylic Acid. 

B 3 centigrams 

€ 6 " 

D 9 " 

E 12 " 

Benzoic Acid from Benzoin. 

F 3 centigrams 

G 6 " 

H 9 « 

I 12 " 

Calcium Bisulphate. 

J 3 centigrams 

K 6 

L 9 

M 12 

At the expiration of twenty-four hours these solutions were examined 
with the following result : 

A had fermented and tasted quite sour, but at this period no froth 
or u barm " was to be seen upon the surface of the liquid. The 
microscope showed the presence of bacteria in large numbers and 
numerous very small cells of the Saccharomyces Cerevisia. B, C, Z>, 
E, H, / and M showed only bacteria in slightly varying quantity, but 
no cells could be observed, and there was no evidence of fermentative 
change, while in F there were numerous small cells observed, with 
bacteria present, and the liquid was slightly sour to the taste. G con- 
tained bacteria, was very slightly sour and a few hyaline cells were 
observed. *J was quite sour, had large numbers of bacteria and cells, 
the latter very small. K, L were very slightly sour, contained few 
bacteria and very few minute cells. 

No u barm " or froth was to be seen upon either of the solutions, 
and at the expiration of twenty-four hours they were again examined. 

A large quantity of froth appeared by this time on the surfaces of 
A, 5, C, Z), E, y, K, L, M, they had each deposited a considerable 
precipitate and were all decidedly sour and in active fermentation. The 
cells of the Saccharomyces were of large size and in countless numbers ; 
these large cells were exceedingly prolific, giving off, by budding, 
myriads of smaller cells, many of which were arranged in chains like 
the beads of a necklace, and many of these smaller cells just escaping 
from the maternal cell, were observed to be throwing out their minute 
buds — even before they had entirely separated from the parent cell. 

Am.^our.jharm. j Comparative Test of Antiferments. 63 

The form and appearance of the cells of these solutions, with one ex- 
ception (ii) were such as characterized, those of Saccbaromyces Cerevisia?, 
while in E the cells more closely resembled those of Saccbaromyces 
Mycoderma as did the method of budding also. Still, it could scarcely 
be this plant as the liquid certainly was in the flood tide of active 
fermentation. No difference was observed in the appearance of the 
surface or the sedimentary ferments, excepting in the former the bud- 
ding seemed more rapid. F, G, iZ, /, upon examination, proved to 
be all slightly sour ; no appearance of froth, however, being seen. 
Under the microscope were to be seen a few fresh, plump cells, and a 
few larger withered cells, while these liquids had also grown muddy in 
appearance from the production of fresh cells. 

At the expiration of twenty-four hours the solutions were again 

A, Z?, C, Z), E y y, K, L, M were quite sour ; they were covered with 
froth and rapidly proliferating cells, while bubbles of carbon dioxide 
could be seen to constantly rise to the surface of the liquid. In y, 
X, Z, M the deep brown color had been reduced to a yellowish white 
through the action of the dissengaged sulphurous acid from the calcium 
bisulphite ; F, G, / were scarcely changed. They were rather 
more sour than at the previous examination and although full of bac- 
teria, there were very few cells to be seen, and those few were very 
small and shriveled in appearance. Another marked difference be- 
tween these four solutions containing the benzoic acid is in the fact that 
no froth is formed on these, while in the others the froth is from one- 
eighth to one-fourth the depth of the liquids. 

In this series of experiments, therefore, the benzoic acid, while not 
entirely preventing fermentation, had a very much more marked influence 
in arresting and aborting this change than did either the calcium bisul- 
phite or salicylic acid. 

A further experiment is in progress upon solutions of cane sugar in 
the form of dilute syrups. We have nothing to report excepting that 
the unprotected sample has developed a large amount of a confervoid 
growth, the striae consisting of rods of simple elongated cells, with no 
appearance of fermentation, while the samples protected by either sali- 
cylic or benzoic acid are at the present writing unchanged. 

Philadelphia, First mo. 3, 1878. 

6 4 

Tincture of Cantharides. 

J Am. Jour. Pharm., 
1 Feb., 1878. 


By Geo. W. Kennedy, Ph.G. 

The time is fast approaching for the National Convention for Re- 
vising the Pharmacopoeia to assemble in the city of Washington, D. 
C, on the first Wednesday in May, 1880. 

By reference to the various pharmaceutical journals, I notice that 
committees have been appointed from several of the medical and phar- 
maceutical colleges and associations for the purpose of preparing a list 
of drugs and chemicals used in their respective localities, and also to 
furnish the best working formulas for the large number of tinctures, 
syrups, solid and fluid extracts, and other pharmaceutical preparations 
in general use. 

The time intervening before the assembling of the final committee 
is but two years, and it is absolutely necessary for the many workers to 
commence the labor assigned them, at once. I observe that many com- 
mittees have organized, and are pushing their work forward favorably. 
Judging from the material composing the committees, there is no doubt 
but their work will be done well and in a systematic order. 

It is likewise the duty of all pharmacists, no matter whether serving 
on committees or otherwise, if they have any suggestions or recom- 
mendations to make in the direction of improvement of pharmacopoeia 
processes or formulas, to report the same, either to one of the many 
committees or through some pharmaceutical journal. 

The object of the writer of this article is to recommend a change in 
the menstruum used in the preparation of tincture of Spanish fly, 
There is no doubt but all pharmacists are cognizant that diluted alco- 
hol is the menstruum directed to be used by our present Pharmacopoeia. 
I find, after experimenting, that alcohol is preferable to diluted alco- 
hol, for the following reasons : 

1st, because diluted alcohol does not dissolve the cantharidin, 
the active and vesicating principle of the drug, so well as alcohol. 
The writer, to satisfy his curiosity, collected and preserved the 
dregs after making several quantities of the tincture as now pre- 
pared by the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, dried them, and in a perco- 
lator submitted them to the action of alcohol until completely ex- 
hausted. The alcoholic tincture was evaporated on a water-bath to 
about the consistence of simple cerate, a small plaster was made and 
applied, which, in the course of an hour, produced redness of the skin, 

Am. Jour. Pharm \ 
Feb., 1878. J 

Sapo Vtridis. 


and in three hours blistered it, thus proving conclusively and satisfac- 
torily that a change can be made advantageously as recommended. 

2d. The tincture as prepared according to the present directions is 
objectionable, on account of its inelegant appearance and the precipita- 
tion which takes place shortly after being prepared \ it is decidedly dis- 
pleasing to the eye, and does not present that beautiful clear greenish- 
yellow color as when prepared with alcohol. Ir our days of advance- 
ment in elegant pharmaceutical preparations, we should endeavor to 
manufacture handsome-looking products, so long as the medicinal qual- 
ities of the drug are not impaired. 

3d. As tincture of cantharides is one of the ingredients of the many 
hair tonics and dressings which pharmacists are often called upon to 
prepare, it is also preferable on account of the solubility of the castor 
oil which frequently enters into preparations of this kind, producing 
and furnishing to the customer a much handsomer compound. 

The German Pharmacopoeia directs to prepare the tincture by mac- 
erating cantharides, 1 part, with alcohol sp. gr. 0*832, 10 parts, for 
eight days, and filtering. 


By Herman Betz. 
Read at the Alumni Meeting, "January 3. 

This preparation is used to some extent in Europe, and many phar- 
macists here are obliged to keep it for their customers, who make use 
of it in itch and allied affections, for which it is by some considered 
quite an efficacious remedy. 

As found in the market, it is often very impure, being prepared from 
common animal fats and colored with various substances. Animal fats 
are not advisable for this purpose, but any vegetable fatty oil, such as 
oil of hemp or linseed can be very properly used. In countries 
where oil of hempseed is a common article of commerce, green soap 
is usually made from this oil, and is obtained of a nice dark-green 

One reason why green soap in this country is so often adulterated 
may be found in the scarcity and high price of oil of hempseed. Oil 
of linseed has the same properties in making a soap for the purpose 
before mentioned, and on account of its cheapness would not offer so 


66 Prescription Clamps. { Am £C™s rm ' 

much temptation for adulteration; it would be advisable to use it alto- 
gether, when we would always have a uniform and reliable preparation. 
As it is now, one can hardly find two samples alike. 

In making green soap, one or two points have to be taken in con- 
sideration. In the first place the color ; this green color is one of the 
most difficult to obtain from vegetables. I have made a number of 
experiments, and found none to answer so well as the green coloring 
matter precipitated from a solution of indigo by lime. 

Another point is the disagreeable odor which green soap usually has, 
but this is easily overcome by a few drops of essential oil, for instance, 
the oil of citronella. 

The following formula may be found useful in preparing this soap : 

Take of Oil of linseed, U. S. P., . 

Solution of potassa, . . da Oi 

Coloring matter, ' . . . q. s. 

Oil of citronella, . . . gtts. x 

Place the oil and potassa in a porcelain dish ; mix thoroughly and 
boil with a regulated heat until the mass becomes thick or stringy ; 
then add the coloring matter and the oil of citronella, with constant 

If the oil is perfectly saponified the mass must be homogenous and 
transparent ; opaqueness may be due to want of water, or to an 
excess of fat, or of solution of potassa. The first and the last can be 
remedied by a small quantity of water, and if the proportion of oil 
was too large, an addition of solution of potassa will render the mix- 
ture clear. 


Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : 

I have read with interest, in the October number of the Journal, 
the article by Mr. Andrew Blair on the dispensing of prescriptions. 
Permit me to communicate to you a contrivance which, about a year 
ago, I published in the " Pharmaceutische Zeitung," and which, I am 
pleased to say, seems to have found great favor in Germany, but has 
been probably overlooked by you. 

My little apparatus will be easily understood from the accompanying 
sketch. These prescription clamps (No. i) are marked with a large 
figure and if not in use, contain a check with the same figure and with 

Am Jour. Pharm 
Feb., 1878. 

} Dispensing Dangerous Compounds. 


the name of the firm, as 
shown in the cut No. 2. The 
checks are made of sheet 
iron, with the figure and firm 
name engraved thereon. The 
clamp works by means ot 

two spiral springs, 3^, 


tween which is placed a 
piece of cork, b, to prevent 
too strong a pressure. A 
person coming with a pre- 
scription receives a check, 
and the prescription is placed 
in the corresponding clamp. 
If the medicine is called for, 
the check is demanded, and in this way mistakes are prevented and 
much unnecessary questioning of the customer saved, who sometimes 
declines giving his name. Remarks like " paid," u half the quantity," 
etc. are written upon the prescription, a corner of which is bent for the 

I have no doubt that this cheap and very useful contrivance (I have 
24 such clamps in use) will also find favor in your country, and I should 
be pleased if you would bring this communication to the notice of your 
readers. I remain, etc. H. E. Schelenz. 

Rendsburg, Germany, Nov. 23, 1877. 


As druggists are occasionally required to compound and dispense 
chemical compounds of an explosive character, they are usually educated 
as to their nature, and cautioned as to their manipulation. Notwith- 
standing this, we occasionally note accidents as occurring from such 
mixtures, and as the recital of a case may prove a useful lesson, arid 
tend to prevent the repetition of the error, the following instance is 
mentioned : 

A physician sent to a druggist a prescription for nitro muriatic acid 
and tincture of cardamom. The druggist, after compounding the 
formula, handed the bottle to the messenger, who was in the act of 

68 Gleanings from the Foreign Journals. \ km '^X^' 

placing it in the pocket of his overcoat, when the vial exploded, to the 
injury of his clothing and to his great alarm. The contents of the 
bottle being thus lost, the druggist re-compounded the prescription, cau- 
tioning the bearer not to shake it. After his recent experience the mes- 
senger carried it very cautiously to the patient, who, on removing the 
wrapper, was met by an explosion that drove the vial cork violently 
against the eyeball, and scattered the fumes and acid over her face. 
Prompt surgical assistance fortunately saved the eyesight of the patient^ 
but only after several days' suffering and anxiety. 

We are not informed whether the druggist dispensed, as he should 
have done, nitro-muriatic acid — previously mixed — after re-action had 
taken place, or whether he mixed the acids and bottled them without 
waiting for the re-action ; but we presume, from the imperfect history 
given, that the latter was the fact, and to recall to others the dangers 
of such a course we desire to record the case. 

Wood, in his " Therapeutics and Pharmacology," says, u care 
should be taken in opening the bottle to avoid exposing the face to the 
jet of gaseous vapor which sometimes suddenly escapes, especially 
when the bottle has been kept in a warm place, and which may en- 
danger the eyes if not guarded," 1 and we regard the physician, who 
directs the administration of such a remedy as derelict to his duty 
when he does not duly caution his patient against such an accident. 

X. Y. Z. 


By the Editor. 

The Turpentine Oils.— Dr. GodefFroy gives the following char- 
acteristics of the various oils of turpentine met with in the European 
market : 

Austrian oil of turpentine, from Pinus austriaca, transparent, colorless 
or slightly yellowish, sp. grav. "864 ; boiling point, 155 — I57°C. ; turns 
polarized light to the left. 

German oil of turpentine, from Pinus sylvestris, P. abies, P. vulgaris,, 
P. picea and P. rotundata, resembles the former ; sp. grav. *86 — "87 •> 
boiling point, 155 — i6o°C. ; laevogyre. 

French oil of turpentine, from the turpentine of Pinus maritima, color- 

Wood Therapeutics, vol. i p. 381, 1856. 

Am Fet u , r i8 7 ^ arm } Gleanings from the Foreign Journals. 69 

less or faint yellowish, sp. gr. *86 ; boiling point, 156 — I57°C. ; laevo- 
gyre ; odor peculiar, taste burning. French turpentine is chiefly pro- 
duced in the neighborhood of Bordeaux, and yields 25 per cent. oil. 

Venetian oil of turpentine, from Venice turpentine of Larix decidua, 
is laevogyre, and resembles the preceding, but has a more agreeable 
odor. Venice turpentine is mostly obtained in Southern Tyrol and in 
Piedmont, and yields 18 — 25 per cent, of oil. 

English oil of turpentine, from American turpentine of Pinus palus- 
tris and P. Taeda, resembles the French, has the sp. grav. '864, boils 
at 156 — 157, and is dextrogyre. American turpentine yields about 17 
per cent, of oil. 

Besides these four principal varieties, the following are likewise met 
with : 

Pine cone oil, oleum Abietis pini, is obtained by distilling with water 
the cones of Abies pectinata. It has a much finer odor than oil of 
turpentine, spec. grav. '868 \ boiling point, 160 — i62°C, and is dex- 

Dwarf pine oil (Krummholz — or Latschen oil), oleum Pini pumili- 
•onis, is obtained by distilling the young tops and cones of Pinus pumilio 
with water. It has a peculiar odor, reminding of juniper, sp. grav. 
•865 ; boiling point, I70°C, and is laevogyre. 

Pine leaf oil is obtained on distilling the leaves of Pinus sylvestris or 
P. Abies by means of steam. It has a very fine aromatic odor, spec, 
grav. "876 ; boiling point, i6o°C, and is dextrogyre. 

Templin oil (also Kienol, Germ.) is obtained chiefly in some sections 
of Switzerland and Tyrol by distilling the wood, branches, leaves, 
cones, etc., with water. It has a lemon-like odor, spec. grav. '86 — 
"88 ; boiling point, 160 — i64°C, and is laevogyre. — Pbar. Zeitung, 
1877, No. 81 — Zeitscbr. Oest. Jpoth. Ver. 

New Method of Extracting Scammony Resin. Emile Perret. 
— The author exhausts the crude pulverized scammony with boiling 
alcohol, and neutralizes the dark alkaline liquid with a few drops of 
sulphuric acid. The coloring matters are precipitated as a lake, and 
the clear supernatant liquid is filtered ofF ; the alcohol is distilled off, 
and the residual pure resin is dried on the sand-bath, raising the tem- 
perature gradually to 104 . — Chem. News [Lond.], Dec. 21, 1877. 

Process for Extracting Quinidia from the Quinoidin of Com- 


70 Gleanings from the Foreign Journals. { Am F J eb^i£8? #nw 

merce. Dr. J. E. de Vry. — The hydrochloric solution of quinoidin 
is heated in the water-bath, and mixed with a solution of caustic soda 
(containing 40 grms. hydrate of soda per liter) to remove a black resi- 
nous matter. From the solution remaining the quinidia is separated, 
either by means of tartaric acid, or of potassium iodide. The author 
remarks that all the neutral salts of the cinchona alkaloids have an 
alkaline reaction. — Ibid. 

Sanguinaire or the arabe.— John R. Jackson has examined this 
tea, which is put up in Algeria, and is recommended in colds, catarrhs and 
chest affections ; likewise as being useful in alleviating fevers, and in 
contributing to the enrichment of the blood. It was found to consist 
of the flower-heads and large silvery bracts of Paronychia argentea 
and nivea. The infusion had scarcely any color, very little smell, and 
reminded rather of boiled hay. — Phar. your, and Trans., Jan. 5, 1878. 

Fraudulent Quinia. — Dr. Pratesi reports on a chemical product, 
said to be of German origin, and offered as adapted for the fraudulent 
substitution of quinia. It resembles quinia sulphate in appearance and 
in the behavior to alcohol, ether, chloroform and ammonia, but is freely 
soluble in water, not precipitated by barium chloride, not persistently 
bitter, and when heated upon platinum foil burns, giving off violet 
vapors. — Pharm. Zeitung, Dec. 5, from Ann. di Chimica. 

Detection of Small Quantities of Morphia. — The suspected 
substance is dissolved in concentrated muriatic acid, to which a small 
quantity of pure sulphuric acid is added, and the solution evaporated at 
ioo° to I20°C. A purple coloration is observed, even in the pres- 
ence of substances which are readily carbonized. After the evapora- 
tion of the hydrochloric acid, a fresh portion of it is added, and then 
some sodium bicarbonate, when a violet coloration is produced which 
is unalterable in contact with the air and yields nothing to ether. On 
the addition of a few drops of a concentrated solution of iodine in 
hydriodic acid, the violet color passes into green, and the compound is 
soluble in ether with a purple color. This reaction is due to the forma- 
tion of apomorphia. Codeia gives the same reaction, but can be sepa- 
rated from the morphia by ether. 

Brucia treated in the same manner gives, on neutralization with the 
sodium salt, a blue coloration, passing into red on the addition of iodine ; 
but this reaction is not very delicate. — G. Pellagri, in Ber. d. deutsch^ 
Chem. Ges., from Phar. Cent. Halle, 1877, No. 47. 

Am F J eb U , r 'i8 > 7^ rm '} Gleanings from the Foreign Journals. 71 

Bitter Almonds. — The physiological investigations of Portes lead 
to the following results: 1. The developing bitter almonds contain 
amygdalin. 2. Their composition always differs from that of sweet 
almonds. 3. The embryo contains the emulsin. 4. The amygdalin, 
whose origin is still unknown, appears first in the integuments of the 
seeds ; and 5, passes gradually through the radicle into the cotyledons. 
— Compt. Rend., lxxxv, 81. 

The Volatile Acids of Croton Oil. — Besides stearic, palmitic, 
lauric and myristic acids, Schlippe had proven the presence of oleic, 
crotonic and angelicic acids, and Geuther and Frbhlich had observed 
in the mother-liquor of croton oil soap the presence of acetic, butyric, 
valerianic and tiglinic acids, regarding the latter as being probably iden- 
tical with the methylcrotonic acid of Frankland and Duppa. This 
identity has now been proven by E. Schmidt and J. Berendes. — Phar. 
Cent. Halle, 1877, No. 38. 

Copper in Olive Oil.— To detect copper in artificially colored 
olive oil, C. Cailletet advises to agitate 10 cc. of the oil with a solu- 
tion of 0"i pyrogallic acid in 5 cc. of ether. The presence of copper 
is indicated by a brown coloration. — Ibid., No. 46. 

Calomel in Corrosive Sublimate. — Mich. Schlesinger has re- 
peatedly observed that commercial corrosive sublimate would not com- 
pletely dissolve in water, but left a residue of calomel, which in one 
case amounted to '54 per cent. — Phar. Cent. Halle, 1877, No. 43. 

[We have not unfrequently met with the same impurity in the cor- 
rosive sublimate of our commerce. — Editor.] 

Solid Sulphuric Acid.— The chemical works of Stark, in Bohemia, 
have brought into the market the anhydrid of sulphuric acid, which is 
put up in soldered boxes of tinned sheet-iron. At the ordinary temper- 
ature, and when moisture is totally excluded, anhydrous sulphuric acid 
does not act upon metals, and, more particularly, upon zinc. In this 
condition the acid is particularly useful for the preparation of alizarin. 
— Ibid., No. 45. 

Arsenical Capping Paper.— J. B. Barnes directs attention to a 
magenta colored capping paper, which contains notable quantities of 
arsenic, and the color of which has evidently been prepared by oxidiz- 

72 Gleanings from the Foreign Journals. ^V^xs^™' 

ing anilin by means of arsenic acid. The bare suspicion of extraneous 
arsenic finding its way into medicine must be sufficient to insure its 
instant abandonment by those who have not already suspected that the 
paper contains arsenic. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., Oct. 27. 

Syrupus Ferri Phosphatis cum Quinia et Strychnia. — After re- 
viewing the literature on this preparation, and noticing the defects of 
the different formulas proposed for its preparation, Geo. Masson pro- 
poses the following, by which a colorless syrup may be readily obtained, 
of full strength and good keeping qualities. 1 

The syrup should be preserved from the air in bottles, well-filled 
and securely stoppered : 

R Strychnia, . . .24 grs. 

Quinias sulph., . . 860 grs. 

Ferri sulph., . . 4 ozs. 40 grs. ) 
Sodas phosph., . 12 ozs > Avoirdupois. 

Sacchari purif. contus., . 60 ozs. J 
Acid, phosph. dil., . 48 ozs. 

Dissolve the quiniae sulph. in aq. dest., with a sufficiency of acid, sulph. 
dil., precipitate with liq. ammon. q. s., collect on a filter, wash care- 
fullv, avoiding the use of too much water, and add to the acid, phosph. 
dil. in which the strychnia has been previously dissolved. Dissolve 
the ferri sulph. in Oii, and the sodae phosph. in Ov of recently-boiled 
distilled water, filter the iron solution if necessary to remove any oxi- 
dation, allow the solutions to cool to I30°F., and then add very grad- 
ually, with constant stirring, the solution of soda to the iron ; allow 
the precipitate to subside, remove the supernatant fluid and wash the 
ferrous phosphate by decantation with recently-boiled distilled water, 
then transfer to a calico filter, express quickly the remaining liquid, and 
dissolve in the dilute phosphoric acid. Finally, add the sugar, dissolve 
without heat, and subsequently add a sufficiency of distilled water to 
make the product measure 96 fluidounces, each fluidrachm of which 
wiil contain 1 grain phosphate of iron, 1 grain phosphate of quinia, and 
one thirty-secondth grain of strychnia. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., Dec. 22. 

1 Weights and measures of the British Pharmacopoeia. — Editor. 

Am. Tour. Pharm. 

Feb , 1878. 

Pills and Pill Coatings. 



By Charles Symes, Ph.D. 
Read bejore the Liverpool Chemists'' Association, November 22, 1877. 

The pilular form of medicine is one which has received considerable 
attention at the hands of pharmacists, and so much has already been 
written and said concerning it that a difficulty presents itself to me in 
bringing the subject forward to offer much that is really original ; I 
can, however, give some of the results of my experience, record and 
estimate certain known facts as they appear to me of more or less 
value, and thus submit my views of the matter which might not be un- 
interesting, inasmuch as we know by daily experience that just as the 
same ray of light falling on different bodies is either absorbed, trans- 
mitted or reflected, and these in different degrees, so the same phe- 
nomenon impinging on different minds is differently received and 
produces a different impression, or, as we commonly say, is seen from 
different points of view. 

The pill is a concentrated and portable form of medicine and often 
contains ingredients which would be exceedinglv nauseous if taken in 
a liquid state ; it requires no measuring out of dose and is thus exceed- 
ingly convenient ; we cannot, therefore, be surprised that it has become 
very popular, and that the skill of the pharmacist has been taxed to its 
utmost to bring into this form a large variety of substances, to enhance 
its keeping qualities by every conceivable means, and to cover it in a 
manner which at once renders it both elegant and tasteless. The first 
operation in the production of pills is of course that of weighing out 
the ingredients. I mention this because I fear it is not always as care- 
fully done as it might be ; often the same balances are used to weigh 
one grain and one hundred. Now as the knife edges will necessarily 
become somewhat blunted by these heavier weights, their delicacy will 
become impaired and they will thus be rendered unsuitable for weighing 
small quantities of active substances. For these I prefer the German 
balances with graduated beam and sliding weight or rider, capable of 
weighing from one-tenth to live or ten grains and not more; then for 
larger quantities or less potent substances the ordinary dispensing bal- 
ance weighing from a few grains to one hundred ; and for anything 
above this quantity a small well made pair of counter scales should be 
used. These latter will of course only be required when the patient 
wants a large supply, or for the manufacture of stock pills. 


Pills and Pill Coatings. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Feb., 1878. 

Sometimes the ingredients of a formula will, when mixed, them- 
selves form a mass suitable for dividing into pills ; but usually an excip- 
ient has to be added, and the proper selection of a suitable one consti- 
tutes the chief art in pill making. The list of excipients is somewhat 
lengthy in detail, but they may be summarized as follows : Glycerin 
of tragacanth, glycerin, treacle, syrup, mucilage, tinctures, spirit, water, 
confections, extracts ; powders of tragacanth, gum arabic, taraxacum 
root, bees'-wax, almond meal, soap, bread crumb, etc. Mr. Martin- 
dale has recommended a mixture of starch and glycerin, and Mr. 
Walter Searle a solution of soluble cream of tartar and citrate of 
potassa, to which is added syrup and mucilage. Whatever be the in- 
gredients or the excipients, it should be borne in mind that to attain 
satisfactory results a pill must resemble a building and contain constit- 
uents possessing the physical characteristics of both bricks and mortar ; 
these too, if possible, in such proportions as to produce a substantial 

Of the soft or plastic excipients in the foregoing list, glycerin of 
tragacanth is probably the most generally useful, as by means of it in 
small quantity we are enabled to get sufficient adhesiveness to bring 
solid particles, themselves devoid of that property, into a compact mass,, 
and cause them to cohere firmly together without imparting undue 
hardness or insolubility. Metallic oxides and salts are by it rendered 
most tractable, and a pill which would otherwise be very large is by it 
rendered quite within the average size. I produce samples of pills 
containing five grains bromide of potassium, and ten grains of subni- 
trate of bismuth respectively, neither of which are larger then a five 
grain colocynth pill. Glycerin itself, except in very small quantity, is 
not a good excipient though frequently prescribed ; pills containing it 
are liable to absorb moisture and become sticky ; they also do not take 
silver well when required so to do. Pills prepared with mucilage are 
liable to become very hard when kept for any length of time ; with 
spirit they require to be rolled off quickly or will become brittle and 
crumble on the machine. Spirit should never be used when there is 
much resin in the pill, indeed with this, as with the other liquid excip- 
ients named, most pharmacists will have ascertained the special cases to 
which they are best adapted as the result of experience. Of the ex- 
tracts that of liquorice is about the most useful, as it possesses no 
active medicinal properties * confection of roses and that of hips usually 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb., 1878. f 

Pills and Pill Coatings. 


tend to increase the bulk of the mass rather more than is desirable, other- 
wise thev possess good combining properties. It not unfrequently hap- 
pens that the ingredients of a prescription, instead of requiring mois- 
ture, have in themselves too little solidity to form or retain the pilular 
consistence ; we have, as it were, all mortar and no bricks wherewith 
to build. In such cases Mr. Proctor strongly recommends the addition 
of powdered wood ; he compares a pill to an animal, and says this sub- 
stance is real bone to it, which, doubtless is the case ; but in the face 
of the satire on the apothecary and his sawdust pills, I have never beer, 
able to reconcile my mind to its use. 

If the mass require but a small addition in the way of solidity and 
some elasticity, then a little powdered tragracanth answers admirably, 
but if the quantity be too great then the elasticity is also excessive and 
it becomes somewhat difficult to round off the angles under the pill 
finisher. If the mass is much too soft, and consists chiefly of moist 
extracts, the first thing to be done is to dispel some of the moisture by 
the judicious application of heat (for this purpose a very small hot- 
water plate is an acquisition to the dispensing counter), a little of some 
powder, such as tragacanth, gum arabic, liquorice root, or taraxacum 
might then be worked in, and the mass be rolled out quickly before it 
has thoroughly cooled. If the extract possess a hygroscopic nature,- 
such as that of dandelion, then tragacanth, which tends to dryness, 
answers well. But what I believe to be still better in the case of ex- 
tracts which are not injured by drying is to use them in powder. 

Pills containing much essential oil are best manipulated by the addi- 
tion of a few shreds of wax and a little powdered soap where not in- 
compatible \ this combination enables the operator to get in more oil, 
carbolic acid, creasote, etc., in a satisfactory manner than any other 
means I am acquainted with. Almond meal has also been recommended 
for causing oily and watery substances to unite ; it does so by its emul- 
sifying properties and would be very valuable but, unfortunately, it gives 
an insoluble character to the pill and thus impairs its activity. An ex- 
cipient formerly much prescribed, but about the worst I know of, is 
crumb of bread. 

Some substances require special excipients. I will only mention two 
of these — sulphate of quinia might be made into pills with confection 
of hips ; better, because smaller, with glycerin of tragacanth ; but, 
best and smallest with tartaric acid (about two grains to twenty) and a 


Pills and Pill Coatings. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Feb., 1878. 

single drop of water. Camphor and extract of henbane usually form 
a very refactory mass, breaking and crumbling on the machine ; if, how- 
ever, the camphor is powdered by the addition of a little water instead 
of spirit, all difficulty disappears, the mass retains its plastic condition 
for some time, and might be rolled out with perfect ease. 

Whatever means are used for the formation of pills, they should, 
when finished, be perfectly spherical and present a smooth, firm sur- 
face \ this is essential, not only for the sake of appearance, but for the 
proper performance of the second operation, viz., that of coating them. 

Reading a short extract from the " United States Dispensatory," of 
1833, will prove that even America, which has gone ahead so rapidly 
in pill coating as in most other things, contemplated nothing of the 
kind in those days. The method of covering pills with powders as 
there described was that which obtained in this country during my 
early initiation into the art and science of pharmacy some twenty years 
or more ago \ indeed, it is still practised in many, if not most phar- 
macies in the present day, a little of the powder also being placed in 
the box to keep the pills at a respectful distance from each other. The 
first improvementon this with which I becameacquainted was that adopted 
by myself in i860; possibly the same or similar methods might have 
been in use at the same time by others, but as far as myself was concerned, 
it was original (at least as original as ideas ever are), and very simple too. 
It consisted in utilizing a waste product, viz., the resin left after prepar- 
ing syrup of tolu ; this, dissolved in ether, preferably with a sp. gr. of 
•717 or '720, formed a varnish in which the pills were rolled and 
whilst still moist were transferred to a box containing finely powdered 
French chalk, then turned on to a warm pill tray and kept rotating for 
a short time \ finally they were polished with slight pressure under the 
pill finisher. Pills so prepared possess a steel grey appearance and 
smooth surface, though not the egg-shell white character now given 
them ; but this method of procedure or some modification of it is the 
first part of the process adopted for accomplishing the latter. 
' The pills are now placed in a covered pot as at first, and are mois- 
tened with syrup, mucilage or a mixture of the two ; when evenly 
covered they are transferred to a box containing French chalk, or a 
mixture of it and finely powdered sugar, well shaken and again trans- 
ferred to a warm pill tray, kept rapidly rotating until dry and smooth ; 
the operation taking but a comparatively short time. Well covered in 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 

Feb., 1878. 

Pills and Till Coatings. 


this way they will keep good for years. I have a specimen of some 
pills thus coated more than four years since ; on cutting them open they 
will be found less hard then they would have become in as many weeks 
if left exposed as these have been and uncoated. 

There is a drawback to this covering in the case of pills containing 
essential oils; the oil dissolves some of the coloring matter of the pill, 
and takes it through the coating which then becomes yellow or brown 
and unsightly* Manufacturers of these pills on the large scale usually 
get over this difficulty by substituting gingerine for any essential oil in 
the formula, but such a procedure is inadmissible in dispensing. 

Under these circumstances the covering recommended by M. Cal- 
loud ("Journal de Pharmacie," xxiii, 310) might be used with advan- 
tage; it consists of a powder prepared as follows : 

One part of powdered tragacanth mixed with two of water is pressed 
through muslin ; this is then mixed with twenty parts powdered sugar 
of milk and spread on a procelain slab in a thin layer to dry ; lastly, it 
is reduced to a fine powder. This is not easily accomplished, but I 
have found by experience that the excellence of this coating largely 
depends on the fineness of the powder. The pills are merely moistened 
with water and rolled in the powder, keeping up a rotary motion till 
dry, and repeating the operation if necessary. 

Pills of this kind also do well with gelatin coating, one of the oldest 
methods, and one which is now seldom used in this country, but the 
Americans still adopt it to some extent, and one house in New York 
advertises somewhat extensively a full line of gelatin-coated pills. 
The process is exceedingly simple, but like all others requires some 
amount of practice and dexterity for its successful accomplishment. 
The only necessary apparatus consists of a pin board, /. a piece of 
wood into which pins have been pressed, so as to allow the points 
to project a good distance above the surface, and a small vessel of 
melted gelatin. I generally use the French sheet gelatin — say four 
parts, water sixteen, glycerin one. The points of the pins 
should be slightly greased before placing the pills on them, and 
any scum or skin should be removed from the solution before dipping 
them ; when removed a rotary motion with occasional inversion is kept 
up till the gelatin has set, they are then put aside to dry. In the " Phar- 
macist " (March, 1877) Mr. Charles B. Allaire describes an ingenious 
little apparatus, which can be readily constructed for coating pills with 


Pills and Pill Coatings, 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 

t Feb., 1878. 

gelatin. A second piece of wood, the same size as the pin board, is 
so hollowed out in small hemispherical depressions as that one pill in 
each hollow corresponds with each pin in the pin board ; this is for 
the convenience of picking up a quantity at once. When dry, the 
whole are removed at once by a kind of comb with long teeth made to 
slide between the pins. 

According to the tabulated results of a number of experiments by 
Mr. J. P. Remington (" Amer. Journ. Pharm.") gelatin coating is 
not readily soluble, but the solvent used was only water, and even so 
could not apply to the coating containing glycerin. By a similar 
means Hawker's patent jujubes are covered, and I have never heard a 
customer complain of any difficulty in removing the coating ; it appears 
to be readily soluble in the mouth. 

Mr. E. K. Durden proposes (in the journal just quoted) to cover 
pills with collodion having a sp. gr. *8io ; two dippings in this are said 
to give an elegant appearance ; it is readily put on and completely con- 
ceals the taste of the medicine. Valerianate of zinc pills so coated, 
which is about as severe a test as we can apply, stands it moderately 
w.ell. It remains, however, to be proved how far this coating is solu- 
ble in the stomach. 

We now come to sugar coating. This process is conducted by 
manufacturers, especially in America, on an extensive scale, and seems 
daily to be gaining favor from the profession, the pharmacist, and the 
public. It possesses the advantages of a pleasant taste and ready solu- 
bility, and whilst there might be some doubt on the part of the patient 
as to the prudence of frequently swallowing pearl coating there certain- 
ly could be none on the part of the most fastidious as to taking a small 
quantity of sugar. This coating varies somewhat, however, and the 
purest sugar is not always used to produce the whitest coating ; still 
it might be done without any admixture. 

Numerous inquiries have been made of late as to the exact process 
to be adopted for satisfactorily accomplishing this object, the usual reply 
being, " Follow the practice of the confectioner in the production of his 
comfits," about which I may add there is but one secret. The process 
is simply this : pills well dried on the surface are introduced into a tinned" 
copper bowl with a flat bottom, or enameled iron dish, the surface of 
which has been moistened with syrup or with syrup and gum 5 they are 
then rotated and gently heated, very finely powdered sugar is dusted on, 

Am Feb U , r :2 P 7 8 arin '} The Saponin of Sarsaparilla. 79 

and the motion kept up until a perfectly dry, hard and whitish coating 
is obtained, the operation being repeated till the desired result is accom- 
plished — which with the pharmacist in his first attempt is usually not the 

But now for the secret. We have followed the method of the con- 
fectioner in its outline ; but what about his skill and experience ? These 
are just the things wanting ; the confectioner would be a very clumsy 
hand at producing the pill, the pharmacist is usually equally so at sugar- 
coating it ; the confectioner could be educated to make the pill and the 
pharmacist to coat it with sugar if he would only apply his ability, gain 
experience by perseverance, and keep up by practice his acquired 
knowledge. A gentleman writing to the u Pharmaceutical Journal " 
a short time since, complained of what he considered to be want of 
courtesy on the part of certain Americans respecting a little apparatus 
for sugar-coating small quantities of pills. The truth is, I believe, that 
the said apparatus is to be found in every pharmacy ; it is simply the 
knowledge of how to use it that is not. 1 

Lastly, we have silvering as an elegant coating readily applied. It is 
mentioned in the old " United States Dispensatory " as a thing of the 
past, but is frequently used in the present day. I need say little or 
nothing about its application. Avoid the use of glycerin as an excip- 
ient in the pill, put as little moisture on the surface as will enable the 
silver to adhere, and burnish by rotating in a covered pot containing a 
little cotton wool to remove any loosely attached fragments of silver 
leaf. — Pharm. Jour, and Trans., Dec. 15, 1877. 


By Professor Fluckiger. 2 
Galileo Pallotta was the first chemist who attempted the separation 
of an active principle from sarsaparilla. His work appears to have 
been done early in the present century, shortly after the discovery of 
the first alkaloids. By treating the aqueous extract of the root with 
milk of lime, drying the precipitate, and boiling the alcohol, he 
obtained a substance that he claimed to be an alkaloid and named 

the "Amer. Jour. Pharm.," May, 1867, there is an article by Mr. H. C. 
Archibald, on " Sugar Coated Pills." 

2 Abstract of article in the "Archiv der Pharmacie," 3d series, vol. vii, p. 532. 


The Saponin of Sarsaparilla. 

(Am. Jour. Phorm. 

t Feb., 1878. 

u pariglina," or " parillina " ; it is difficult, however, from Pallotta's 
meagre description 1 to form an idea of the properties of this body. 
According to a note in the " Pharmaceutische Zeitung," of the 2d of 
May last, Dr. Pallotta, who is a Professor of Natural Science at 
Naples, is still of opinion that in his pariglina he discovered an alka- 
loid. Whether or not it was a more or less pure form of the consti- 
tuent of sarsaparilla hereafter referred to, Professor Fluckiger con- 
siders that Pallotta's name, parillin, should be retained for the special 
crystallizable body found in that root. Subsequent investigators called 
this body " smilacin," bv which name it has gradually become gene- 
rally known. That both alkaline and acid properties should have been 
attributed to this substance by various authors was due, probably to 
the presence of impurities, which, however, are easily removed by 
recrystallization. Parillin is decidedly a neutral body. Strangely, it 
is occasionally confused with a body yet uninvestigated, probably a 
stearoptene, said to occur in the root of Hemidesmus indicus^ R. B., 
which has been called Indian sarsaparilla, although it does not resemble 
the Smilax root. 

In 1859, ^ me ^ n stated that parillin is decomposed by acids into 
sugar and a substance insoluble in water, a statement that has been 
questioned by others. Some experiments carried out in the author's 
laboratory by Klunge also pointed to the glucoside nature of parillin 
but doubt was not altogether dispelled, because the unaltered parillin 
itself reduces alkaline cupric tartrate, though very slightly. For these 
reasons Professor Fliiekiger considered an examination of parillin desir- 
able, in order at least to ascertain whether it was a glucoside. Mean- 
while, this point was decided last year by Otten, 2 who, however, looks 

1<£ Journal de Pharmacia," x, 543. 

2 " Vergieichende histiologische Untersuchung der Sarsaparillen aus der pharma- 
cognostischen Sammlung des pharmaceutischen Instituts zu Dorpat, nebst einem 
Beitrage zur chemischen Kentniss dieser Drogue." Dorpat, 1876. In the latter 
part of this exhaustive treatise, which is too long for insertion entire in this jourual, 
and unsuited for abstraction, Herr Otten identifies a second substance present in 
sarsaparilla with saponin, and from his experiments arrives at the conclusion that 
parillin has an action similar to, but not so strong as that of saponin, and that it is 
sapogenin plus sugar. DragendorfFhas already pointed out that saponin and senegin 
affect the heart's action more energetically when impure than pure, and Otten sug- 
gests that the action of these allied bodies, as well as of parillin, is dependent upon 
another body always occurring together with them. — Ed. Pharm. Journ. 

Am FS r x878 harm "} The Saponin of Sars afar ilia. 8 5 

to Professor Fliickiger to carry on the investigation. Professor Fliick- 
iger suggests that, in order to facilitate a comparison of the nearly 
allied, if not identical, substances, saponin and parillin, a more exact 
investigation of the former, prepared from cheaper materials, should 
be undertaken by others, he himself dealing with the sarsaparilla 
"saponin" or parillin. 

The following method of preparation is recommended as preferable 
to that given in " Pharmacographia." The chopped and bruised sarsa- 
parilla root is heated at least twice with alcohol of about 0*835 sp. gr.^ 
the liquid poured off and the marc pressed, and the product distilled 
until the residue in the retort equals one sixth, or rather less, of the 
weight of root used. The liquid, which is strongly colored, but not 
particularly thick, is diluted gradually with one and a half times its- 
weight of water, which causes the formation ot a light yellowish loamy 
precipitate of crude parillin. The liquor is allowed to stand some 
days in the cold, after which the very dark brown clear liquor can be 
decanted off. With the deposit is then mixed about half its volume 
of alcohol, the mixture is filtered, and the precipitate washed 
with very dilute spirit, containing about twenty to thirty per cent, 
by weight of alcohol. This operation depends upon parillin being 
less soluble in dilute spirit than in ordinary alcohol or in water, 
it being precipitated from an alcoholic solution by the addition of water, 
or from an aqueous solution by the addition of spirit. In alcohol of 
sp. gr. 0*835 it is freely soluble. Although freely soluble in boiling 
water, and very slightly soluble in cold water, it crystallizes best from 
alcohol. Prepared in this way, after treatment with animal charcoal, 
the parillin is obtained pure white, either in thin scales or prisms, 
showing a double refraction in polarized light. 

In several experiments with different kinds of sarsaparilla, working 
with about 4 kilograms of root, the author obtained about 0*18 to O'lg 
per cent, of pure white crystallized parillin. Some more parillin can 
be obtained by concentrating the mother-liquor and precipitating with 
a little water, or boiling it with alcohol. This second yield, however, 
is less readily purified, it becoming mixed with sodium chloride, which 
occurs plentifully in all aqueous extracts of sarsaparilla. The author 
failed to obtain parillin from the root stock of Smilax aspera or from 
China root, but the quantity operated on was small. Marquis reports 
("Archiv d. Pharm.," ccvi, 342) that he obtained 1*75 per cent, from 
sarsaparilla, 5*12 per cent, from Smilax aspera, and over o*6o per cent, 
from China root. 

Air-dried parillin contains water of crystallization, which it loses at 
I00°C. ; but different experiments gave results varying from 6 to 12 
per cent. At about 140 it cakes together, melts with partial decom- 
position at about 210 , and acquires a strong brown color by further 
heating. Melted parillin readily takes fire, and burns quietly after the 


82 The Saponin of ' Sar sap ar ilia, {^t^s™' 

removal of the flame, but it is difficult to effect a perfect combustion 
of the light charcoal at first produced. Pure crystallized parillin is 
almost insoluble (about I in 10,000) in cold water, but a solution pre- 
pared with boiling water remains supersaturated after it has become 
cold. It dissolves at 25°C. in 25 parts of alcohol, sp. gr. 0*814, and 
much more freely in boiling alcohol, crystals separating from the latter 
on cooling. Parillin dissolves in warm chloroform to a thin liquid 
which cannot be filtered, and yields upon evaporation no crystals, but 
only an amorphous varnish, which, however, can be recrystallized 
from hot alcohol. 

Parillin does not seem to be provocative of sneezing, like saponin 
from quillaia, cyclamen and other sources is. Solid parillin has not an 
acrid taste ; an alcoholic solution has more acridity than an aqueous 
solution, but incomparably less than saponin solution. No effects 
were observed to follow the use of such solutions of parillin. Parillin 
in alcoholic solution has no rotatory action and does not color litmus 

Parillin gives with strong sulphuric acid a pure yellow solution that 
becomes of a beautiful cherry-red at the edges, due to dehydration. 
With dilute sulphuric acid (10 per cent.) it becomes greenish when 
heated ; kept in a water-bath it gradually becomes a beautiful red and 
finally brown. Phosphoric acid acts similarly, but gives more of a 
yellow-green color. The addition of nitric acid, nitrates or bromine 
to the sulphuric acid solution produces no special color. 

An aqueous solution of parillin gives with an alcoholic, but not with 
an aqueous solution of acetate of lead, a precipitate again soluble in 
excess of the lead salt or of alcohol. No precipitate is produced by 
-subacetate of lead or tannic acid. In the cold a solution of parillin 
does not reduce alkaline cupric tartrate, but at 8o° or 90 a separation 
of cuprous oxide takes place in a few hours. But it produces no sepa- 
ration of metallic bismuth from a solution of bismuth tartrate in caustic 
alkali even after prolonged heating in a water bath. Boiled with dilute 
sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, and the filtrate neutralized, it freely 
reduces cupric tartrate in the cold after a short time, and with the least 
warmth immediately. It is, therefore, evident that parillin is a gluco- 

The parigenin produced by the decomposition of parillin with dilute 
mineral acids is perfectly insoluble in boiling water, so that it can be 
readily separated and washed. It is probable that the sugar separated 
is at least partially crystallizable. 

During the decomposition of the parillin by dilute mineral acids the 
liquid acquires a strong green fluorescence. The fluorescence is still 
more marked when parillin in solution in chloroform containing alcohol 
is decomposed with dry hydrochloric acid gas. This liquid is at first 
colorless, and does not develop heat, but suddenly becomes brown by 
transmitted light and full green by reflected light. Upon the addition 

Am. jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb v 1878. j 

The Saponin of ' Sar sap ar ilia. 


of water, or evaporation of the alcohol and chloroform, white flocks 
of parigenin are formed whilst sugar remains in the solution. As in 
similar cases the fluorescence of parillin is very persistent. An 
unweighable quantity heated with a few drops of strong sulphuric acid 
in a water-bath gives a liquid that can be diluted with 100 cc. of acid 
without losing its fluorescence, but dilution with water causes its imme- 
diate disappearance. After saturation with ammonia the liquid does 
not again show the green shade. In this behavior and the color parillin 
gives with a little sulphuric acid in the cold lie the best means at 
present known for its detection. It is noticeable that the " saponin " 
of digitalis, to be presently mentioned, Schmiedeberg's digitonin, also 
gives this fluorescence, but not cyclamin. Three analyses of parillin 
(smjlacin) given in Gmelin on the authority of Henry, Peterson and 
Poggiale, agree fairly well with the figures obtained by Klunge in two 
analyses. But Professor Fllickiger believes that these specimens were 
contaminated with parigenin. Parillin dissolved in warm water, which 
does not take up parigenin, filtered, and reprecipitated by alcohol, gave 
between 2 and 3 per cent, less corbon, or as a mean of three analyses, 
Q— 60*4 ; H=9- Three other analyses of another sample gave the 
following figures, showing still less carbon : 

C ... 57*66 56-80 56*4 

H . . 8-27 8-3 

These figures appear to show a remarkable relation between parillin 
and the saponin prepared by Rochleder, Schwarz and von Payr from 
the u soap-root " erroneously attributed to Gypsophila Struthium, which 
had the formula C 64 H 106 O 36 . If this formula be written C 32 H 53 18 , the 
next lower in a homologous series of " saponins" would have the for- 
mula C 31 H 51 18 . Possibly this is the place of the " saponin " found 
by Schmiedeberg in commercial digitalin, and named " digitonin " ; he, 
however, attributed to it the formula C 31 H 52 O ir Should there really 
be a homologous series of " saponins," the eighth step upwards from 
Rochleder's saponin would be the compound C 32 H 53 18 -|-8CH 2 — 
C 40 H 69 O 18 . This would require 57*3 per cent, of carbon, and 8*2 per 
cent, of hydrogen, figures not irreconcilable with those obtained in the 
last three analyses of parillin, whilst the mean of the previous three 
analyses would agree with the formula of a saponin C 32 H 53 18 -f-i6CH 2 
=C 48 H 85 18 , which would require 60*7 per cent, of carbon and 9 per 
cent, of hydrogen. Subsequently, however, Rochleder has published 
the formula C 32 H 54 18 for his saponin, which agrees better with the 
results of its decomposition, and also pretty closely with the saponin 
prepared by Christophsohn from Levant soap root, quillaia bark, Sapo- 
naria officinalis and Agrostemma seeds, which he believes to be identical 
as obtained from all four sources. As, however, this would only 
slightly alter the hydrogen, it is not inconsistent with the homologous 
nature of the "saponins." From these and other considerations it 
appears probable that there exists a series of saponins with the general 
formula C n H 2n - 10 O 18 . 

8 4 

Test for Santonin. 

/Am. Jour. Phanc. 
\ Feb., 1878. 

Sapogenin and parigenin produced, with sugar, when saponin and 
parillin are split up under the influence of acids, are closely allied, as 
is also cyclamiretin resulting from the decomposition of cyclamin, and 
possibly they are also homologous. — Pharm. your, and Trans. [Lond.],, 
Dec. 23, 1877. 


By David Lindo. 

Place the santonin in a small deep porcelain dish, and dissolve it 
(without heat) in concentrated sulphuric acid \ rubbing the crystals 
down with a glass rod greatly facilitates solution. Add highly dilute 
solution of ferric chloride in small quantities' at a time, and between each 
addition give the dish a pretty quick rotatory motion while it is sup- 
ported on a table. A fine red color is first developed, which changes 
to a magnificent purple, and then to a splendid violet as the sulphuric 
acid becomes more dilute. The heat produced by mixing the fluids is 
necessary to develop the colors. 

When applying the test to small quantities of santonin, a somewhat 
difFerent method of proceeding must be adopted. The experiment in 
this case is best performed in a one-inch shallow porcelain capsule, with 
a thick, flat bottom. Mix the highly dilute solution of perchloride of 
iron with an equal bulk of concentrated sulphuric acid, and add the 
mixture to the santonin. Heat must then be cautiously applied. The 
crystals of santonin will slowly dissolve, and the color will be developed- 

The capsule is conveniently supported on the blade of a spatula, and 
heated by a spirit lamp. 

One drop of a solution of 1 grain of santonin in 1 fluidounce of 
chloroform was evaporated to dryness in a small capsule, and the resi- 
due heated with a drop of the perchloride of iron and sulphuric acid 
mixture. A very fine reaction was obtained. 

The separation of santonin, however, from other organic matters 
would, in most cases, be very difficult, and, in many instances, an im- 
possible thing to accomplish, owing to the facility with which it sufFers 

In trying the experiment of separating santonin, by means of chloro- 
form, from a powder containing rhubarb and santonin, I noticed a thing 
which I have not seen mentioned before. The chloroform separated 
from the powder by filtration was evaporated to dryness, and the resi- 
due tested for santonin. The violet color was obtained very distinctly. 
I then tried the effect of the test fluid on the coloring matter of rhu- 
barb alone, as I noticed this is dissolved by chloroform. The test pro- 
duced a reddish color, not the violet or purple color of santonin. 

Thinking that in the case of rhubarb the iron had nothing to do with 
the reaction, I next tried the effect of concentrated sulphuric acid alone 
on the coloring matter of rhubarb. I found it produced a beautiful 

Am Feb u > r ^7 h 8 arm ' 1 Minutes of the College. '8 5 

scarlet color : this is much the same effect (as is very well known) pro- 
duced by alkalies on the coloring matter ; and when the latter has been 
turned red by an alkali an acid restores it to yellow. — Cbem. News, 
Nov. 16. 

Falmouth, Jamaica, Oct. 6, 1877. 


Philadelphia, Twelfth month 31st, 1877. 

A Stated Meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held this day 
at the Hall of the College, No. .145 North Tenth street. 

Dillwyn Parrish, President, in the chair 5 eighteen members in attendance. 

The minutes of the meeting in September last were read and on motion approved. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for the last three months were read by the 
Secretary of the Board, and on motion adopted. 

These minutes show that the Board has appointed Thomas S. Wiegand Actuary 
of the College, who will be in attendance daily during the Lectures from 3 to 5 
and from 6 to 10 o'clock P. M., to discharge the duties of Librarian, Curator, etc. 

A report of a committee appointed by the Board to adopt a By-Law specifying 
the duties of the Actuary, and which had been referred to the College for its action, 
was read and laid over under the rules for consideration at the meeting in March 

William C. Bakes, Secretary of the Pharmacopoeia Committee, stated that the 
committee had entered upon their duties and that they had met jointly with similar 
committees of the Philadelphia County Medical Society, and the College of Physi- 
cians of Philadelphia; that work had been laid out and arranged for the sub-corn - 
unittees, and would be attended to in due season. 

Then adjourned. William J. Jenks, Secretary. 


Philadelphia, January 15, 1878. 

The fourth pharmaceutical meeting of the series wss held this day at the College 
hall, President Dillwyn Parrish calling the meeting to order. The minutes of the 
last meeting were read and approved. 

Mr. A. P. Brown presented a copy of the Proceedings of the New Jersey Phar- 
maceutical Association, and Prof. J. M. Maisch, on behalf of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association, presented a copy of the Twenty-fifth Annual Report of 
their Proceedings, also the Year-Book of Pharmacy, from the British Pharmaceu- 
tical Conference. 

On motion, the Registrar was directed to return thanks for said donations to the 
different bodies and preserve the volumes in the library. 

Professor Maisch called the attention of the meeting to the black root of Georgia 
(Pterocaulon pycnostachyum, Ell.), James 1 tea (Ledum latifolium, Lin.), the rheu- 
matism root of Virginia (Dioscorea villosa, Lin.), the black haw of Florida (Vibur- 
num obovatum, Walt.), specimens of which plants and drugs were exhihited to illus- 
trate two papers read by him, entitled "Notes on a Few American Drugs" (see 

86 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting, { A Veb u ''iM arm ' 

page 53) and "The Useful Species of Viburnum" (see page 53) ; the papers were 
referred to the Publication Committee. 

Mr. E. M. Boring exhibited a plant used by an empiric in the cure of cancer 5 it 
was recognized by Professor Maisch as Ceanothus Americanus, Lin., and'is called 
American tea, New Jersey tea, or red root, because that is the color ot the root. 
It was made use of largely during the American Revolution, by our ancestors, in 
place of the true tea. Some time during the years 1863 or 1864. some enterprising 
individual, who had become familiar with the manner of preparing and drying tea 
in China, commenced the trade of packing this in a similar manner, at the same 
time circulating through the newspapers that the tea plant grew largely in certain 
sections of our country 5 for a time the trader prospered, but, as it was not tea, it 
soon fell into disuse. 

The subject of the impurities in chloral hydrate was mentioned at the last meetings 
and was now called up, and discussed by Messrs. Boring, Maisch and others. 

Mr. Boring stated that he had mentioned the subject at the last meeting in order 
that the members would give it some of their attention, and that we could compare 
notes at this one. His attention was directed to the subject by a paper of Professor 
Liebreich, which stated that only such chloral should be used as was in crystals and 
perfectly dry. He stated that all the crystal chloral in our market adhered to the 
side of the bottle, but that one sample gave no evidence of uncombined chlorine,, 
while in another the evidence was decided ; both samples reddened moistened litmus, 
paper suspended in the bottles. He had no trouble with it practically, had had no 
complaints, but wanted to be sure that he was dispensing an article that came up to- 
the standard of the authorities on the subject. If they give a false standard, from 
improper motives, they should be exposed. 

Prof. Maisch remarked that of late years he had not had much practical experi- 
ence with chloral ; but from earlier experiments he was convinced that the shape of 
the crystals was no criterion of its purity, that pure chloral hydrate had a slight 
acid reaction, and that the density of the white vapors produced with a glass rod 
moistened with ammonia was largely influenced by the temperature. The practice 
of giving a little information about physical properties for the purpose of influencing 
trade was carried on in Europe as well as here 5 he did not believe that absolutely 
pure chloral hydrate had as yet been put into the market, and he was strengthened in 
this belief by the transactions of the Berlin Apothecaries' Society, where this ques- 
tion was incidentally ventilated. Of late, chloral chloroform, that is, chloroform 
made by the decomposition of chloral, had been bruited in Germany as the only 
article worthy of confidence for its purity, but the researches that have been insti- 
tuted by Schacht and Bilz upon this claimed superiority of chloral chloroform had. 
shown it to be entirely erroneous, as the chloral chloroform when treated with, 
sulphuric acid became discolored very speedily, like the chloral from which it had 
been prepared, which is not the case with absolutely pure chloral, or with the chlo- 
roformum purificatum of the Pharmacopoeia. 

Dr. A. W. Miller exhibited some authentic herbarium specimens of plants gath- 
ered by Dr. J. F. Rothrock, Professor of Botany in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, during an extended tour through the Western portion of our country. True 

Am Feb U , r i8 > 7 8? rm " } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 87 

damiana, that from which the original description of Turnera aphrodiciaca was 
taken, and two specimens of Aplopappus, yielding also so-called damiana, were 
shown. Three specimens of Eriodictyon were shown, all of them indiscriminately 
called Yerba santa. 

Prof. Maisch stated that the specimens heretofore described as E. Californicum 
had the leaves somewhat different from those shown and a characteristic appearance 
of being varnished upon the upper surface. A specimen of the latter will be sub- 
mitted to Prof. Rothrock, who had very kindly offered to loan any specimens he 
had for the purpose of exhibiting at the pharmaceutical meetings. 

Prof. Maisclvstated that he had been examining different samples sold as Gnn- 
delia robusta, and concluded that probably three species are sold as such, and that 
much of it is G. squarrosa 5 he hoped that he would soon be able to report more 
fully upon the matter. 

Prof. Maisch presented specimens of Florida oranges, having upon their rind what 
is called " rust," of a greenish brown appearance, and occasioned, as it seems, by a 
fungoid growth 5 it is stated that the same tree, in different years, will produce fruit 
sometimes thus affected and at others free from this defect. 

The subject of obtaining the various products of the orange is one that might 
well engage the attention of those living in our extreme Southern States 5 already 
the juice of the sour orange has been utilized as a source of citric acid, and oil of 
petit grain, superior to almost any ever offered in our market, has been brought into 
commerce from this section, and there would seem to be no good reason why the 
volatile oils of lemon, orange and neroli, and orange flower water of excellent 
quality should not be produced there also. 

The preparation of bay rum was discussed for a short time, and elicited some 
remarks throwing light upon the subject. One formula, which produced an excel- 
lent article, was as follows: Four pints of alcohol, three pints of water, one pint of 
Jamaica rum, one drachm of oil of bay and twenty drops of oil of pimento ; a few 
drops of aqua ammonia? gives the requisite color to a whole gallon 5 some members 
employ a little less of the oil of myrcia. 

On motion of Mr. Boring, the Registrar was directed to return, through Dr. 
Miller, a vote of thanks to Prof. Rothrock for his kindness in offering the loan of 
herbarium specimens to our College. 

The use of various fixed oils was suggested for consideration at the next meeting. 

On motion, adjourned. T. S. Wiegand, Registrar, 


The Boston Druggists' Association held its second annual meeting January 22. 
The reports from the various officers were read, and show the Association to be in 
a healthy condition. It has made efforts, and will continue them, with the view of 
securing the repeal of the proprietary stamp tax during the present session of Con- 
gress. The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : President, Dr. 


88 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, { A Ve°b?i8 7 h 8 arm * 

Thos. L. Jenks 5 Vice Presidents, Nathaniel J. Rust and Jos. Burnett ; Executive 
Committee, A. Sigourney Bird, Thos. Doliber, Thos. Restieaux, Wm. S Folger, 
Chas. C. Goodwin, Joel S. Orne and Geo. T. Sears ; Secretary, William F. Horton; 

Treasurer, Samuel A. D. Sheppard. 

The annual dinner was subsequently served in Parker's large dining hall, about 
seventy participating in the festivities, which, to judge from the toasts offered and 
the spirited manner they were replied to, must have been highly enjoyed by all. 

Alumni Association of the Massachusetts College of Pharmncy. — The regu- 
lar monthly meeting was held at the College rooms, January 3d, President Kelley in 
the chair. 

Mr. Bartlett showed an apparatus for coating pills nvith gelatin, consisting of 
needles fastened in wood with points upward. The pills, when made, are stuck 
severally on the points of the needles, and then holding the block of wood in the 
hand, all the pills are dipped at the same time into the coating solution of gelatin. 
Mr. Bartlett had found by experiment that this solution could best be made as fol- 
lows: French gelatin, 6 troyounces ; water, 2 pints ; dissolve by heat, and to the 
hot solution add 1 oz. alcohol ; cover immediately very tightly to prevent escape of 
alcohol vapor, and allow to cool with occasional agitation. The alcohol is simply 
for the purpose of preserving the preparation. The pills should be dipped six times 
into the solution, which should be very hot and liquid. Allow each coating of 
gelatin to dry thoroughly before putting on the next. This usually requires sev- 
eral hours. 

Prof. Markoe read an extract from Mohr, Redwood & Procter's Pharmacy, page 
509, showing that substantially this process was used years ago, and that the alleged 
claim of certain manufacturers to any proprietorship in the process was unfounded. 

Discussion here ensued as to the proportion of gelatin to be used. In the article 
read by Prof. Markoe, the proportion was 1 part gelatin to 2 parts water. Mr. 
Lincoln and others thought that for extemporaneous use a single dipping in a solu- 
tion of gelatin would be the best plan. Mr. Bartlett stated that such had not been 
his experience. Thick or cool solutions of gelatin were apt to be stringy. Mr. Bart- 
lett closes up the hole made by the needle by applying gelatin solution with a camel's 
hair pencil. 

A long and lively discussion here ensued as to the use by educated pharmacists 
of coated pills, fluid extracts and such like goods, made by the large manufacturers. 
The general feeling was that we should discourage the use of all goods that cannot 
be tested easily by the pharmacist, to determine the quality, etc. 

Several gentlemen took the ground that we should not attempt to make any sweeping 
statements relative to these goods, because it is a well-established fact that all goods 
can be made as well, and cheaper, on the large scale ,• that the large manufacturers have 
already obtained such a hold on the trade of the country that we should turn our 
attention more to regulate their practices, by buying goods only of those men who 
have proved themselves honest, paying them a fair price rather than to condemn all 
these goods by the wholesale. The objection of insolubility was acknowledged by 
all to be a serious one against the use of coated pills, more especially old sugar- 
coated pills. 


Am Fib u f r i8^ arm '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 89 

The subject of reduced iron came up, the remark being made that there was a 
marked difference in the appearance of that usually bought by the pound and that 
imported in small half-ounce bottles. Prof. Markoe referred to an article by J. 
Creuse, published in the Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
1874, an d suggested that the grey sample was more likely to be purer than the black. 

The selling at retail by wholesale druggists, and the offering of fancy goods by 
dry-goods dealers at lower prices than those at which they can be procured by most 
pharmacists, were discussed at some .length, and various plans suggested as remedies 
for the growing evils, but none seemed to meet the general favor. 

Messrs. Sheppard and Markoe gave an account of their recent visit to the labora- 
tory of Dr. Squibb, and of a new form of percolator 1 used by him ; and after some 
routine business the Association adjourned. 

Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The fourth 
social meeting was held Thursday, January 3, President Mattison in the chair. 

Mr. Trimble read a paper on the percentage of iron and chloride found by him 
In the various makes of solution of dialyzed iron (see page 60), and Mr. Herman 
Betz one on the preparation of sapo viridis (see page 65). 

Mr. Mattison referred to two cases of poisoning by chlorate of potassium, one 
in which 300 grains were given in solution daily. On the fourth day toxic symp- 
toms were produced, incessant vomiting was followed by death. In the other, 1 oz. 
was taken to prove its harmlessness ; death occurred on the seventh day. 

He also submitted an interesting article on the comparative value of some anti- 
ferments, those chosen being salicylic and benzoic acids, and sodium bisulphite ; the 
result was largely in favor of benzoic acid (see page 62). Dr. Miller stated that 
it was taking the place of the former acid with the brewers, who use it to a great 

Specimens of fine imported pomades were shown by the same, and processes given 
for extracts to be made from them. An informal quiz on the Latin noun termina- 
tions followed ; then adjourned to meet February 7. 

Wallace Procter, Secretary. 

Cincinnati College of Pharmacy.— At the regular meeting, held January 9, the 
following officers were elected to serve for the ensuing year : President, George 
Eger 5 Vice President, F. L. Eaton 5 Recording Secretary, A. W. Bain ; Corres- 
pondidg Secretary, Louis Schwab 3 Treasurer, Chas. Faust \ Trustees for one year, 
F. L. Eaton, H. H. Koehnken, Dr. R. M. Byrnes, John Weyer, and for six months 
to fill unexpired term of the newly elected President, Dr. T. L. A. Greve. 

The Paris Society of Pharmacy — About twelve months since it was mentioned 
in this journal that the wish of the widow of the late Professor Gobley, to present 
a sum of money to the Societe de Pharmacie, had suggested the proposition of 
securing the recognition of that Society as an " kablissement d'utilite publique" so 

] We hope soon to be able to publish a full description of this, in our opinion, very valuable contrivance. 
— Editor. 

90 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { A %{° b u ^f 7 h s? rm- 

that it might be enabled legally to receive gifts of money from its members or others. 
This proposition was unanimously agreed to, and at a meeting held on the 4th of 
April, 1877, a committee was appointed to report on the subject. This it did in the 
following month, and then took the requisite steps to communicate with the gov- 
ernment officials for the purpose of obtaining the desired object. A decree has 
now been issued by the President of the Republic granting the privilege sought, and 
confirming the modified statutes which had been drawn up to suit the altered 
circumstances of the Society. From among these statutes the following is selected as 
indicating in a general way tlie nature of the Society. 

The object of the Society is defined to be the establishment of intimate relations 
among the pharmacists of France and of foreign countries as well as to improve 
the art of pharmacy and to advance the sciences which relate to it. The number 
of Members is limited to sixty, resident in Paris, besides which there are twenty 
Associates and one hundred and twenty Provincial Correspondents 5 the number of 
Foreign Correspondents as well as that of Honorary Members is not limited. 

One of the necessary steps to obtain the recognition of the Government was the 
presentation of an historical account of the Society, setting forth its origin, organi- 
zation, object, and the services it had rendered. From this it appears that the 
Society took its origin as a consequence of the suppression of the old College of 
Pharmacy, together with other trade guilds and fraternities, in 1791. The business 
of the pharmacist being thus thrown open to all without the necessity of special 
education, accidents became frequent, and gave rise to so many complaints that the 
Committee of Public Health, then presided over by the celebrated Dr. Guillotin, 
applied for and obtained a decree reviving the law and regulations relating to phar- 
maceutical education as well as to the preparation and dispensing of medicines, To 
quote the report, " The two years of anarchy which preceded this step served at 
least to teach a lesson that should not be forgotten, for they furnished in a high 
degree evidence of the necessity of regulating the practice of pharmacy by special 
laws. It was in vain that the freedom of trade was invoked, since it was out of 
place, and the interests of the public health ruled the whole discussion of the 

Subsequent to this decree the pharmacists of Paris, including, amongst other 
names eminent in science, Vauquelin, Pelletier, Bouillon le Grange, Le Canu and 
Parmentier, formed themselves into a voluntary society, having the object of pro- 
moting the progress of science, and especially of pharmacy, chemistry, botany and 
natural history. In 1797 the Directory recognized this Society under the title of 
the Free School of Pharmacy. Subsequently the title was changed to that of the 
Society of Pharmacy of Paris, its constitution and statutes being almost the same as 
those of the present day. 

In 1^09 an important step was taken in the establishment of an official organ of 
the Society under the title of the " Bulletin de Pharmacie," which in 1815 became the 
"Journal de Pharmacie et des Sciences Accessoires," and this in its turn was suc- 
ceeded in 1842 by the "Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie.'" 

As regards the connection that exists between the teaching organization and the 
scientific society it is mentioned that the former rarely exists without being accom- 
panied by the latter. In this manner, in France, the Academy of Medicine is the 

Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
Feb., 1878. / 



necessary corollary of the faculty of medicine, whilst the Society of Pharmacy 
bears ths same relation to the Superior School of Pharmacy, and the provincial 
societies are in like manner associated with the local schools. 

Since 1830 the Society has had the good fortune to have the position of Genera^ 
Secretary filled by Robiquet, Soubeiran and Buignet, whose contributions to science 
have entitled them to hold a high place amongst its cultivators. Other members of 
the Society have also contributed largely to the advancement of chemistry and its 
application, amongst whom may be named Serullas, Boullay, Pelouze, Robinet, 
Serturner, Pelletier, Caventou and Berthelot, who also belonged to the ranks of 
pharmacy, and only a few weeks since exchanged his position of Resident Member 
for that of Associate. 

Among other services rendered by the Society of Pharmacy was the part taken 
at the Medical Congress in 1845, which, upon that occasion, placed the section of 
pharmacy upon a level with the section of medicine. The excitement caused 
among French pharmacists in the following year by the promulgation of the ordon- 
nance relating to the sale of poisons induced the Society of Pharmacy to appoint a 
Commission for the purpose of demanding its revision, and it was successful in 
effecting this object. 

In 1863, when, a new edition of the Codex was in preparation, six members of the 
Society were appointed members of the Commission charged with this duty. At 
the same time the Society divided its sixty resident members into twenty sub-com- 
mittees for the purpose of revising the mode of preparation and conservation of one 
or other class of medicaments, thus lending by virtue of their special competence 
an effectual support to the Commission, to the Academy of Medicine, and to the 
School of Pharmacy. 

More recently, in response to applications from the provinces, a commission of 
five members was appointed to define the composition and preparatiou of new 
remedies, in regard to which there was want of uniformity and consequent incon- 
venience to medical men, pharmacists and patients. The report of this Commision 
has recently appeared in this journal. 

In addition to these claims to be regarded as a " society of public utility " numer- 
ous prizes have been conferred for essays on subjects connected with abstract and 
applied science, among which may be mentioned those of Bussy on animal char- 
coal, Fremy on the pectous and gelatinous substances of fruit, and Pasteur of tar- 
taric and racemic acids. — Phar. Jour., Dec. 29, 1877. 


Preliminary Revision of the Pharmacopoeia. — The Committee on Preliminary 
Revision of the Pharmacopoeia appointed by the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
met for organization in September last, and elected Alfred B. Taylor chairman and 
William C. Bakes Secretary. The committee decided to meet semi-monthly, and 
a joint meeting is held every two months with the committees appointed by the 
College of Physicians and the Philadelphia County Medical Society. A series of 

9 2 Editorial. {^IZ^""' 

questions, prepared by Mr. A. B. Taylor on behalf of the committee of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy, are being considered by the several committees. 

ist. Shall the present Pharmacopoeia be so altered as to include only one alpha- 
betical arrangement in the whole work ? This has been adopted affirmatively. 

2d. Shall the description of physical properties of drugs and chemicals be extended ? 
If so, how far ? Botanical? Chemical? This was also adopted. 

3d. Shall the formulas for the manufacture of chemicals be omitted (with the ex- 
ception of those preparations where different results are produced by different pro- 
cesses), and descriptions of the substances be substituted, with tests of identity, 
purity, etc. ? This was also adopted. 

The committee have agreed to abandon measures of capacity and substitute parts 
by weight, and to propose that a posological table of active drugs be placed in the 
back of the book ; that the latest chemical symbols and equivalents be given, and 
that the temperature be stated in degrees of Centigrade and Fahrenheit scales. 

The committee favor the introduction of powdered extracts, and that all fluid 
extracts represent grain for grain. 

On the part of the committee of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, the work 
has been divided among the following sub-committees : 

Materia Medica— John M. Maisch, C. L. Mitchell, W. B. Webb. 

Chemical Formulas — Chas. Bullock, Chas. Spannagel, A. B. Taylor. 

Chemical Descriptions and Tests — A. W. Miller, R. Fairthorn, Ed. Gaillard. 

Fluid Extracts, Tinctures, Wines, Oleo Resins, etc. — I. J. Grahame, S. S. Bunting, 
A. Robbins. 

Plasters, Extracts, Liniments, Mixtures, etc. — J. P. Remington, H. G. Jones, 
Wallace Procter. 

Syrups, Powders, Pills, Troches, Suppositories, etc. — J. T. Shinn, W. C. Bakes, 
Thos. S. Wiegand. 

At the last joint meeting the following resolution was adopted : That no weights 
or measures be introduced into the formulary of the United States Pharmacopoeia 
except when required for convenience of dose, and that then the weights be in 
grains with the corresponding metric weights in brackets. 

Most of the points alluded to above have also been discussed and decided by the 
committee appointed for the same purpose by the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, and if they should be agreed upon by other medical and pharmaceutical 
societies undertaking the preliminary revision of the Pharmacopoeia, it may be taken 
for granted that the results of their labors, when presented to the Decennial Phar- 
macapoeia Convention in 1880, will agree in so many respects that the final revision 
may be accomplished in a much shorter time than heretofore. 

Italian Pharmacopoeia.— Italy has, as yet, no national pharmacopoeia, a com- 
pilation by Prof. Orosi having been generally employed. But the want of a recog- 
nized standard is felt, and we learn from the " Pharm. Zeitung," that a commission 
for preparing such a pharmacopoeia has been appointed by the government, and 
organized at Rome, October 2d, 1877, under the presidency of Senator Cannizaro, 
Professor of Chemistry in the University at Rome 

Pharmaceutical Legislation in Pennsylvania. —We learn from the daily papers 
that on January 22, Hon. Mr. Ringgold, of Philadelphia, introduced a bill to regu- 

Am .Jour. Pharm. 1 
Feb., 1878. J 

Editorial. — Reviews, etc. 


late the practice of pharmacy and sale of poisons, and to prevent adulteration of drugs* 
etc.) in Pennsylvania. At the time of going to press we have not yet received a copy 
of the proposed bill, nor have we been able from inquiries made in Philadelphia to 
learn its provisions or by whom it was drafted. It being a matter which concerns 
all the pharmacists in the State, it is but proper that they should be heard in relation 
to the proposed measure. The number of States in which pharmacy laws apply to 
the entire State is gradually becoming greater, and will doubtless ultimately embrace 
the whole territory of the United States. The pharmacists should, therefore, be 
watchful, so that the coming legislation may be wisely guided towards the great aim 
of such measures, viz., full protection of the public without being oppressive upon 
the pharmaceutical practitioner. In our opinion, the present would be a fit occa- 
sion for calling a convention of Pennsylvania pharmacists at the State Capital, and 
for the permanent organization of a State pharmaceutical association 5 and, in fur- 
therance of this object, we renew our suggestion, made in the May number last year, 
that the pharmacists of Harrisburg take the matter in hand and call such a conven- 
tion at an early date. From the experience in other States, we judge that there will 
be no difficulty in Pennsylvania to establish a useful and influential organization. 

Correspondents will greatly oblige the Editor by giving their correct address, s<v 
that replies may reach them. Several letters were recently returned in consequence 
of this omission 

Correction. — In the list of graduates of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
recently published, the name of Mr. George Blinkhorn, a graduate of the class of 
1857, was inadvertantly omitted. William C. Bakes, 

Secretary Board of Trustees* 


Tear-Book of Pharmacy ,• comprising Abstracts of Papers relating to Pharmacy,. 
Materia Medica and Chemistry contributed to British and Foreign Journals from 
July 1, 1876, to June 30, 1877; with the Transactions of the British Pharma- 
ceutical Conference at the Fourteenth Annual Meeting, held in Plymouth, Aug., 
1877. London: J. & A. Churchill, 1877. 8vo, pp. 653. 
Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at the Tujenty-fifth Annual 
Meeting, held in Toronto, Ont., Sept., 1877 Philadelphia: Sherman & Co., 
Printers, 1878. 8vo, pp. 647. Price, by mail, bound, $6.50. 
We are enabled to notice the publication of these annuals at the same time, each 
one having been distributed a little over four months after the close of the respec- 
tive annual meeting. We have on former occasions discussed the merits and 
intrinsic value of both publications, and it remains only to state that those before us 
come fully up to what may be reasonably expected of them. If we should wish for 
any improvements, it would be, in the Year-Book, a more systematized arrangement 
and briefer abstracts of some of the papers, and in the Report on the Progress of 
Pharmacy of the "Proceedings," more extended notices of some of the researches. 
It is obvious that such annual reports cannot be intended to entirely supercede the 
consultation of the original papers, but that they should rather furnish the full out- 


Reviews, etc. 

< Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 Feb., 1878. 

line of all more important observations, leaving to those who may be specially inter- 
ested, to procure the journals or works containing the papers in extenso. As to what 
constitutes such proper "abstracts" must necessarily be decided by individual 
-views, and in a number of cases the British and American reporters differ very con- 
siderably in the extent or limitation of these abstracts. 

The papers read before both associations are quite creditable, though a difference 
is here, likewise, noticeable. While our British brethren are treated with quite an 
array of strictly scientific investigations, the papers presented to the American Associa- 
tion are preponderantly of a practical character, though such of a more heavy calibre 
are by no means wanting. 

Of the two associations, the British, which is the youngest, is the more pros- 
perous, having enrolled almost double the number of members than its older sister. 
Moreover — and we are pleased to put it on record — the Conference has had on hand 
at the close of its financial year, June 30, 1877, a cash balance of over £65 besides 
an investment of £400, of which the annual interest only is used. In addition 
thereto there is a separate fund, known as the Bell and Hills library fund, which 
was started in 1869 by Mr. Thos. H. Hills, and now amounts to £200, which sum 
is invested, the interest being used for presenting to the pharmacists of the cities and 
towns in which the Conference may meet, ten guineas'" worth of books, as an addi- 
tion to or nucleus for the formation of a library where the assistants or apprentices 
may assemble for the purposes of study and mutual improvement. The total 
amount invested by the British Conference is therefore $3,000. 

The financial condition of the American Association has been plainly discussed at 
the last meeting; the investments amount only to about $575 — the exact figures not 
being given — and to an additional donation of $525 conditionally made at Toronto. 
If these conditions are fulfilled, that js, if at least an equal sum be contributed by the 
next meeting, with the view of aiding scientific investigations, the investments will be 
swelled to about $1,700, or perhaps $2,000, the interest on nearly all of which will, 
however, be available only for special purposes, and not for the general expenses of 
the Association. It has proved to be a wise policy to establish at an early date a 
reserve fund, which has enabled the Conference to again devote from the general 
fund £60 for the purchase of material to be used for scientific research. 

The financial prosperity of the Conference is in the main due to the large num- 
ber of promptly paying members. There is room for improvement with us 5 hun- 
dreds, even thousands of eligible persons remain unconnected with the " Associa- 
tion,"" while they should be members, not only for the purpose of promoting its 
objects, but, likewise, because they would be directly benefitted to a much larger 
extent than the amount of the annual dues. The " Report on the Progress of Phar- 
macy " in the one and the " Year-Book " in the other publication, are and should 
be familiar desk companions of the pharmacist. It is to be hoped that the Amer- 
ican Pharmaceutical Association may in a short time not merely have representa- 
tives in all the States of North America, but enrol among its members the large 
majority of the reputable pharmacists, whether in business on their own account, 
employed by another or retired from business. 

The American Pharmaceutical Association has 24 honorary members, all except 
two being residents of Europe. The British Pharmaceutical Conference has 17 
honorary members, of whom eight reside on the North American continent. Mr. 
Carlos Murray, Buenos Ayres, included in the list, is, we presume, Professor Carlos 
Murray who died there in July, 1874. 

The Philadelphia Druggist and Chemist, devoted to Materia Medica, Pharmacy, 
Chemistry, Therapeutics, and the Collateral Sciences. C. C. Vanderbeck, M.D., 
Ph.D., editor and proprietor. 8vo, monthly. Price, $150 per year. 
This neatly printed journal, the first number of which is before us, is introduced 

by the editor as follows : 

"In these days there seems to be no end of journal-making, and at the appear- 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Feb., 1878. J 

Reviews, etc. 


ance of each new one the question is asked, For what good or purpose? With this 
issue we present to our readers and friends our * new-born.' Is there a niche for 
us to fill r We feel assured there is; otherwise the issuing of the 'Druggist and 
Chemist 1 would never have advanced beyond the mere conception. The number 
of pharmaceutical journals in the United States are comparatively few; in Philadel- 
phia but one. Our field is of such a character, and so different from that of the 
* Journal of Pharmacy,' that we can safely say that we occupy an unclaimed posi- 
tion in this city." 

The number contains brief original articles on resin of podophyllum, manufac- 
ture of pepsin, syrup of ipecac, excipients, and on eye diseases of the poor; also 
translations, editorials, abstracts, etc., covering altogether 19 pages, and followed by 
a full price current. The latter, together with such business as concerns the prac- 
tical druggist, is in charge of Mr Evan T. Ellis. 

We wish this new claimant for support a long career of usefulness and prosperity. 

A Guide to Chemical Testing; designed for Medical and General Use, and expressly 
arranged for Practical Study in Schools and Colleges. By J B. Hough, M.D., 
Professor of Chemistry and Toxicology in the Miami Medical College of Cin- 
cinnati, etc. Cincinnati: Printed by the Cincinnati "Lancet" Press, 1877. 8vo, 
pp. 102 

The preface tells us that "this little manual was prepared expressly to meet the 
wants of those who have but little time to give to practical chemistry"; and that "it 
is not designed as a reading or reference book, nor as a substitute for any of the 
excellent large works upon the same subjects, but as a table manual or guide to 
practical laboratory work." This object has been kept in view throughout the 
work, but we should wish the author to have stated the common conditions under 
which the reactions occur or fail, such as acidity or alkalinity of the solutions, and 
the application of heat. It is not necessary, and in a work of this kind impossible, 
to "explain every involved and collateral point," and we have no fear "of convert- 
ing the pupil into a mere memorizing machine" by calling attention to such condi- 
tions. In ^[ 36 and 41, for instance, it is merely stated that stannous and stannic 
compounds are precipitated by (NH 4 ) 2 S, and in \ 43, that for cadmium the reagents 
for tin may be used and the results compared 

The book contains two chapters on urinalysis and on the detection of inorganic 
and organic poisons, which will prove very convenient and valuable, also a number 
of useful tables. 

A commendable feature is the use of convenient and expressive nomenclature ; 
we entirely agree with the author, when he states in the preface : " Such terms as 
dihydric sulphide, hydric sulphate, hydric hydrate, etc., not only sound affected 
and pedantic, but are less convenient than their common names." 

Medicinal Plants; being Descriptions with Original Figures of the Principal Plants 
employed in Medicine, and an Account of their Properties and Uses. By Robt. 
Bentley, F.L.S., and Henry Trimen, M.B., F.L S. Philadelphia: Lindsay & 
Blakiston, 1877. Part xxiv. Price, $2. 

The part of this valuable work now before us contains excellent plates and 
descriptions of the following plants: Cassalpinia bonducella, Roxb. (the bonduc 
seeds of India, used as an antiperiodic), Elettaria cardamomum, Maton, Euphorbia 
resinifera, Berg., Ferula scorodosma, Bent, and Trim, (the Persian asafcetida plant), 
Hydrocotyle asiatica, Lin. (Indian pennywort, an alterative tonic), Peumus boldus, 
Molina (the boldo of Chili, used as a tonic and stimulant to digestion), and Rheum 
palmatum, Lin. 

We acknowledge the reception of the following reprints of researches conducted 
in the laboratory of Prof. Dragendorff, at Dorpat : 

96 Reviews, etc.— Obituary. {^Z'Sff^ 

Ueber die Bestandtheile des Mutterkornes. (On the Constituents of Ergot.) By 
Prof. DragendorfF. 

Zur Formel der Frangulinsdnre. (The Formula of Frangulic Acid.) By E. 

Bestimmung der Alkaloide in den Chinarinden. (Estimation of the Alkaloids in Cin. 
x chona Barks.) By Edwin Johanson. 

Ueber die Alkaloide des Delphinium staphisagria. (On the Alkaloids of Stavesacre 

Seeds.) By Provisor Marquis. 
Ueber Calcaria Phosphorica. (On Calcium Phosphate 5 see "Amer. Jour. Phar.," 

1877, P- 5 12 ) By E. Hirschsohn. 

Etude sur les terebenthines et specialement sur la terebenthine de Bordeaux. (On the 
Turpentines, and especially on the Turpentine of Bordeaux.) By Albert 

This is a creditable thesis, presented to the Superior School of Pharmacy at 

The reception of the following pamphlets is hereby respectfully acknowledged : 

Contributions to the History oj Medical, Education and Medical Institutions in the 
United States of America, 1776 — 1876. Special Report, prepared for the United 
States Bureau of Education by N. S. Davis, A.M., M.D. 

Higher Medical Education, the T rue Interest of the Public and of the Profession. Intro- 
ductory Address by Wm. Pepper, M D., Professor of Clinical Medicine in the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

Higher Medical Education — The New Departure in Medical Teaching in the Univer- 
sity oj Michigan. Introductory Lecture by A. B. Palmer, A.M., M D., Prof, of 
Pathology and the Practice of Medicine. 

Medical Chemistry and Toxicology. An Address delivered before the International 
Medical Congress at Philadelphia, September, 1876, by Prof. Th. G. Wormley,, 
M.D., etc. 

Note sur la formation de Vacide oxalique pendant la destruction des matures animates? 

par le procede de Fresenius et Babo. (On the Formation of Oxalic Acid during the 

Destruction of Animai Matters by the Process of Fresenius and Babo.) By M. 

Edm. Van Melckebeke, D.Sc, Pharmacien, etc., Antwerp. 
Etude sur les liquides pathologiques de la cavite peritoneale. (On the Pathological 

Liquids of the Peritoneal Cavity.) By Dr. C. Menu, Pharmacien, Paris. 
On Keratitis bullosa. By Dr. M. Landesberg, of Philadelphia. 

What Anasthetic shall we Use ? By Prof. Julian J. Chisholm, M D., Baltimore. 

(Argument in favor of chloroform.) 
Cholera Infantum— Treatment of the Cold Stage. By E. F. Wells, M.D., Minster, O. 
Aiken as a Health Station. By W. H. Geddings, M.D., Aiken, S. C. 
The Annual Medical Directory of Regular Physicians in the State of Illinois for the 

Year 1878. By F. A. Emmons, M.D., Chicago, 111. 


James A. Taylor, a prominent and highly respected druggist and apothecary of 
Atlanta, Ga , died at Hot Springs, Ark., Jan. 14, at the age of 49 years, 1 month, 
and was buried at Atlanta, Jan. 17. At the latter place the deceased had been in 
business for over 25 years. 




MARCH, 1878. 


By Emil Scheffer. 

(Read at the February Pharmaceutical Meeting of the Louisville College of Pharmacy.) 

The different views regarding the composition of dialyzed iron, of 
whose preparation a great deal has been written in our periodicals for 
the last twelve months, induced the writer to make a series of experi- 
ments which will no doubt throw some light on the subject and also 
show the relation of peroxychloride of iron, dialyzed iron and catalytic 

By precipitating a solution of ferric chloride with ammonia, the pre- 
cipitate differs according to the quantity of ammonia used as precipi- 
tant. Ammonia added as long as a precipitate is formed yields an 
oxychloride, and the liquid above the precipitate has acid reaction. 
Ammonia added carefully until the supernatant liquid has become per- 
fectly neutral produces a more basic oxychloride. Ammonia added to 
excess yields a precipitate free of chlorine but containing ammonia. Of 
these three pecipitates the two first ones are soluble in water, the third 
one is insoluble. 

In the following experiments 300 cc. of the officinal ferric chloride 
solution were diluted with water to 1,500 cc, and 150 cc. of this 
dilute solution were taken for each experiment. The ammonia was 
also diluted with water, but spec. grav. was not taken, as it was not 
deemed necessary. 

a. To 150 cc. of the dilute ferric chloride solution dilute ammonia 
was added, in small quantities at a time, to saturation, that is, to the 
point at which a further addition of ammonia produced a permanent 
precipitate. To effect this, 81*3 cc. of ammonia were required; the 
smallest quantity of ammonia added now produces a copious precipi- 
tate, and on an addition of 1*7 cc. more, or about two per cent, of 


98 Liquor Ferri, Peroxy chloride of Iron, etc. {^jfe!}^ 

the quantity needed for saturation, all iron was precipitated, while the 
clear, colorless liquid above the precipitate showed acid reaction. 

The same experiment was repeated, but to the mixture obtained 
after the addition of respectively 81*3 and 1*7 cc. of ammonia, am- 
monia was added to perfect neutralization of the supernatant liquid, 
6 cc. being required, making the total of ammonia 89 cc. Although 
the liquid is perfectly neutral, the precipitate is not pure ferric oxide, 
but contains still a considerable quantity of chlorine. 1 

The precipitate of washed several times by decantation, until on 
addition of fresh water it settles slowly and remains suspended for a 
long time, is then collected on a filter and after thorough draining 
washed carefully with small quantities of water at a time. The liquid 
passes through very slow and assumes, after a time, a yellowish color, 
which becomes deeper yellow by continued washing ; the precipitate 
on the filter changes thereby its appearance, shrinks considerably, and 
obtains at last a darker brown, almost black, color, and has the consis- 
tence of a jelly. When all the precipitate is converted into a black 
jelly, which in thin layers is transparent and of a deep garnet-red color, 
the wash water no longer passes through the filter unless a very large 
quantity is above the precipitate, when it may happen that it dissolves 
at once, forming a black-red liquid. If the jelly is taken from the 
filter, a small quantity of water added to it is sufficient to dissolve it 
entirely after some time. The solution has, in reflected light, a pure 
black color, dissolves in more water to a transparent deep red solution, 
is neutral, but still contains ammonium chloride, as the jelly forms 
before it is all washed out. 

A second precipitate, obtained in the same way, was, after draining 
ofF the supernatant acid liquid, subjected to dialysis. In the same 
degree as the acid and ammonium chloride is removed, the precipitate 
in the dialyzer changes at first into a jelly-like black mass and after- 
wards into a turbid thick liquid of the consistence of cream. Taken 
then (after three weeks) from the dialyzer, it dissolves on the addition 
of a little water, after a few days, to a perfectly clear, thin liquid, of a 
brownish-black color. 

By using more ammonia than is necessary to precipitate the iron, 

1 By calculation it was found that 92*6 cc. of the ammonia were necessary to bind 
all the hydrochloric acid in 150 cc. of this dilute ferric chloride solution. 

Am M J a rT'i8 > 7 h 8 arm '} Liquor Ferri, T *eroxy chloride of Iron, etc. 99 

precipitates are obtained, which are also soluble in water, provided that 
ammonia was not added in excess. The more ammonia is used the 
more basic the precipitates will be ; these have the advantage that the 
ammonium chloride can be more perfectly removed by washing before 
the precipitates begin to dissolve, which is evidenced by the yellow 
color of the filtrate, so that they may be washed until the filtrate 
becomes merely opalescent on addition of silver nitrate, or keeps per- 
fectly clear. It is of the greatest importance that these more basic 
precipitates be as free as possible from ammonium chloride, since a 
small quantity prevents their solution. (It is the presence of ammo- 
nium chloride, also, that causes the gelatinization of solutions of the 
less basic oxychlorides.) 

These more basic precipitates do not form a jelly after being thor- 
oughly washed, but finally form a thick blackish syrupy liquid, which 
when taken from the filter gives, on addition of a little water, a very 
turbid mixture, and, on standing several days, a thin clear liquid, of a 
brownish-black color, or they only change their color by washing to a 
somewhat darker but not black hue, without losing much of their 
bulkiness. This is the case with the precipitates that were removed 
from a neutral supernatant liquid. After they are washed until the 
filtrate remains clear on addition of silver nitrate, the precipitates are 
taken from the filter and transferred with a little water into bottles, so 
that they can be shaken from time to time. The color of the mixture 
is then reddish-yellow or reddish-brown, but darkens from day to day 
as the precipitate enters solution. In the course of several weeks a 
clear thin liquid, of brown color, is obtained. A temperature of 8o° 
to 85°F. accelerates the solution of the precipitates, while a much 
higher temperature prevents it. 

A few experiments were made by adding to the precipitates, in per- 
fectly neutral liquids, respectively one-half and one per cent, of the 
ferric solution. Under frequent stirring the mixture was allowed to 
stand for two days, after which the washing was commenced, and con- 
cluded finally on a filter, as above mentioned. 

The writer gives below the results of the analyses of different prep- 
arations obtained by the above-explained methods, the analyses being 
made as follows : 

The solutions were thoroughly mixed with an excess of pure sodium 
carbonate and evaporated to dryness. After dissolving the excess of 

loo Liquor Ferri y Peroxy chloride of Iron, etc. { Am - M J a r u ; x £ 7 t rm * 

sodium carbonate and the sodium chloride in water, the filtrate was 
acidulated with nitric acid, and the amount of chlorine determined with 
a tenth normal solution of nitrate of silver ; the ferric oxide was cal- 
cined and weighed. 

a. Solution of precipitate obtained with 81*3 + 1 7 cc. ammonia — "490 Fe 2 Cl 3 -f- 
•061 Cl=*44i Fe 2 3 -f-*0953 Fe 2 Cl 3 — 82-6 per cent. Fe 2 3 -f- 1 7 4 per cent. Fe 2 Cl 3 . 

b. Solution of precipitate obtained with 8i*3+three times i'j cc. ammonia — 
•365 Fe 2 3 -f-*o248 Cl=*346 Fe 2 3 -f-*o385 Fe 2 Cl 3 =9o per cent. Fe 2 3 -fio per cent. 
Fe 2 Cl 3 . 

c. Solution of precipitate obtained with 8i'3+four times 1-7 cc. ammonia — 
♦614 Fe 2 3 -r--o382 Cl=*5853 Fe 2 3 +'o583 Fe 2 Cl 3 =9i percent. Fe 2 3 -f9 per cent. 
Fe 2 Cl 3 . 

d. Solution of precipitate obtained with 8i'3-f-4*5 times 1*7 cc. ammonia — 
•411 Fe 2 3 -|- 0223 Cl=*3942 Fe 2 3 + 034 Fe 2 Cl 3 =92 per cent. Fe 2 3 -f-8 per cent. 
Fe 2 Cl 3 . 

e. Solution of precipitate obtained by adding 1 per cent, of ferric chloride solu- 
tion to the precipitate caused by 89 cc ammonia — '455 Fe 2 3 -f 0308 Cl=*43i8 Fe 2 O s 
+ •047 Fe 2 Cl 3 =9o-2 per cent. Fe 2 3 -f- 9 -8 per cent. Fe 2 Cl 3 . 

f. A precipitate formed by adding to 150 cc. of the ferric chloride solution 91*5 
cc. of ammonia, and washed until the filtrate remained perfectly clear on addition 
of silver nitrate, gave on analysis — '416 Fe 2 3 -f- oo6o2 Cl=*4ii5 Fe 2 3 -f-oo9i7 
Fe 2 Cl 3 =97-83 per cent. Fe 2 3 -]-2 , i7 per cent. Fe 2 Cl 3 . 

This precipitate was transferred to a bottle, with a little water, and 
is shaken occasionally. At the date of this paper it has stood a little 
over seven weeks, during which time over three-fourths of the original 
precipitate has dissolved. The writer is fully convinced, to judge from 
its appearance, that it will ultimately dissolve entirely. 

g. Another precipitate, obtained with a little more ammonia than f gave — '424 
Fe 2 3 and '00318 CI. 

This precipitate has, at the date of this paper, not shown the least 
sign of ever dissolving, although it has stood as long and been shaken as 
often as f. 

For comparison, the writer has examined several commercial prepara- 
tions of dialyzed iron : 

I. -604 Fe 2 3 -|- , o37i Cl='576 Fe 2 3 -f--o57 Fe 2 Cl 3 =9i per cent. Fe 2 3 -f"9 per 
cent. Fe 2 Cl 3 . 

II. -255 Fe 2 3 4--oi2 7 5 CI— 2454 Fe 2 3 +-oi 9 47 Fe 2 Cl 3 = 9 2-6 per cent. Fe 2 O s -f 
7-4 per cent.Fe 2 Cl 3 . 

III. -534 Fe 2 3 -r- -0203 Cl= 5187 Fe 2 3 +-o3i Fe 2 Cl 3 =9 4 -4 7 per cent. Fe 2 3 4- 
5*53 per cent. Fe 2 Cl 3 . 

Am Ma°r U , r i8^ arm '} Liquor Ferri, Per oxychloride of Iron, etc. 101 

IV. -274 Fe 2 3 +-oi2 5 Cl=-z646 Fe 2 O y +'oi9i Fe 2 Cl 8 =93'3 per cent. Fe 2 3 -f 
6*7 per cent. Fe 2 Cl 3 . 

Dr. Hager's Liquor ferri peroxychlorati, which he prepares by dissolv- 
ing the ferric hydrate obtained from 115 parts of ferric chloride solu- 
tion in 10 parts of the same ferric chloride solution, contains, when 
all the ferric hydrate is dissolved, 85 per cent. Fe 2 O a and 15 per cent. 
Fe 2 Cl 3 . No doubt a more basic preparation could be realized by Dr. 
Hager's method, that is, by dissolving ferric hydrate in ferric chloride 
solution, if the ferric hydrate were perfectly pure. But, as his ferric 
hydrate always contains ammonia, which cannot be removed by wash- 
ing, this ammonia forms, when the precipitate is added to the ferric 
chloride solution, ammonium chloride, which sets a limit to the solu- 
tion of ferric oxide. The basicity of this preparation stands in inverse 
ratio to the quantity of ammonium chloride in it. 

Dr. Wagner, the originator of dialyzed iron, does not communicate 
the method for making his later preparation, the catalytic iron, but 
asserts that it is not made by dialysis, and that it takes three months to 
make it. To judge by this, the supposition might not be far from 
wrong, that it is a solution of a basic oxychloride precipitate, obtained 
as above explained. The writer could not obtain any of Dr. Wag- 
ner's catalytic iron, and therefore cannot say how much chlorine it 
contains in proportion to the ferric oxide ; that it does contain chlorine 
Dr. Hager has fully proven. 

The above experiments teach us that the preparation of a perfectly 
pure ferric hydrate is very difficult, almost impossible, as in one case 
it is apt to contain chlorine, in the other ammonia. They prove that 
the precipitate of oxychloride of iron is soluble in pure water, and that 
in its more basic combinations it is only soluble when free of saline 

They likewise prove that a solution of very basic oxychloride can 
be prepared without dialysis, and that the product may be made to con- 
tain a less per cent, of chlorine than that found in the best commer- 
cial sample of dialyzed iron examined by the writer. 

By referring to the precipitate of experiment it becomes evident 
that the* solvent power of ferric chloride on ferric hydrate has a limit. 
This indicates at the same time that a pure ferric hydrate will not dis- 
solve, and that in all the different iron solutions, whether they be called 
peroxychloride, dialytic or catalytic, the ferric oxide is kept in solution 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

Mar., 1878. 

by ferric chloride. As the proportion of these two ferric compounds 
can be changed at will, a chemical combination of them cannot be well 
thought of. 

Louisville, February, 1878. 


By Richard V. Mattison, Ph.G. 
(Read at the Alumni Meeting, February 7.) 

It would be a matter of curious interest to know how many times 
in the past few months the question, What is dialyzed iron ? what do 
you mean by dialyzed? has been asked and answered; answered in 
many instances, we fear, in a very unsatisfactory manner, since the 
explanation of the true meaning of dialysis escapes many because of its 
very simplicity. It means simply separation ; a separation which differs 
from filtration, however, in this respect : that, while the latter is a 
separation of soluble from insoluble substances, the former is a separa- 
tion of substances soluble in the same media in common, but differing 
from each other in their different difFusibility. By diffusibility we mean 
the power possessed by certain bodies of passing through animal or 
vegetable membranes. With gases this diffusive power has long been 
well known, and Graham long ago laid down the rule that " the diffu- 
sive power of all gases, simple and compound, varies inversely with the 
square root of the density of the gas itself." 

The diffusive power of solids follows no definite rule. Solids of the 
same chemical constitution diffuse with the most unequal velocity ; for 
instance, if we make a dense solution of a mixture of sodium and potas- 
sium chlorides, and pour carefully on the solution a stratum of distilled 
water, in a few hours the latter will contain a large proportion of the 
potassium chloride, but scarcely a trace of the sodium salt. The 
ammonium chloride diffuses still more rapidly, hence it is readily seen 
that the rate of diffusion, or, if you will, dialysis, varies without appar- 
ent cause. To a certain limit, which is found in practice to average 
about 5 per cent., differing, however, with different salts, the rate of 
diffusion increases with the density of the solution, and hence the fact 
that chemical solutions, e. g., the mixture of ferric chlorides and oxy- 
chlorides, dialyze rapidly at first, but afterward more slowly. 

We are all familiar with the diffusion occurring in the porous cell of 

Am. Jour. Pharm.) 

Mar., :2;8. J 



a galvanic battery ; but is it necessary, in order that diffusion shall 
occur, that the septum or membrane shall be porous ? Not in the 
ordinary acceptation of the term, at least, as diffusion or dialysis takes 
place most rapidly through structureless basement animal membrane, 
where, with the most carefully -corrected objective, we are unable with 
the highest powers of a microscope to differentiate a single stoma ; or, 
as perhaps a more simple instance, we may take Lhermite's experiment 
in illustration, viz. : A tube was partly filled with chloroform, upon 
this was poured a column of water, and above this was placed a column 
of ether. After standing a short time, the ether had passed entirely 
through the stratum of water and become mixed with the chloroform. 
Or again, we can illustrate this diffusion through a non-porous septum 
by taking a stratum of sulphuric, acid in a tube, above it one of water 
and above this a solution of blue litmus in alcohol. In a short time the 
litmus will be reddened through the diffusion of the acid into the alco- 
hol. Now, in these experiments it is obvious that water is not in any 
sense a porous medium, and hence we dismiss any theory having the 
porosity of membranes as its foundation. 

Let us now note the various circumstances that modify or increase 
this peculiar property, and primarily stands the fact that a liquid to 
diffuse or dialyze must be capable of " wetting " the interposed mem- 
brane ; for, of course, if the liquid is of such nature that it cannot be 
imbibed by the membrane no dialysis can occur, or if only one liquid 
is capable of wetting the membrane, then dialysis will only occur in 
one direction, viz., from this liquid. 

Liquids to be proper subjects for dialysis should be perfectly misci- 
ble with each other, or if salts, they should be dissolved in a common 
medium, and of all media water is the best. The solutions should be 
of different densities, though this is not indispensible, as solutions of 
different substances of the same density will dialyze perfectly, though 
with less rapidity. 

Again, liquids pass more rapidly through some animal membranes 
from within outward, than vice versa, as, for example, from the interior 
of a bladder or a stomach outward, the current being always strongest 
on the side presenting the epithelial surface, but a discussion of this, 
though exceedingly interesting, is rather a digression from the proper 
subject of this paper. 

The rate of diffusion is accelerated by a moderate increase of tem- 
perature, hence dialysis is best performed at a moderate temperature. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ Mar., 1878 

To a proper understanding of dialysis, it is important that all idea of 
chemical action shall be disassociated from it. We have before us a 
circular on Dialyzed Iron, stating that the mixed solution of ferric 
chloride and oxychloride, when brought into the dialysator, is decom- 
posed, hydrochloric acid passing through the membrane, leaving behind 
a solution of ferric hydrate. Of course, this is incorrect, but it is the 
circulation of just such statements which makes it necessary to disas- 
sociate all idea of chemical action from dialysis, as in the instance above 
quoted the ferric chloride is dialyzed, or in other words, simply separ- 
ated from the non-dialyzable ferric oxychloride, leaving the latter 
remaining in the dialysator. 

All soluble substances may be divided into two classes, viz., those of 
high diffusive power, embracing nearly all those crystallizable, which 
are hence called crystalloids, and those of low diffusive power or non- 
diffusible, of which albumen is a good example, these being called 
colloids ; these latter are generally amorphous in character. 

This may be exemplified by breaking the shell of an egg at one 
extremity without rupturing the membrane, and inverting it in a wine- 
glass of distilled water. After a few hours the saline constituents of 
the egg will have passed through the membrane, while the albumen 
will be found to have passed through the membrane very slightly, if at 
all. There is obviously here no chemical reaction ; it is evidently 
simply a separation, or in other words, a true dialysis. When this 
albumen is acted on by pepsin it is converted into albuminose, which 
possesses, curiously enough, the property of dialyzing or passing through 
the membrane with extreme facility. 

Boiled starch does not dialyze, while glucose dialyzes very rapidly, 
hence starchy and albuminoid food cannot dialyze, or in other words, 
cannot be absorbed until after being digested. 

The recently-formed protoplasm passes through the millions of cell 
walls of the ducts of plants by the law governing dialysis, the differ- 
entiated protoplasm remaining to increase the cell walls, and the salts 
and undifferentiated protoplasm passing through the walls of the cells, 
which, after all, are only like so many basement structureless membranes. 

Salicylic acid is purified by passing through the membrane, the 
gummy resinous matter, which so tenaciously adheres throughout 
repeated crystallizations, is mostly removed by dialysis, the pure acid 
passing through the membrane being separated or dialyzed from the 
colloid or uncrystallizable contamination. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ") 
Mar., 1878. J 

Rapid Filtration. 

When the contents of a stomach in cases of medico-legal examina- 
tions are placed in a bag of membrane, and this floated in distilled 
water, the crystalloids (neutral salts, strychnia, corrosive sublimate, etc.) 
pass through the membrane, while the mucus, albumen, etc., remain 
behind. Obviously again, there is no chemical reaction here. It is 
simply a separation, or in other words, a dialysis. 

The greater the density of liquids or gases on opposite sides of the 
memaranes the more rapid will be the dialysis. We have all bought 
the fancifully-colored hydrogen balloons sold on the street corners, and 
found them, to our dismay, grow smaller day by day, until at last we 
had only a small rubber bag to console ourselves for the loss of the 
pretty toy. Here we have by the law of diffusion just as much a true 
dialysis as we have in the fact that air, upon being drawn into the lung 
of an animal, diffuses to the most peripheral air vesicle, and the carbon 
dioxide, by the same law, passes to the external air. 

As a summary of the preceding remarks, let us say that dialysis is to 
be carefully distinguished from filtration, as it is properly the separation 
by a natural law of substances soluble in a common medium, but 
possessed of different diffusive power. 


By Richard V. Mattison, Ph.G. 
[Read at the Alumni Meeting, February 7, 1878.) 

It is often a matter of considerable annoyance to the pharmacist 
desirous of dispensing elegant preparations, that no means of filtering 
cloudy or murky-looking prescriptions are at hand by which this desid- 
eratum may be attained in a few moments. It is often desirable to 
dispense syrups, etc., that are "star bright," and yet be able to do it 
while the customer is waiting. While a large number of processes and 
apparatus are suited to the wants of the manufacturer, few if any yet 
published supply the real want of the dispenser, viz., something for 
instant use at the prescription counter. To supply this want I have 
the pleasure of bringing forward to-day the following simple apparatus. 

It is presumed every druggist is the possessor of a retort stand ; the 
rings of this are bound with cloth or muslin until the central aperture 
is of just sufficient size to admit a globe of hard German glass, such as 
is used for the ordinary student's lamp. The reason we prefer a lamp 


Rapid Filtration. 

f A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Mar., 1878. 

globe to an ordinary tube is that it has an enlargement at the base which 
serves as a shoulder, and thus renders the apparatus more firm. 

The tube being now placed in the 
holder in the same manner as a test 
tube would be ordinarily placed, the 
open lower extremity is covered with 
a piece of filter paper in the follow- 
ing manner, viz. : A circular or 
square piece of muslin is covered by 
a similar piece of filter paper, and the 
two bound firmly over the open 
lower extremity of the tube with the 
paper inwards, and secured by means 
of a rubber band (such a circular rub- 
ber ring as is used for umbrellas 
seems best adapted for this pur- 
pose). Should we now fill the tube 
with liquid it will filter slowly, and 
we hasten it by fitting a good velvet 
cork in the upper extremity of the 
glass tube or lamp globe, piercing it with a metal tube, and attaching 
to this an ordinary rubber pipe connected with a bulb, such as are used 
in the small atomizers or syringes. By compressing the bulb air is 
forced into the tube, and the increased pressure rapidly increases the 
flow of filtrate. By this means an ordinary 4 oz. or 8 oz. mixture can 
be filtered in a very few minutes, and dispensed with satisfaction to the 
pharmacist and of pleasing appearance to the patient. 

This is not offered as entirely new, as the credit of the idea belongs 
to Messrs. Sykes and Newton, of Hartford, Conn., who have long 
used a similar apparatus with such evident success as to make their 
neighbors copy the same. 

The apparatus exhibited was manufactured from a lamp globe and 
an atomizer, the total cost of the same being, without including the 
retort stand, the sum of 65 cents. Actual use at the laboratory has 
proved its utility in a small way, and for such purposes it is recommended. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Mar., 1878. [ 

The Tinctures of the U. S. P. 



By Theodore G. Davis, Ph.G. 

From observation and experiment, I think it would be preferable in 
the coming Pharmacopoeia to have officinal Alcohol dilutum containing 
50 per cent, of alcohol, Alcohol containing 70 per cent, of anhydrous 
alcohol and Alcohol fortior as at present. 

An alcohol of 50 per cent, is preferable in most instances to a 
weaker spirit, and could be substituted to advantage for the present 
diluted alcohol, as in most of the tinctures prepared with it there is a 
cloudiness which becomes clear on the addition of some alcohol ; this 
is particularly noticeable in the tinctures of roots and leaves containing 
resin and volatile oil. Valerian is a good example, and I can corrobo- 
rate in every particular the facts set forth by Mr. George W. Ken- 
nedy in the February " Journal," in the article on Tincture of Can- 

Capsicum, if the percolation is properly conducted, always precipi- 
tates a flocculent matter, while floating on the surface is a fatty sub- 
stance. This may be remedied by a stronger menstruum. 

It is my opinion that the tinctures should be more concentrated, and 
should represent at least one part of the drug in four of the finished 
product. The menstruum necessary to attain this result is in most 
instances sufficient to exhaust the drug if the percolation is properly- 
conducted, and I have noticed frequently that the first half of the 
tinctures are void of sediment, which separates as the weaker solution 
percolates into it. This is notable in tinctures of the leaves, hence it 
would seem that more concentrated preparations would be more satis- 
factory as pharmaceutical preparations, and yet I do not think there is 
a satisfactory fluid extract in the Pharmacopoeia, nor that there is one 
which represents one grain of the drug in a minim ; I do not believe 
it can be made. Some are very nice when first made, but precipitate 
the active part (resin or tannin), and become comparatively worthless 
upon standing, as they must, on our shelves. 

Bridgeton, N. J. 


By F. Marion Murray, M.D. 

Having a call a few days since for a tar plaster, I searched several 
books of reference for some guide to its preparation, but without avail. 
Being thrown upon my own resources, I hurriedly melted together 2 


Emplastrum Picis Liquids. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Mar., 1878. 

parts each of tar and yellow wax, and 1 of Burgundy pitch, and 
dispensed an unsatisfactory plaster. 

Subsequent trials with resin, Burgundy pitch, yellow wax and offici- 
nal lead plaster as " bodies," in various proportions, gave the follow- 
ing results : 

Lead plaster an unsightly result, and objectionable because of the 
different medicinal effect of the u body." Yellow wax, in any con- 
siderable proportion, gave unsightly plasters, with diminished adhesive- 
ness. Pitch, in the proportion of 2 parts to 1 of tar, gave a nice look- 
ing plaster, but it was rather too adhesive and did not contain enough 
tar j it was better replaced by tar's nearest relative, resin. An excel- 
lent plaster, and one containing the greatest amount of tar, was made 
of equal parts of tar and resin. The most satisfactory result was 
obtained from 2 parts each of tar and resin and 1 of pitch. Melt the 
resin and pitch together, remove from the fire, add the tar and stir rapidly. 
Spread on chamois or cloth when it cools to the consistence of honey. 
Two-fifths of this is the remedial agent ; it is adhesive and elegant. 

Philadelphia, Feb. nth, 1878. 

Note by the Editor. — The former Pharmacopoeia of Hannover 
directed this plaster to be prepared from Burgundy pitch 1 part, yellow 
wax 8 parts, and tar 16 parts. Dorvault's l'Officine credits the fol- 
lowing formula to Van Mons : Burgundy pitch 8, yellow wax 90, and 
tar 125 parts. 


By C. L. Mitchell. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, February 19, 1878. 

During the last year considerable attention has been directed to the 
treatment of urethral diseases by means of soluble medicated bougies. 
These are, in fact, long, thin suppositories, made of soluble materials 
and variously medicated, and offer to the physician a ready and conve- 
nient method of local medication. 

The idea of these bougies is not by any means a new one. Its his- 
tory is a little obscure, but, so far as I can ascertain, they were first 
used by Sir Jas. Simpson, of Edinburgh, about twenty years ago, in 
his practice, and met with success. They were soon afterwards intro- 
duced into this country by several of our prominent pharmacists, and 

Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
Mar., 1878. j 

Soluble Medicated Bougies. 

became a method of treatment for gonorrhoea, etc., among some few 
physicians. The idea of suppositories being then prevalent, they were 
called^ urethral suppositories, and moulds were introduced by several 
manufacturers for their preparation. 

They generally were made of cacao butter, and were about 2 to 3 
inches in length and T 3 -g- inch in diameter, generally tapering to a blunt 
point. These were used in practice only to a very limited extent, and the 
matter appears to have slumbered until a few years ago, M. Reynal^ 
a pharmacien of Paris, introduced the u Porte-Remede," as he termed 
them. They immediately attracted considerable attention from the 
French physicians, and a number of remarkable cures were made by 
them in the hospitals of Paris. They were soon after introduced into 
the United States by Mr. Louis Bock, of New York, and met with 
considerable sale, their high price, however, being a great obstacle to 
their general adoption. 

Recently, Messrs. J. C. Allan & Co., of Buffalo, have taken a patent 
for the manufacture of a similar article. 

The idea of the treament of gonorrhoea and gleet by means of these 
bougies seems to be a good one. It is well known that very few who 
have occasion to use urethral injections do so with much advantage,, 
and often do more harm than good by their unskillful use of the 
syringe ; so that if a remedy can be obtained which will do away with 
this objection, a great step will be made in the treatment of these dis- 
eases. It is also a well-known fact to all medical men that many cures 
have been produced by the introducing of a plain metal bougie, or one 
slightly smeared with some medicated ointment. It would seem to be 
much better, then, to have a bougie elastic, so as to be easily entered, and 
made of some suitable material which can be variously medicated, and 
and at the same time to be slowly soluble by the heat and secretions of 
the urethra, so as to bring remedial agents in close contact with the 
diseased parts. It would thus exercise the double action of relieving 
by causing a distension of the urethra, thus compressing the capillaries 
and reducing congestion, as well as the curative power which the med- 
icines dissolved in it would exercise. It would also be of service by 
separating the inflamed surfaces, preventing their adhering and forming 
strictures, etc. 

The " Porte-Remede " of M. Reynal are bougies about 5J inches 
long and J- inch in diameter, very stiff and hard, and indeed quite brit- 


Soluble Medicated Bougies. 

(Am Jour. Pharm. 
t Mar., 1878, 

tie, although when immersed in water for a time they become flexible. 
They seem to be composed of molasses and gum arabic or gelatin, and 
are variously medicated. # 

The bougies of Messrs. Allan & Co. are claimed by their patent to 
be made of cacao butter and glycerate of starch, worked into a plastic 
mass by means of mucilage of gum arabic or tragacanth, this rolled 
or divided into bougies and coated with gelatin or isinglass by dipping 
them in a hot solution of the same. They are medicated variously, 
but generally are put up in the form of a proprietary medicine. They 
are quite soft and soluble, but are not very flexible, very quickly break- 
ing and mashing up when manipulated for a few moments, and 
thus offer a considerable objection to their use, as the handling neces- 
sary for their introduction is sufficient to destroy them, particularly in 
warm weather. 

About a year ago, I commenced the manufacture of these bougies by 
a method of my own, using for their composition a mixture of glycerin 
and gelatin, similar to that mentioned by Prof. Parrish in the "Am. 
Jour. Phar." for April, 1872, p. 188. The mass made in this man- 
ner is suitably medicated, and then while quite hot and liquid poured 
into moulds, which are represented in the subjoined drawing. 

These are made of two plates of brass, hinged together at one end, 
and with corresponding grooves cut in them so as to make a long, thin 
cylinder of about the caliber of a No. 8 bougie. When the composition 
has cooled the bougies are removed from the mould and laid on wooden 

Am Ma°;Ti8?8 arm '} Oil of Wild Cherry Kernels. 1 1 1 

trays, which are kept in a dry atmosphere, ranging from 70 to 8o°F., 
for about two days, when they are scraped to remove any rough edges 
left by the joints of the moulds, and the rough ends trimmed off. In 
this manner I have made quite a number of bougies, which have been 
used by our physicians with considerable success. They will dissolve 
in water of ioo° to I03°F. in from 10 to 15 minutes, and in the 
urethra in from 1 to 3 hours. They are quite flexible and elastic, being 
readily tied into a knot and untied again, and do not either break as 
Reynal's or mash up as Allan's, when handled only becoming more 
flexible and elastic, resembling the bougies and catheters of elastic hard 
rubber which have lately come into use. They can be easily intro- 
duced into the urethra by either dipping in water or slightly oiling them. 


By Herman Betz. 
[Read at Alumni Meeting, February 7, 1878.) 

This oil is obtained from the kernels of the fruit of Cerasus sero- 
tina, by hot expression. For several years the kernel of the wild 
cherry, enclosed in the shell or endocarp, has appeared in quan- 
tities in the market, at such a price as to induce manufacturers to 
express the oil, which may find a use in medicine or the arts. The 
kernels, together with the shell, are ground to a fine powder, which is 
carefully dried, and expressed in the cylinder of a hydraulic press at 
about 2,000 pounds to the square inch. The yield is about 5 per cent. 

Although great care is ussd to avoid all dampness of the powder, 
the oil has a slight odor of bitter almonds, which, however, is not 
injurious ; the taste is sweetish, agreeable ; the color is dark green and 
is not extracted by water or alcohol, hot or cold. Sp. gr. 0*906. It 
becomes solid at I5°F. ; the point of ebullition is above the boiling 
point of mercury ; it then takes fire and burns with a yellow flame, 
leaving a pitch-like residue. Vapors are given off at 28o°F., but are 
not disagreeable until the temperature reaches 6oo°F.; it would for 
that reason be well adapted for an oil-bath. The oil is insoluble in 
alcohol, but freely soluble in ether, chloroform, oil of turpentine, olive 
oil and benzin. 

As characteristic may be taken its slight bitter almond odor and high 
boiling point. It can be distinguished from oil of laurel, which has a 

112 Poisoning by Chlorate of Potassium. { Am M J a ", r i8^ rm * 

somewhat similar color, by alcohol, which takes up the coloring mat- 
ter of the latter, and from linseed oil by becoming solid at a much higher 


By George W. Kennedy, Ph.G. 
Read at the Alumni Meeting, February 7, 1878. 

A case of poisoning by the above-named chemical occurred in 
November last, in the family of Dr. Kauffman, of Pine Grove, now 
of Minersville, Schuylkill county. The case will be interesting, as 
there is but one on record previous to this where death has resulted by 
an excessive use of the drug, so far as I am informed — that of Dr. 
Fountain, of Davenport, Iowa, who took one ounce at a dose, and fell 
a victim to his temerity. The writer waited on the father of the 
deceased child, so as to obtain reliable information. I believe that the 
salt has been considered, both by the medical and pharmaceutical pro- 
fession generally, as rather an innoxious remedy, comparatively speak- 
ing. No doubt to many this case will appear remarkable, and they 
would rather feel disposed to attach discredit to it, as the writer would 
feel inclined to regard the fatal result due to some other poison, were 
he not in possession of such information direct from the father of the 
deceased child, who is a practicing physician, and stands well in the 
estimation of the medical fraternity of the county where he resides. 
Many would hesitate to class chlorate of potassium as a poison, when 
we take into consideration that it is used in diphtheria and scarlatina in 
large doses with impunity, and is known in nearly every family, like 
Epsom salts or magnesia, or any other common drug ; in fact, there 
are few who have suffered with the simplest or more aggravated form 
of sore throat but are familiar with it as a remedy which for conveni- 
ence is often kept on hand. 

For the reason stated, Dr. Kauffman kept a quantity of the chlorate 
in a tin box, and at the time of the accident the box contained approx- 
imately about four ounces. It was customary with the doctor to give 
his children, consisting of three (two girls and a boy), a few grains of 
the salt several times daily^ for some time previous, as a prophylactic 
against diphtheria, as the disease was then prevailing to an alarming 
extent in a malignant form. On Tuesday morning, Nov. 6th, 1877, 
between 10 and 11 o'clock, the children were left alone in a room in 

Am MlZ'*X m '} Poisoning by Chlorate of Potassium. iij 

the upper portion of the house, playing, while the father and mother 
were in the lower part, attending to their regular household affairs. 
The child called Nellie took the tin box from the bureau, containing 
the chlorate of potassium in the crystalline form, and began playing 
" Doctor," in imitation of her father. She gave the salt to her brother 
and sister, and at the same time, as near as can be estimated, ate about 
half an ounce herself. It is to be wondered at that a child only two 
and a half years old could eat so much of the salt, as it is anything 
but pleasant to the taste in such quantities ; but being accustomed to 
its use and in a state of excitement, playing " Doctor," she ate it with- 
out observing its taste. Towards the last the children were perfectly 
quiet, making no alarm until little Nellie began to vomit ; but, as the 
parents had no idea as to the quantity taken, and as no dangerous or 
serious symptoms were exhibited, and the doctor was not aware of the 
fatal case of poisoning on record, there was no occasion to feel alarmed. 
About an hour subsequently the doctor administered diluents freely, 
with the object of dissolving the salt ; the child began to vomit vio- 
lently, throwing off about one drachm of potassium chlorate, appar- 
ently in the same crystalline form as when taken, and continued vom- 
iting until death ensued, about 5.30 P. M., making precisely seven 
hours from the time the salt was taken. Beside the emetic also hydro- 
cathartic effects were observed, the child dying of gastritis, or inflam- 
mation of the stomach, notwithstanding Dr. Dreher and the father did 
all in their power to save poor little Nellie. 

This case teaches us to be very careful in using chlorate of potas- 
sium, keep it out of the reach of children, and even under lock and 
key ; under no circumstances whatever should it be given in the crys- 
talline form, as it seems to be a violent irritant to the mucous mem- 
brane of the stomach, and by not being readily soluble (it requires 
sixteen parts of water, at 6o°F.), cannot easily be discharged, as was 
proven in this case. The child was given as much water and cream 
as she could drink, and to the last she vomited crystals of the chlorate. 

Another peculiarity of the case was the strong inclination of the 
child to slumber, it being in a lethargic condition from the time it was 
first noticed until she expired. She gave no indications of pain, but 
was apparently in a stupor all the time. She had taken no other med- 
icine for months, neither was she laboring under any disease, but was 
a fine, hearty and well-developed child. There was no other medicine 


1 14 Potassium, Sodium and Ammonium Salicylates. { Am ^ar U %878 arm * 

exposed in the doctor's house, all others being out of reach, so that 
she could not have taken any other kind. 

After the above was written, in conversation with one of our lead- 
ing physicians, I was informed that he had a patient (a young man, 
eighteen years old) suffering from sore throat, and chlorate of potas- 
sium was prescribed in five-grain doses. From the time the first dose 
was taken until the medicine was stopped the patient was suffering 
from gastritis, vomiting freely after each dose. When they ceased 
administering the medicine the patient recovered from the attack of 
inflammation of the stomach, thus proving conclusively that the chlo- 
rate was the cause of the trouble. 


By Nathan Pennypacker. 
Read at the Alumni Meeting, February 7, 1878. 

Salicylic acid is dibasic, forming acid and neutral salts ; but the neu- 
tral compounds with sodium, potassium and ammonium have not yet 
been obtained, and none but the acid compounds of the other elements 
were known previous to 1855. 1 

The great difficulty in making the compounds of salicylic acid with 
alkalies is found in the tendency of the solutions to become dark on 
exposure to air. This can in great part be obviated by mixing a por- 
tion of the acid with water, and without the aid of heat, adding the 
acid potassium or sodium carbonate so long as there is effervescence, 
or ammonium hydrate in slight excess, evaporating rapidly to dryness, 
dissolving in alcohol, pouring off the clear liquid, and evaporating it to 
dryness. The result in every case will be a fine white crystalline 

To insure success too long exposure to the air must be avoided, and 
the liquid must be clarified by decantation rather than by filtration, as 
by the latter process the solution becomes dark colored, either from 
exposure or from the organic matter in the filter. 

The evaporation must be conducted on a water-bath, as at a higher 
temperature there is danger of decomposition, with formation of phe- 
nol. The advantages claimed for the use of the carbonate instead of 

1 Salicylates of the alkalies were described by Procter and Cahours as early as 
1843. — Editor. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Mar., 1878. J 

Formic Acid. 

the hydrate, in the formation of the potassium and sodium compounds, 
is because the acid can be neutralized with a carbonate, which it is 
impossible to do with the hydrate, as the product should be acid to 
test-paper, and if the hydrate is added until neutral there will be an 
excess of it uncombined. Besides, this does not admit of purification 
by treating with alcohol which leaves any excess of carbonate undis- 
solved, but takes up the hydrate. 


By E. Gaillard, Ph.G. 
[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, February 17.) 
Having occasion to prepare some formic acid for medicinal purpose, 
I was led to read up the literature on the subject, finding that carbon 
was its first element, one that helps to make up the great bulk of the 
vegetable and animal creation, and in connection with hydrogen, 
oxygen and nitrogen constitutes the organogens, that is organ pro- 
ducers. By a little dexterous manipulation a long series of compounds 
are formed, adding atom to atom until the numbers that represent their 
chemical constitution are high among the tens, and even into hundreds. 
The law of their relation is as clear as that of an arithmetical progres- 
sion. There exists a series of organic acids of which formic is the 
first, and to the members of which an atom of carbon and two atoms 
of hydrogen are added to form the next succeeding in the list. 
Formic acid, . . CH 0„ Butyric acid, . . C 4 H 8 2 

L 2 W 2 

Acetic acid, . . C 2 H 4 2 
Propionic acid, . . C s H 6 2 

Valerianic acid, . C 5 H 10 O 2 
Capronic acid, . . C 6 H 12 2 

and so on till we get up to melissic acid, C 30 H 60 O 2 , which bears a 
resemblance to cerotic acid, C 27 H 54 2 , the soluble portion of beeswax. 

These and similar are only examples of the slight of hand at which 
carbon is an expert among the elements, as is likewise evidenced in the 
following derivatives of starch : 

Starch, . . . C 12 H 20 O 10 
Grape sugar, . C 12 H 24 12 

Alcohol, . . . C 2 H e O 
Acetic acid, . . C 2 H 4 2 
A little water or the hydrogen and oxygen thereof is added to the 
starch, and we have sugar. Dissolve the sugar, ferment it, and alco- 
hol and carbonic acid are the result. Dilute the alcohol and ferment 

1 1 6 Hydrobromic Acid. {^'i^l'Sjt ' 

again, acetic acid and water make their appearance. This wonderful 
metamorphosis of these carbon compounds occurs in the cells and 
tissues of plants and animals. Acetic acid is found in small quantities 
in juices of plants and animal fluids. 

Formic acid exists in red ants, and by making them travel over 
moistened litmus paper it will redden from the acid secreted by them ; 
hence the name of formic acid from the Latin Formica. For preparing 
the acid the process known as Bertholet's was employed, and proved 
satisfactory. Oxide of carbon is produced from oxalic acid, and trans- 
formed into formic acid under the influence of water. 

Place into a retort 250 parts of syrupy glycerin, 38 to 50 parts of 
water, and 250 parts of oxalic acid ; heat up to ioo°C. The oxalic 
acid is destroyed, evolving carbonic acid, while all of the oxide of car- 
bon combines with the elements of water. After ten hours all the 
oxalic acid is decomposed, and a small quantity of water charged with 
formic acid has distilled over ; the glycerin and the largest part of 
formic acid remain in the retort. Add 8 parts more water, and distil 
at the temperature of I20°C, adding water as long as the distillate is 
acid. The glycerin remains intact, and can be used over. It retains 
the formic acid from the water, and can be heated without fear. 

This acid is colorless, sour and of a pungent taste. 


By Edward R. Squibb, M.D. 1 
The potassium salt is, of all the bromides, the most commonly used, 
and its doses to obtain given effects are best established. Hence if 
this salt be used as a standard for hydrobromic acid as it is for other 
bromides, and the acid be adjusted in strength so as to bear some easily 
remembered relation of its bromine constituent to the potassium salt, 
a base or starting point would be established for its general and accu- 
rate use, whether the bromine, when combined with hydrogen, should 
prove more active than when combined with potassium or not. Then 
as the potassium salt contains, in round numbers, say 68 per cent, of 
bromine, a solution of hydrobromic acid containing also 68 per cent, 
of bromine would have the same bromine value, though not necessarily 

1 From a paper read before the Medical Society of the State of New York, and 
communicated by the anthoi. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Mar., 1878. J 

Hydrobromic Acid. 


the same bromine effect in medicine. But an acid of this strength 
would be unnecessarily difficult to make and to dispense. The next 
most simple relation is to have an acid of half the bromine strength of 
the salt, or 34 per cent. Such a strength can be made, kept and 
dispensed without unusual difficulty, and represents the bromine of the 
potassium bromide in the proportion of about 2 to 1, a relation easily 
remembered, and convenient in use. Therefore this strength has been 
adopted as a proper and convenient one, and the quantity of such an 
acid equal to the bromine of 20 grains of potassium bromide would 
be 40 grains, though the equivalent dose might be smaller to produce 
a given effect, should bromine when combined with hydrogen prove 
more active than when combined with potassium. 

The formula and process for making an acid of this strength are as 
follows : 

Take of Potassium Bromide, Six parts. 

Sulphuric Acid, s. g. at i5-6°C.=-6o°F. 1 c 

o o . dr. qp o o r Seven parts. 

1-838, at 25°C.=77°F. 1828. j r 

Water, Nine parts. 

Add to the sulphuric acid one part of the water and cool the mix- 
ture. Then dissolve the potassium bromide in six parts of the water 
by means of heat, supplying the loss of water by evaporation during 
the heating. Pour the diluted sulphuric acid slowly into the hot solu- 
tion with constant stirring, and set the mixture aside for 24 hours that 
the sulphate of potassium may crystallize. Pour off the liquid into a 
retort, break up the crystaline mass, transfer it to a funnel, and having 
drained the crystals, drop slowly upon them two parts of the water so 
as to displace and wash out the acid liquid. Add trie liquid thus drained 
off and washed out, to that in the retort, and distill the whole nearly to 
dryness, or until nothing further distills off by moderate heating. The 
distillate will weigh about ten parts and should contain about 37 per 
cent, of hydrobromic acid. Assay this by means of normal volume- 
tric solution of soda, and add distilled water until it shall have the 
strength of 34 per cent, of hydrobromic acid. The product will weigh 
about eleven parts, and the loss of hydrobromic acid as calculated from 
the potassium bromide will be about 1*2 per cent. 

Solution of hydrobromic acid thus prepared is a limpid, colorless, 
odorless liquid, having a strongly acid taste. At i5 , 6°C.=6o°F. it 
has a s. g. of 1*274. At 25°C.=77°F. the s. g. is 1*257 both com- 

1 1 8 Hydrobromic Acid. 

pared with water at i5'6°C.=6o°F. It is free from sulphuric acid, or 
gives but an unimportant trace when tested with solution of baric chlo- 
ride ; and is free from sulphurous acid when tested by its action on 
pure zinc yielding a gas which does not blacken paper moistened with 
solution of plumbic acetate. It leaves on evaporation no residue, or 
but an accidental trace. 

It consists of about 33'4 per cent, of bromine, about 0'6 per cent, 
of hydrogen, and 66 per cent, of water ; or, of 34 per cent, of hydro- 
bromic acid, HBr=8i and 66 per cent, of water. Its formula is 
(H=i+Br=8o=) HBr=8i+Aq. 

In making this acid on a scale suited to the physician or pharmacist 
each part in the formula may be represented by 28*35 grams=i ounce 
avoirdupois, and the process answers very well upon this scale, yield- 
ing about 360 grams— 12*47 ounce s. 

Tared beakers, a retort about double the capacity of the liquid, with 
a strip of wire cloth around it where the heating flame is applied, and 
a small Liebig's condenser, are necessary for this process, and in the 
distillation here, as indeed everywhere, the lamp flames should be 
applied to the side of the retort. 

If the mixture of sulphuric acid and water be not cooled it causes 
spattering and loss when poured into the hot solution of the bromide. In 
dissolving the bromide in an equal weight of water by heating, there 
is loss of water by evaporation, and unless this loss be made up it will 
not be practicable to get a perfect solution. But an entirely perfect 
solution is not essential, provided the undissolved portion be in a finely 
divided state, for when the diluted sulphuric acid is poured slowly in 
with stirring any small proportion of the bromide will be dissolved by 
the additional amount of liquid, and by the stirring. After standing 
24 hours the lower part of the vessel will be occupied by a mass of 
crystals of large size, easily broken up to drain and wash. The quan- 
tity of sulphuric acid taken for the process appears disproportionate, 
being in excess of the quantity necessary to form acid potassium sul- 
phate ; but unless such excess be taken the salt will not crystallize out 
as completely, and then the distillation will be defeated when only 
about half finished by bumping in the retort. Smaller proportions of 
acid were successively tried, and when bumping occurred the process 
was stopped, and the contents of the retort were turned out, cooled 
and the crystals separated, drained and washed, but this is troublesome 

f Am. Jour. Pharm, 
\ Mar., 1878. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Mar., 1878. J 

Hydrobromic Acid. 

and entirely unnecessary if the larger proportion of acid be used, for 
then almost the whole of the salt crystallizes out, rendering the process 
easy when it would be otherwise either troublesome or entirely imprac- 
ticable. Near the close of the distillation the heat must be kept 
moderate, because if increased much, sulphuric and sulphurous acids are 
liable to be distilled over, in considerable quantities. The minute 
quantities of both which do go over, even in a well managed distilla- 
tion, are probably thrown over mechanically by the bursting of bubbles 
on the surface of the boiling liquid. The quantity of either in the 
distillate of a well managed distillation is but a trace, and so small as 
to be unimportant. But should it be desired to have the distillate 
entirely free from these acids, a very small quantity of barium hydrate 
must be added and the whole be re-distilled. In the distillation the 
hydrobromic acid comes over comparatively weak at first, the strength 
gradually increasing to about 47 per cent., hence the distillate should 
be well stirred before being tested or assayed. 

In testing for sulphurous acid it is only necessary to put a small 
piece of pure zinc into a test tube, pour upon it a few drops of the 
acid, push into the upper part a loose wad of cotton wool, and lay 
the paper moistened with solution of plumbic acetate on to the cotton 

The assays and adjustment of strength are conveniently and easily 
made as follows : The atomic weight of HBr being 81, a half of 
the tenth part of this number, namely, 4*05 grams, is weighed off, and 
normal sodium solution is dropped into it from a burette to the point 
of saturation as ascertained by means of a small piece of litmus paper 
kept floating in the acid as it is stirred during the dropping in of the 
volumetric sodium solution. Usually 18 to 19 cc. of the volumetric 
solution is required for saturation. Then, as only half of 8*1 grams 
was taken for the assay, this reading from the burette must be doubled, 
and therefore indicates 36 to 38 per cent, as the strength. Then 
weigh the distillate again, and add to it 5 per cent, of its weight of its 
distilled water and again assay it as before. By calculation from the 
quantity of water used to reduce it to this new strength, the additional 
quantity of water necessary to reduce it to the 34 per cent, required 
is easily found. When this shall have been added, and the whole well 
stirred, a final assay should be made to verify the result. 

This acid, in common with all the others, should be dispensed by 

1 20 

Hydrobromic Acid. 

i Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( Mar., 1878. 

weight. A troyounce of it contains almost exactly 400 minims 
(401 '48+), and the fluidounce, of 480 minims, weighs almost exactly 
574 grains (573*86+). A drachm of it, therefore, would contain 50 
minims, and would be the bromine equivalent of 30 grains of potassium 
bromide. A gram of the acid is equal to 12*86 minims, and therefore 
4 grams would be 51*44 minims, equal to 30*86 grains of the potassium 
bromide, a very large sedative dose. 

The acid is not very easily administered in full doses in consequence 
of the large dilution necessary, and the disagreeable effect of " setting 
the teeth on edge." A dose of 50 grains, equal to 41*66 minims, and 
to 25 grains of potassium bromide, requires not less than 8 fluidounces 
of dilution, and the dilution must contain not less than an ounce of 
sugar or two ounces of syrup, to make it easily drinkable. This will 
be found to be the principal drawback to the use of the acid, unless it 
shall be proved to be effective in smaller quantities than its equivalence 
to the bromides indicates. And this effectiveness in much smaller 
doses is not only probable, but almost certain, if the experience of 
Fothergill and others may be trusted, since they give it in doses of one- 
eighth to one-fourth of those here indicated as being the bromine 
equivalent of potassium bromide. That is to say, the doses advised 
by those who appear to have used it with the best effects are equiva- 
lent to about 6 to 8 grains of potassium bromide. This published 
experience would make the average dose of the acid here described, say 
about 12 to 16 grains, or the bromine equivalent of only 6 to 8 grains 
of potassium bromide. In the very limited experience of physicians 
around the writer these doses are too small, and 20 to 30 grains, equal 
to 10 to 15 grains of potassium bromide are needed for a prompt seda- 
tive effect, while 40 to 50 grain doses are not uncommon ; and such 
doses have to be repeated at times in controlling the headache, etc., of 
quinism. Even such doses require a dilution of 2 to 4 fluidounces of 
water for easy administration. 

If 60 grains=50 minims of the acid here described be added to 1140 
grains of syrup the mixture will measure 2 fluidounces, and weigh 
(60+1140=) 1,200 grains. Each 75 grains of this, 1 fluidrachm, will 
contain 4 grains nearly, or a little more than 3 minims of the acid ; and 
4 fluidrachms of this, equal to 1 5 grains of the acid when diluted with 
ice water to 2 to 4 fluidounces makes a dose which is easily adminis- 

Am. Jour. Pharm, \ 
Mar., 1878. J 

Hydrobromic Acid. 


tered and probably effective. Such a dose is equal to 12*5 grains of 
potassium bromide. 

Besides the administration of single doses for temporary sedative effect, 
it will, however, doubtless come into occasional use for a more pro- 
longed and permanent effect as a partial substitute or alternate for the 
bromides to correct or prevent alkaline saturation. The doses for such 
continuous uses do not seem to have been ascertained, for no instance 
of bromism from its use has been published so far as this writer has 
seen. Therefore, as bromism must be the test of effective quantity 
the doses must be considered as unsettled. If the bromine, as present 
in this acid, should prove capable of producing bromism in much smaller 
quantity than that present in the bromides, as seems to be foreshadowed 
in its use up to this time, then an important advantage will have been 
gained, and the doses of the acid will be correspondingly smaller. At 
present it appears that for continuous use as a substitute for the bro- 
mides, to be continued through several weeks or until the bromides can 
be resumed, doses of 20 to 30 grains might be sufficient. It may also 
be found that by adding smaller quantities of the acid to reduced doses 
of the bromides the alkaline saturation might be postponed or avoided. 
For example, where an epileptic may be taking 25 grains of potassium 
bromide three or four times a day, it may, and probably will, be found 
that the dose of bromide can be reduced to 20 grains or less by adding 
one, two or three grains of this acid to the smaller dose. Such uses 
as this for the acid are well worth careful trial, and in such quantities 
it can be easily administered. 

The acid will also undoubtedly prove very useful for making solu- 
tions of various bromides extemporaneously. For example, lithium 
bromide should, by its composition, be very useful in medicine, as the 
salt contains nearly 90 per cent, of bromine, or more bromine and less 
base than any other neutral salt possible. This is easily made, simply 
by saturating the acid with lithium carbonate, and adjusting the volume 
of the solution to the dose required. 

Many formulas have been published for making this acid for medi- 
cinal uses, but all so faulty and inaccurate or so difficult as to be imprac- 
ticable for ordinary use where any moderate degree of precision in 
medication is required. 

That of Forthergill was among the earliest, and has been by far the 
most used. It is given in his " Handbook of Treatment," Amer. 


Veratrum Alkaloids. 

Am. Jour. Pharnu 
Mar., 1878. 

edition of 1877, p. 569. The formula is loose and inaccurate, con- 
taining a considerable excess (161 grains) of potassium bromide. Its 
quantitative defects are easily remedied, but it yields a complex solution 
containing much tartaric acid and potassium, and is otherwise objection- 
able, having all the faults of the process upon which it is modelled > 
namely, the process for hydriodic acid by Buchanan, of Glasgow* 
Made by FothergilPs formula it will commonly contain between 8 and 
9 per cent, of the hydrobromic acid, and as the dose is stated at u 3ss. 
to gi," if this be by weight as it is written, it will be equivalent to 4 
to 8 grains of potassium bromide only. 

FothergilPs process was very much improved by Mr. Charles Rice > 
see " New Remedies " for April 16, 1877, P* I0 7* But tms prepara- 
tion, though much more definite, is still liable to the objection of con- 
taining much tartaric acid and potassium, and therefore of being diffi- 
cult to identify or verify, or to discriminate by tests or by assay. 

Much better results are obtained by the original process of Balard, 
particularly as modified by Prof. J. M. Maisch. See u Proceedings of 
The Amer. Pharm. Asso." for i860, p. 220,, or as still farther modified 
by Prof. G. F. H. Markoe, see " Proceedings of The Amer. Pharm. 
Asso."' for 1875, p. 686. But these and many other published processes 
are less simple and easy than that here proposed. 

That here given is not original with the writer, but is alluded to in- 
all standard works on chemistry ; but, without the variation in quantity 
of sulphuric acid used, and without crystallizing out the potassium 
sulphate before the distillation, the process is impracticable, or at least 
has always proved to be so in the writer's hands, and in the hands of 
all whom he has known to have tried it. 

Brooklyn, Jan. 12, 1878. 


By Alexander Tobien. 1 
This interesting essay, of which we can publish only a brief abstract,, 
opens with a historical introduction citing the literature of the chemi- 
cal investigations made with different species of veratrum. The 
poisonous properties of veratrum album were known in Spain in the 

1 Beitrage zur Kentniss der Veratrum Alkaloide. Inaugural-Dissertation. Dorpat, 
1877, 8vo, pp. 38. Communicated by the author. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
Mar., 1878. / 

Veratrum Alkaloids. 


sixteenth century, the rhizome being called de balestera or de jerva, and 
it is possible that the charbak abjadh of the Arabian physicians was the 
same drug. Since veratrum is not indigenous to Greece, the helleboros 
of the ancient Greeks was most likely not identical with the former. 

Pelletier and Caventou examined Ver. album in 18 19, and announced 
the presence of veratria. In 1837, Edward Simon corroborated the 
presence of veratria, and found another alkaloid which he called barytin 
(from its behavior to sulphuric acid), changing the name afterwards to 
jervia. H. Will ("Ann. der Phar." xxv.) examined jervia, and from his 
elementary analysis gave it the formula C 60 H 45 N 2 O 5 , which was changed 
by Limpricht (" Grundriss d. Org. Chem.," 1862) to C 60 H 46 N 2 O 6 . 
In 1842 A. Weigand confirmed the presence of veratria and jervia in 
Ver. album. The same results were arrived at by Herm. Weppen, in 
1872, and in the same year Schroff, Jr., announced the presence of vera- 
tria in Ver. Lobelianum, while Dragendorff, in 1871, found the second 
alkaloid (beside jervia) to differ from veratria, and subsequently an- 
nounced the presence of jervia also in Ver. nigrum. 1 

The author first examined the rhizomes of Ver. Lobelianum, partly 
collected from wild plants in Austria, partly from cultivated ones in 
Russia, in both of which Dragendorff had already found notable quanti- 
ties of veratroidia. The process adopted was as follows : 

Two kilos of the coarsely powdered rhizome were mixed to a soft 
mass with sufficient water containing 36*8 grm. phosphoric acid, sp gr» 
1*23, macerated for 24 hours, mixed with 7-5 kilos alcohol of 95 per 
cent., the mixture digested in a water bath for 8 hours, cooled and ex- 
pressed ; and the press cake similarly treated with 12 kilos alcohol of 
70 per cent, and 15 grams phosphoric acid. The united liquids were 
filtered, the alcohol distilled off in vacuo, the residue concentrated to 
a syrupy consistence, mixed with 3 times its weight of water, the resin 
filtered off after several hours and the filtrate rendered alkaline by 
sodium carbonate. The precipitate was separated from inorganic salts 
by solution in alcohol, the filtrate diluted with an equal part of water, 
digested with recently ignited animal charcoal, and the faintly wine- 
yellow filtrate evaporated, when a yellowish crystalline mass, A, was 

1 The literature on the investigation of Ver. viride is given in full. We omit it 
here, since our readers are familiar with it from the papers of Ch. L. Mitchell 
(" Proc. Am. Phar. Assoc.," 1874), Chas Bullock ("Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1875, P- 
449) and Prof. Wormley ("Ibid.," 1876, p. 1). 


Veratrum Alkaloids. 

Am .Jour. Pharm. 

Mar., 1878. 

left. The alkaline filtrate from the above precipitate was agitated with 
chloroform, this solution separated and the choloform evaporated, leav- 
ing an amorphous light-yellowish residue, B. 

A proved to be jervia, containing some veratroidia, while B was a 
mixture of veratroidia with some jervia. A was dissolved in dilute 
acetic acid, filtered and mixed with dilute sulphuric acid until a distinct 
turbidity appeared. The yellowish-white granular precipitate, collected 
after several hours, was jervia sulphate not yet quite pure. The filtrate 
was rendered alkaline by ammonia and agitated with chloroform which 
left but a slight amorpnous pale-yellow residue. 

B was contaminated with wax, and contained so little jervia that its 
solution in acetic acid gave no precipitate with sulphuric acid ; through 
an accident it was lost. 

The resin collected as above from the concentrated liquid, after dilu- 
tion with .water, still contained alkaloid. To obtain this, Bullock's 
method ("Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1876, p. 147) was tried with indifferent 
success. The powdered resin now mixed with an equal weight of 
lime, enough water was added to produce a soft mass, and this dried at 
40°C (i04°F.) From the powdered lime resin soap the alkaloid could 
be extracted with ether, but hot 85 per cent, alcohol was also found 
serviceable. The alcohol was partly distilled off, then dilute acetic acid 
added and all alcohol evaporated ; the filtrate was treated with sodium 
carbonate, the precipitate C washed, freed from lime by dissolving in 
alcohol, and this solution evaporated. 

The alkaline filtrate from C was agitated with chloroform, which, 
on evaporation, left an amorphous light-colored residue, consisting of 
veratroidia with a little jervia. 

C, consisting of veratroidia with larger quantities of jervia, was dis- 
solved in dilute acetic acid, the solution divided into three parts, which 
were precipitated respectively with muriatic acid, sp. gr. 1*2, nitric acid, 1*13 and diluted sulphuric acid (1 to 7 water). The filtrates 
were mixed and marked Z), the brown-red soft granular precipitates 
were, after Bullock's recommendation, freed from resin with 95 per 
cent, alcohol, and the residue dissolved in boiling strong alcohol, previ- 
ously diluted with an equal part of water. The filtered solutions left 
on spontaneous evaporation, crystals agreeing with those figured by 
Bullock and by Wormley (loc. cit.) 

Pure jervia was obtained from the nitrate by treating it with a warm 

Am. Jour Pharm. \ 
Mar., 1878. J 

Veratrum Alkaloids. 


solution of sodium carbonate, and purifying the alkaloid with strong 
alcohol, when it formed perfectly white needles, which, by ultimate 
analysis gave results, leading to the formula C 13 H 23 N0 4 , or more closely 
to C 27 H 47 N 2 O g (0=i6). The sulphate and hydrochlorate have the 
composition C 27 H 47 N 2 8 ,H 2 S0 4 and C 27 H 47 N 2 8 ,HC1. 

The acid filtrate D was precipitated with sodium carbonate, and the 
precipitate freed from jervia, as recommended by Bujlock, by dissolv- 
ing in acetic acid, and treating with potassium nitrate ; the filtrate was 
rendered alkaline by sodium carbonate and agitated with chloroform \ 
a small quantity of light yellow amorphous veratroidia was obtained, 
having the following reactions : 

Concentrated sulphuric acid gave a yellow solution, passing through 
light brown-red into deep raspberry red. 

Concentrated muriatic acid yielded a light yellowish rose-red solution, 
which, on heating, became dirty yellow, and with sulphuric acid and 
heating brown-red. 

Concentrated nitric acid produced a light yellow solution, which, 
with sulphuric acid and on being heated, turned transiently orange red 
and passed into lemon-yellow. 

The author observed that small quantities of veratroidia, also of 
veratria, will materially modify the reaction of jervia, and commercial 
jervia seems often to contain one or both of these alkaloids. Vera- 
troidia is dissolved by cold concentrated muriatic acid with a pale rose- 
red color, which, when heated, is rapidly discolored. Veratria, on 
the contrary, dissolves in cold muriatic acid colorless, an intense 
and lasting red coloration being produced by heat, and this is likewise 
the case with sabatrina and sabadillia. 

Veratroidia is rather freely soluble in water, freely in alcohol, ether and 
chloroform, little in petroleum ether (gasolin), somewhat more in 
benzin and amylic alcohol. It dissolves in water to about the same extent 
as sabadillia, less than sabatrina and more freely than veratria ; it 
differs from sabadillia by its greater solubility in ether. 

The' two alkaloids, jervia and veratroidia, were also found in culti- 
vated old and recent rhizomes, and in the young leaves of Veratrum 
Lobelianum, and in the dried rhizome of Ver. album, which yielded 
little jervia and more veratroidia. 

Jervia is very sparingly soluble in water and in solution of sodium 
carbonate, freely in alcohol and in chloroform, less in amylic alcohoL 

126 Ferrum Albuminatum Solutum. \ Km '&' t S^' 

and benzin, very little in ether and almost insoluble in petroleum. 
When pure it is dissolved by concentrated sulphuric acid with a yellow 
and finally light-green color. Concentrated muriatic and nitric acids 
cause no change in the color \ but muriate of jervia, thrown into 
concentrated nitric acid, produced an evanescent rose color. Potassium 
nitrate indicates jervia already when in dilution of one in 1200. 

The elementary analyses of veratroidia points to the formula 
C 51 H 78 N 2 16 or C 24 H 37 N0 7 . Its action upon frogs is similar to vera- 
tria, but much more energetic than either sabadillia or sabatrina. 

The composition of the above alkaloids, as ascertained by Weigelin 
and Tobien, is the following : 


Veratroidia, C 51 H 78 N 2 16 , 

or C 24 H 37 N0 7 , T. 

Sabatrina, C 51 H 86 N 2 17 , W . 

Sabadillia, C 41 H 66 N 2 13 , W. 

Jervia, C 27 H 47 N 2 8 , T*. 

Even if the molecular values of the formulas should, on further 
investigation, be altered, this is evidently a natural group of alkaloids, 
somewhat similar to those of opium and cinchona. The first four show 
a great similarity in their behavior to sulphuric acid ; but with sugar 
and sulphuric acid, pure veratria yields a green, afterwards blue colora- 
tion, while veratroidia gives a black-brown color, which lasts for some 

Veratria, sabatrina and sabadillia agree in their behavior to muriatic 
acid ; but veratroidia and jervia differ very widely from it. In their 
action veratria, veratroidia and perhaps jervia are nearest related to each 
other ; but the latter is distinctly characterized by its behavior to 
sulphuric, muriatic and nitric acids. M. 


By C. Bernbeck. 

Dr. Triese, of Illingen, near Saarbriicken, has added a very valu- 
able and therapeutically important preparation to the Materia Medica 
by publishing a formula for the preparation of Ferrum albuminatum in 
the " Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift." His formula reads as fol- 
lows : Mix the white of an egg intimately with 10 grm. liq. ferri ses- 
quichlorati by triturating them in a mortar ; remove the excess of chlo- 

1 Translated by L. v. Cotzhausen from "Archiv der Pharmacie," Dec, 1877. 

Am M T a r u :\87 h s arm *} The Origin of Tragacanth. 127 

ride of iron by washing with distilled water, and redissolve, by mace- 
rating for two days, the precipitate in half a liter of distilled water, 
previously acidulated with 12 drops of pure hydrochloric acid. 

Numerous experiments made by me proved that only in the follow- 
ing manner, by carefully avoiding an excess of hydrochloric acid in 
the ferric chloride, a preparation may be obtained answering to the 
-description given by Dr. Triese. It is well known that the officinal 
liquor nearly always contains an excess of hydrochloric acid, which in 
the preparation of ferrum albuminatum will cause a solution of the 
greater portion of the precipitate, which will then necessarily go to 
waste by washing. This loss is avoided by using a neutral ferric chlo- 
ride obtained in the following manner : Dissolve 6 parts of dry ferric 
chloride obtained by evaporating the officinal liq. ferri sesquichlorati, in 
10 parts of distilled water, filter and mix the filtrate intimately with 20 
parts of the white of eggs ; place the brownish-yellow magma on a 
moistened strainer, press well with the hands and repeat it several 
times, after the addition of a little distilled water, until the excess of 
chloride of iron is removed. Dissolve the residue in J- liter of distilled 
water, acidulated with 12 drops of hydrochloric acid, by macerating 
for one or two days, and filter. 

Dr. Triese administers this preparation in chlorosis without the addi- 
tion of phosphorated ether ; it must, then, always be freshly prepared. 
As a remedy for rhachitis he prescribes an addition of 12 drops of a 
solution of 0*05 grm. phosphorus in 30 grm. of ether to 250 grm. of 
the iron albuminate solution, which keeps the latter unaltered for at 
least six weeks, and permits it to be kept on hand for that length of 


By M. Giraud. 

The formation of gum in plants seems to depend upon a peculiar 
morbid condition, the main phases of which were investigated and 
described by Trecul in i860. Although he studied the formation of gum 
only in the Rosaceae, it has been taken for granted that a similar process 
yields the gum of the Acaciae, which, being an article of commerce, 
is of much greater importance. The gum-disease is caused by a full- 
ness of sap in the young tissues, whereby the new cells are softened 

1 Translated from "Archiv d. Phar.," Dec, 1877, by L. v. Cotzhausen. 


The Origin of Tragacanth. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Mar., 1878. 

and finally disorganized. Thus cavities are formed filled with liquid 
containing the fragments of the destroyed tissues. The cavities grad- 
ually increase in size in consequence of the disintegration of the neigh- 
boring cells, and whenever they occur near the epidermal layers they 
may force an opening through them, and thus cause larger or smaller 
fissures ; but if they remain enclosed on all sides they become recep- 
tacles of gum. This gum near the walls of the cavity appears in the 
shape of gelatinous warts, which grow, turn yellow or brown, and 
finally fill up the hollow space. When near fibres, it appears first to 
exude from them, and gradually to alter them together with their con- 
tents. If the cavities occur near the bark, or near soft woody tissue, 
their contents occur in the well-known shape of transparent tears. 

This is the origin of the gums in the Rosaceae and Acaciae, which 
consist mainly of gummic or metagummic acid. Tragacanth differs 
from these gums both in its origin and properties. Hugo v. Mohl 
considers it likewise as a pathological product, having some similarity 
with the other gums, and to be the result of a more or less complete 
transformation of the cells of the pith and of the medullary rays, into 
a gelatinous substance, which swells by the imbibition of water to sev- 
eral hundred times the size of the original cells. On examining the 
anatomical structure of the Astragali furnishing this substance we find 
that the pith and medullary rays have changed more or less and all the 
intermediate stages in this gradual transformation are observable. The 
cells, which originally assumed a hard, horny consistence, without alter- 
ing their shape, ultimately condense into a homogeneous mass, in which 
the cell walls are no longer perceptible. This seemed to confirm the 
opinion of Guibourt, that the soluble portion of tragacanth consists of 
arabin and the insoluble portion of a mixture of cellulose and starch, 
both partly altered. But this view is as little exact as the statement 
generally met with in the books, that the soluble portion differs from 
arabin in not being thickened by ferric salts, and that after precipitation 
by alcohol it possesses a peculiar mucilaginous consistence. The por- 
tion insoluble in hot water was called bassorin, and stated to have the 
general constitution of amylaceous substances, to differ greatly from cel- 
lulose, and to be characterized by swelling greatly in water. 

Guibourt mentions starch as a constituent and others have observed 
the same, and that vermiform tragacanth contains more than the flakes > 
the manner in which tragacanth forms, according to Mohl, would 

Am M J aT'x8 7 h 8 arm '} The Origin of Tragacanth. 1 29 

easily explain the presence of starch. But, evidently, if the recognition 
of such an easily recognizable body has been so difficult, it is even 
more so to recognize the nature of the main constituent which imparts 
to tragacanth its principal properties. Indeed, much confusion has 
existed on this point, and we are therefore the more rejoiced at meet- 
ing with researches by Giraud, by which an unexpected light is shed 
on it. 

If, says the author, 1 part of tragacanth is digested in 50 parts of 
water, containing 1 per cent, of hydrochloric acid, the liquid filtered 
and then mixed with baryta water in excess, the gradually deposited 
precipitate will consist of pectate of barium. If this is collected, 
washed, diffused in water and then treated with muriatic or acetic acid, 
the base will dissolve, while the residue will consist of pectic acid. In 
this manner tragacanth will yield 60 per cent, of pectic acid. The 
process described shows plainly that pectic acid does not pre-exist in 
tragacanth, but is formed from some other substance. Giraud explains 
as follows : 

1. A very small percentage of tragacanth only is soluble in cold 
water, not 30 to 50 per cent., as is sometimes stated. The soluble 
portion is not a substance similar to arabin, but a mixture. 

2. If tragacanth is digested, in a water-bath, with 50 times its weight 
of water, the entire gummy constituent is transformed into a soluble 
gum, which after having been dried will not swell. The new product 
is not arabin, but pectin. 

3. By subjecting this principle, with water containing 1 per cent, of 
acid, to the heat of a water-bath for two or three hours, it becomes 
entirely soluble, but still consists mainly of pectin, and, though precip- 
itated by alcohol, is not gum, as usually stated. Sugar, formed simul- 
taneously, amounts to scarcely one-tenth of the substance employed. 

These experiments show that tragacanth is transformed by these 
processes into pectin, which is soluble in water, precipitated by alcohol, 
and by alkalies converted into pectates and metapectates. The pectin 
is generated from an insoluble pectinous principle, which constitutes 
more than one-half of the tragacanth, and is apparently identical with 
Fr^my's pectose. 

It is well known that pectose occurs largely in the tissues of many 
fruits and roots ; it accompanies, nearly always, cellulose, with which, 
however, it cannot be confounded ; for by the action of acids eellulose 


1 30 Scheme for the Recognition of { *\}™ r J 7 t rm - 

is transformed first into dextrin and afterwards into sugar, but never 
into pectin. 

Giraud's observations, it will be seen, contradict Mohl's views, 
according to which the cellulose of the Astragali is transformed into 

The author has found tragacanth to have the following average com- 
position : 20 water, 60 pectinous principle, 8 to 10 soluble gum, 3 cel- 
lulose, 2 to 3 starch, 3 per cent, of mineral constituents and traces of 
•nitrogenated matter. 

SCHEME for the RECOGNITION of the more Important 

By Edward Hirschsohn. 

In continuation of the author's researches on ammoniacum, galbanum, sagapenum 
and opoponax, previously published, he has made a comparative examination of a 
large number of the more important resins, gum resins and balsams. The results 
have been published in an inaugural dissertation written upon attaining the grade 
of " magister der pharmacie." This thesis contains a table for the recognition of 
these substances by their behavior towards reagents. The following are the 
reagents used : 

1. Sulphuric acid, sp. gr. 1820. 

2. Alcoholic hydrochloric acid, obtained by saturating 95 per cent, alcohol with 
■dry hydrochloric acid gas. 

3. Bromine solution, 1 part of bromine in 20 parts of chloroform. 

4. Saturated solution of chloride of lime in distilled water at the ordinary tempe- 

5. Alcoholic solution of perchloride of iron, 1 part in 10 parts of 95 per cent, 

6. Saturated solution of neutral lead acetate in 95 per cent, alcohol. 

7. Solution of ammonia, sp. gr. 980. 

S. Solution of pure sodium carbonate crystals in distilled water. 

9. Frohde's test : 1 centigram of sodium molybdate in 1 cc. sulphuric acid. 

10. Impure chloral hydrate, containing alcoholate. 

j 1. Saturated solution of iodine in petroleum spirit boiling at 6o°C. 

COMPLETELY soluble in ether. 
Ethereal solution becomes turbid after addition of alcohol. 

I. Alcoholic solution gives with perchloride of iron a turbidity that disappears on 

boiling. Chloral reagent colors violet — Canada Balsam. 

II. Alcoholic solution gives no turbidity with perchloride of iron. 

1. The drug is liquid and forms a clear mixture with petroleum spirit boiling 
below 40 C. 

a. Bromine solution colors the chloroform solution yellowish, then violet and 
blue — Maranha Copaiba Balsam. 

l w Pharmaceutische Zeitschrift fur Russland," xvi, 81. 

Am M J a°r U , r 'i8 7 h 8! rm "} Resins, Gum Resins and Balsams, 131 

b. Bromine solution produces no color — Para Copaiba Balsam. 
2. The drug is solid and dissolves only partially in petroleum spirit. Iodine 
solution colors red-violet — Ordinary Mastic. 
Ethereal solution forms clear mixture ivitb alcohol. 

I. Perfectly soluble in alcohol. 

r. Perchloride of iron colors the alcoholic solution blue. 

a. Lead acetate gives a precipitate with alcoholic solution. Sulphuric acid dis- 

solves the drug with a cherry-red color — Guaiacum Resin. 

b. Lead acetate gives no precipitate. Sulphuric acid dissolves the drug with a 

yellow-brown color — Carana Resin ( Aceyta americana). 
2. Perchloride of iron colors the alcoholic solution brownish or greenish. 

a. Lead acetate gives with the alcoholic solution a precipitate that is not dissolved 

by boiling. 

a. Sodium carbonate solution dissolves parts at the ordinary temperature. 
Chloral test colors the residue from the evaporation of a petroleum spirit 
extract gradually red-violet with blue streaks — Coniferous Balsams and 

$. Sodium carbonate dissolves none or a very small quantity. 
a. Petroleum spirit extract colorless. Chloral test produces no color or a 

very faint greenish — Bombay Mastic. 
B Petroleum extract colored. 

C. Dark brown. Chloral test colors brown — Mani Resin. 

D. Yellow-brown. Chloral test colors gradually indistinct red violet — Carana 


e. Yellow-brown. Chloral test and bromine solution color a magnificent 
violet — Carana hedionda. 

b. Lead acetate gives with alcoholic solution a precipitate that dissolves on 


a.. Bromine solution colors red — Peruvian Guaiacum Resin. 

0. Bromine solution produces no coloration — Alexandrian Mastic. 

c . Lead acetate gives no precipitate. Ammonia gives a turbid mixture — Dragon's 


II. Imperfectly soluble in alcohol. 

1. Lead acetate produces turbidity which disappears upon warming — Brazilian 

Copaiba Balsam. 

2. Lead acetate gives no precipitate. The drug is clearly crystalline. Sodium 

carbonate does not dissolve it by boiling. 

a. Bromine solution gradually colors green. 

a. Alcoholic hydrochloric acid colors violet, blue or brown — Elemi. 

b. Bromine solution colors violet — Elemi. 

c. Bromine solution produces no color — Elemi (Amyris elemifera). 


Perfectly soluble in alcohol. 

I. Sulphuric acid colors the residue from evaporation of a petroleum spirit extract 

cherry-red. The drug is free from cinnamic acid — Siam Benzoin. 

II. Sulphuric acid does not color such residue, or only faintly brown. Contains 

tains cinnamic acid — Sumatra Benzoin or Tolu Balsam. 

III. Sulphuric acid colors such residue yellow-brown passing into violet — Black 

Peru Balsam. 
Imperfectly soluble in alcohol. 

I. Perchloride of iron gives a precipitate, which is neither dissolved by boiling nor 

soluble in ether — Brazilian Copal. 

II. Perchloride of iron produces no turbidity or only a slight one that disappears on 


1. The ethereal solution gives with alcohol a turbid mixture. 

132 Scheme for the Recognition of { Am iiar U ^ 7 h £ r,D ' 

a. Alcoholic hydrochloric acid colors it brownish. Chloral test colors evapora- 

tion residue of petroleum spirit extract greenish — Dammar. 

b. Alcoholic hydrochloric acid colors it brick-red. Chloral test colors the petro- 

leum spirit residue carmine-red to violet — White Peru Balsam. 
2. Ethereal solution gives with alcohol a clear mixture. 

a. Ammonia gives with alcoholic solution a clear mixture. Bromine solution 

colors blue — Ceradia Resin. 

b. Ammonia gives with the alcoholic solution a turbid mixture. Bromine solu- 

tion colors greenish — Mecca Balsam. 



Etherial solution red. Ammonia gives with alcoholic solution a clear mixture — Dra- 
gon's Blood from Pterocarpus Draco. 
Ethereal solution yellowish or colorless. 

I. Alcoholic solution gives with lead acetate no precipitate — Podocarpus Resin. 

II. Alcoholic solution gives with lead acetate a precipitate that is not dissolved by 

boiling — Sandarac. 


Ethereal solution becomes turbid after addition of alcohol. 

I. Alcoholic solution gives with ammonia a clear mixture. 

1. The mixture with ammonia is yellow. The solution of the resin in sulphuric 

acid is yellow-brown and gives with alcohol a clear violet mixture — Eryops 

2. The mixture with ammonia is carmine red — Sonora Lac. 

II. Alcoholic solution gives with ammonia a turbid mixture. 

1. Perchloride of iron colors green. The drug contains cinnamic acid. 'Lead 

acetate gives a precipitate — Liquid Storax. 

2. Perchloride of iron colors brownish or not at all. 

a. The drug contains cinnamic acid, and gives with lead acetate no precipitate 

— Liquidambar Balsam. 

b. The drug contains no cinnamic acid, and gives with lead acetate a precipitate 

— Euphorbia Tirocalli Resin. 
Ethereal solution gives with alcohol a clear mixture. 

I. Perfectly soluble in alcohol. Perchloride of iron colors dark brown or black. 

1. Solution in alcohol is red. 

a. Lead acetate gives no precipitate. Chloroform extract colorless — Xanthor- 

rhoea quadrangularis Resin. 

b. Lead acetate produces turbidity. Chloroform extract yellow — Xanthorrhcea 

arborea Resin. 

2. Alcoholic solution yellow. Lead acetate produces a precipitate — Yellow Xan- 

thorrhoea Resin. 

II. Imperfectly soluble in alcohol. 

1. Alcoholic solution gives with ammonia a clear mixture. 

a. Ammoniacal mixture is violet. Lead acetate gives a violet precipitate — Lac. 

b. Ammoniacal mixture is yellow or colorless. 

a. Perchloride of iron colors the alcoholic extract black. Lead acetate gives 

no precipitate — Gamboge. 
/?. Perchloride of iron gives a preipitate which is neither soluble in ether or by 
heating. Lead acetate gives a precipitate. 
a. Readily aud completely soluble in ether-alcohol, 
c. Bromine solution precipitates the resin from the chloroform solution — 

Australian Copal. 
D. Bromine solution produces no precipitate — Manilla Copal. 
B. Imperfectly soluble in ether-alcohol — East Indian Copal. African CopaL 

Am J™%^ rm '} Resins, Gum Resins and Balsams. 133 

2. The alcoholic solution gives with ammonia a turbid mixture. 

a. Perchloride of iron gives a precipitate that is neither dissolved by boiling nor 

in ether— Borneo Copal. 

b. Perchloride of iron gives no precipitate. 

a. Completely soluble in ether-alcohol. Chloral test colors residue from evap- 
oration of petroleum spirit extract blue to blue violet — Liquidambar styra- 
ciflua Balsam. 

0. Incompletely soluble in ether-alcohol. 
a. The drug contains sulphur. 

C. Yields umbelliferon by dry distillation. 

E. Hydrochloric acid colors the petroleum spirit extract residue reddish - 

yellow; the chloral test golors it green — Persian Sagapenum. 

F. Hydrochloric acid colors the residue blue-violet ; chloral test colors it 

rose color to raspberry-red and violet — Levant Sagapenum. 
g. Not colored by hydrochloric acid. The solution of the drug in sul- 
phuric acid is yellow brown with a blue fluorescenee. Potassium nitrate 
colors the gum resin malachite-green — Ordinary Asafoetida. 

D. Yields no umbelliferon by dry distillation. 

E. Sodium carbonate solution colors the drug light brown, and the extract 

is not altered by acetic acid or lead acetate — Asafoetida from Ferula 

F. Sodium carbonate solution forms an emulsion that cannot be filtered. 

H. Lead acetate gives no precipitate. Iodine solution is not altered — 

Indian Bdellium. 

I. Lead acetate produces immediately or after a short time a precipitate 

that dissolves upon warming. Iodine solution is not altered — Afri- 
can Bdellium. 
"S. The drug contains no sulphur. 
C Yields umbelliferon by dry distillation. 
E. The petroleum spirit extract residue is colored by hydrochloric acid 
and the chloral test. 

H. Hydrochloric acid colors reddish-yellow; the chloral test colors green 

— Persian Galbanum. 

I. Hydrochloric acid colors red-violet ; the chloral test colors greenish — 

Levant Galbanum as at present in commerce. 
K. Hydrochloric acid colors violet-blue; the chloral test carmine-red-— 
Older specimens of Levant Galbanum. 

f. Hydrochloric acid gives no color; the chloral test colors light brown 

— African Ammoniacum. 
D. Yields no umbelliferon by dry distillation. 

E. Chloride of lime solution colors the gum resin orange-yellow — Persian 


F. Chloride of lime solution produces no color. Lead acetate gives no 


H Iodine solution is not altered ; the chloral test colors greenish — Olib- 

1. Iodine solution is not altered ; the chloral test gives no color — Indian 

g. Chloride of lime solution produces no color. Lead acetate gives a pre- 

H. Bromine solution colors violet-red; the chloral test colors violet — 

Ordinary Myrrh. 

I. Bromine solution produces no color or only yellowish. Perchloride 

of iron colors green — Opoponax. 
k. Bromine solution produces no color or only yellowish. Perchloride 
of iron colors brownish — Euphorbium. 
— Phar. Jour, and Trans., Nov. 17, 1877. 

134 Varieties. { Am j/a 


The specific gravity and strength of dialyzed iron has been determined by 
Mr. E. B. Shuttleworth with the following results : 


Well dried on 

Exposed during 

Sp. gr. 

on water-bath. 


one night. 




5-0 per cent. 

I "040 






4' 7 





4' 3 

Taking into account the liability of strong and well dialyzed solutions to become 
gelatinous, I think a liquor of 1*040, yielding, when evaporated and well dried over 
a water-bath, 5 per cent, of residue, best fitted for medicinal use. Such a solution' 
keeps well j it can be readily estimated by the pharmacist — a simple evaporating 
dish being all that is required — and, moreover, the strength corresponds as nearly as 
possible with that of the ordinary tincture of perchloride of iron. 

A word in regard to the asserted tastelessness of dialyzed iron. I have now on 
hand a solution which has been dialyzing for 42 days, and is quite gelatinous } it 
cannot, however, be strictly described as tasteless. Though it is not in the least 
ferruginous, it is slightly styptic, and produces, when applied to the tongue, an 
effect similar to that of astringents. This is, I think, to be attributed to the pre- 
cipitation of oxide, which occurs the moment the solution comes in contact with 
the saliva, thus giving rise to the sensation alluded to. 

Provided, then, that a solution is deprived of ferruginous taste 5 that it is not 
distinctly blackened by infusion or tincture of galls, and does not give direct evidence 
of containing hydrochloric acid, I think the test of specific gravity may be, for 
common purposes, relied on. — Canad. Phar. Jour., Dec, 1877. 

Test for Elaterin. By David Lindo. — The active principle in elaterium affords 
a very beautiful reaction with carbolic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid. The 
test may be applied as follows : 

Place a few crystals of elaterin in a small porcelain capsule, and add one or two- 
drops of liquefied crystals of carbolic acid (Calvert's No. 1, liquefied by moisture)* 
The elaterin dissolves in the carbolic acid without production of color, but if two 
or three drops of concentrated sulphuric acid are allowed to flow into the mixture, 
an intense and beautiful carmine color is developed, changing at first to orange and 
after some time to scarlet. Alkalies discharge the color. I have not been able to 
obtain a reaction resembling this with any of the alkaloids and carbolic acid, nor 
with any other substance tried. 1 

If liquefied crystals of carbolic acid are not at hand, the solid crystals can be used. 
After adding them to the elaterin add a drop of chloroform or alcohol before apply- 

1 If a nitrate in the dry state is treated in the same way with carbolic and sulphuric acids a deep greeifc 
color is developed, which changes to red on the addition of a little water. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Mar., 1878. J 



ing the sulphuric acid. The addition of sulphuric acid alone to elaterin gives rise 
to no characteristic color. 1 The elaterin cakes together, dissolves slowly and imparts 
a yellow color to the acid. If the carbolic acid is now added the reaction is obtained 
very imperfectly. The reagents should therefore be added in the order stated above. 
The test can be applied direct to some samples of the elaterium of commerce 
(dried sediment of the juice) if they are reduced to fine powder. 

Other samples may require the powder to be agitated with chloroform, and the 
solution filtered. A few drops of the filtrate, evaporated to dryness by blowing on 
the surface, will afford a residue for testing. — Chem. Ne<ws, Jan. 25. 

Chrysophanic Acid in Skin Disease. — In a report of a case of psoriasis treated 
by chrysophanic acid, in the " Medical Press and Circular," by Dr. J. C. O. Will, 
of Aberdeen, he remarks : 

The introduction of this new remedial agent, apparently possessing the power of 
effecting a cure in a short space of time, seems a real gain 5 and if more extended 
trials are followed by equally beneficial effects, there is every reason to believe that 
chrysophanic acid will soon be regarded as the most reliable and quickest method 
of treating psoriasis. 

It has one disadvantage, however, which renders its use rather objectionable in 
private practice, viz., that it stains the clothing of the patient and bed-clothes a 
purple color, which will not wash out ; but it may be reasonably expected that some 
means will be devised by which this may be overcome. 

When prescribing chrysophanic acid, it is a wise precaution to warn the patient 
against allowing it to come in contact with the eyes, as it gives rise to intense irrita- 
tion, accompanied by great dilatation of the pupils. This I have seen thrice — once 
in a case of psoriasis rupoides (at present under treatment), and twice in cases of 
favus, where I may mention that the acid proved useless. The irritation subsides 
spontaneously in the course of a few days. — Med. and Surg. Reporter, Jan. 12. 

Carbazotate of Ammonium — Dr. Beaumetz, of Paris, has reported, lately, six 
cases treated with this substance. Case 1. Quotidian ague j recovery after four days' 
treatment ; daily dose, from one to two centigrams of the substance in pills. Case 
2. Quotidian ague (sulphate of quinia having been given without effect): complete 
recovery after five days ; five pills used. Case 3. Tertian ague 5 recovery after 
eight days 5 two pills a day. Case 4. Quotidian ague 5 recovery after eight days. 
Case 5. Facial neuralgia ; speedy recovery. Case 6. Tertian ague (sulphate of 
quinia has been administered during seventeen days with no result); completely 
cured after the administration of six centigrams (about one grain) of the salt for two 
days. Like quinia, carbazotate of ammonium diminishes the state of the pulse, 
and brings on heaviness, cephalalgia, and even delirium, and is eliminated by the 
kidneys. These experiments have again been repeated by Dr. Dujardin-Beaumetz, 
with similar results. — Ibid., Jan. 5. See, also, Amer. Jour. Phar. y 1873, P- 221 an d 

1 See, however, "Am. Jour. Phar.," 1875, p. 2. — Editor. 

136 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 

Researches on Chloral and on its Hydrate. M. Berthelot. — There is libera- 
tion of heat in the reaction of gaseous chloral upon gaseous water with formation 
of a gaseous compound. The gaseous hydrate of chloral exists, then, veritably as 
a compound, distinct from a mere mixture of the two vapors. This conclusion is 
conformable to the results obtained by M. Troost from the study of the tensions of 
dissociation. It is supported by this fact that anhydrous chloral does not combine 
instantaneously with water, but condenses in it first in the form of an oil which only 
dissolves by degrees even on agitation ; whilst, on the contrary, chloral hydrate in 
vapor condenses under water in the state of a crystalline hydrate, if not agitated, 
and dissolves at once on stirring. — Chem. News [Lond.], Jan. 11, 1878. 

To Bronze Iron Articles. — According to a process by M. P. Hess, this is done 
by the articles being heated in the air after being coated with linseed oil. Objects 
which cannot be exposed to a high temperature may be steeped in a slightly acid 
solution of ferric chloride, plunged in hot water, and, when dry, rubbed with linseed 
oil or wax. To preserve iron from rust, the author recommends sulphide of copper. 
He steeps the iron for a few minutes in a solution of sulphate of copper, and then 
transfers it into a solution of hyposulphite of soda, acidulated with hydrochloric 
acid. The result is a blue-black coating, not affected by air or water. — Ironmonger, 
from Am. Gas Light Jour., Jan. 2. 

Ink that Cannot Be Erased. — An ink that cannot be erased, even with acids, 
is obtained by the following receipt : To good gall ink add a strong solution of fine 
soluble Prussian blue in distilled water. This addition makes the ink, which was 
previously proof against alkalies, equally proof against acids, and forms a writing 
fluid which cannot be erased without destruction of the paper. The ink writes 
greenish-blue, but afterwards turns black. — Amer. Gas Light Jour., Jan. 2, 1878, 
from Ironmonger. 


Philadelphia, February 19, 1878. 

In the absence of the President and Vice-President, Prof. Remington was called 
to the chair; the minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. The Chair- 
man expressed the hope that if any strangers were present they would take part in 
the proceedings, and extended a cordial welcome to them. 

Prof. Maisch presented, on behalf of our fellow-member Mr. Thomas H. Powers, 
a number of volumes, many of them rare, and portion from the library of the late 
Dr. Jno. Redman Coxe, formerly professor in the University of Pennsylvania, with 
a donation to cover the expense of rebinding such as needed it ; the list of the vol- 
umes was read, and included the folio volume of the treatise on the " Natural order 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 

Mar., 1878. 

} Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 


of Melastomacese," by Humboldt and Bonpland, illustrated with fine steel plates 
beautifully colored. 

Another donation of books, amounting to about forty, mostly treatises on chemistry 
in the German language, was also announced by Prof. Maisch as having been 
received from a scientific gentleman of this city who did not wish his name men- 
tioned. The thanks of the College were' directed to be returned to Mr. Powers, 
and to the donor of the other set through Prof. Maisch. 

The annual report of the Smithsonian Institute, for 1876, was presented from the 
Secretary, Prof. Henry, through Prof. Maisch. 

The following donations to the cabinet were received : From Mr, Neppach, a 
member of the present class, a specimen of Barberry or Chittem Bark from Oregon 
where it is used as a tonic and febrifuge ; and from Mr. Jos. Jacobs, of Georgia, a 
specimen of the cotton plant (Gossypium herbaceum) with root, stem and the 
cotton balls in full development. 

Mr. Ed. Gaillard read a paper upon Formic Acid (see page 115), and in answer 
to a question, stated that he had not learned the particular purpose for which the phy- 
sician wanted the acid. Prof. Maisch called attention to the spirit of ants, officinal 
in the German and other European pharmacopoeias, which is merely an alcoholic 
solution of formic acid, but is still prepared from red ants. 

Prof. Maisch stated that he was experimenting on Bromide of Iodine, a substance 
which has long been in use among photographers, in the daguerreotype processs for 
rendering the plates more sensitive, but appears to be likewise used, to some extent, 
for medicinal purposes 5 he described it as exceedingly caustic, similar to bromine, 
and as evidently unfit for internal use in the concentrated state, or in large doses. 
Recently, through a typographical error in a medical journal, it had been directed 
instead of potassium bromide in a prescription for epilepsy ; the error had been 
promptly corrected, but it seemed proper to direct attention to the caustic nature of 
the compound. 

Mr. Charles L. Mitchell read a paper upon medicated bougies (see page 108), 
giving their history and describing the various kinds in use, and the advantages of 
this method of medication 5 he exhibited specimens of the bougies as made by him, 
and also of Reynal's porte-remede, the former being more serviceable in appearance. 

The Chairman called the attention of the meeting to the collections of one hun- 
dred and seventy specimens of North American drugs and preparations made from 
some of them, which the College had directed to be sent to the Paris Exposition, 
and after the close of that exhibition to be presented to the Societe de Pharmacie 
of Paris. At the exhibition the collection will be in charge of Mr. Lindewald, a 
graduate of the College. 

Attention was also called to the recent purchase made by the Board of Trustees 
of a large balance for scientific uses, especially valuable in enabling the members to 
have their weights and measures adjusted to the proper standard. An examination 
of the weights used in another city showed such discrepancies as to render it impor- 
tant that an examination of the weights used by the members of our profession 
should be instituted at once. 

Mr. Shinn was called to the chair while Prof. Remington reported on a series of 
experiments undertaken by Mr. L. Wolff ; having a considerable demand for the 

138 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { Xm M™%z]£ rm> 

albumen of eggs, he was desirous of utilizing the yolks, and this led to the prepara- 
tion of the fixed oil contained in the latter and to an attempt of isolating the 
emulsifying principle , in which Mr. Wolff had been nearly successful. As obtained, 
the principle will readily emulsify oil in water by simple agitation. 

The use of fixed oils, in pharmacy, was brought forward, and among others 
benne oil, obtained from the seed of the Sesamum Orientale, was mentioned as a 
remarkably bland oil. Prof. Maisch stated that the chief objection to it was, that,, 
though not a drying oil proper, it gradually became thick and ropy on exposure, and 
could, therefore, not be advantageously substituted for expressed oil of almonds 5. 
a sample of cold cream made by using this oil in place of oil of almonds was 
exhibited by Mr. Mitchell, and was considered equal to that made by the officinal 
formula excepting in color. Prof. Maisch said that it was quite a question how 
much of the commercial expressed oil of almonds was really such, great quantities of 
apricot and peach kernels were annually consumed to obtain oil from them. The 
test recommended by Hager will detect the substitution : equal parts of 25 per 
cent, nitric acid and the oil are agitated and warmed to about i2o°F., when almond 
oil will form a white emulsion-like mixture, the other oils mentioned turning yellow 
or pinkish (see also "Araer. Jour. Phar.," 1877, P- 595)- 

A sample of so-called California rock soap had been shown at the November 
meeting ; since that time it has been subjected to a chemical investigation by Mr. 
Betz in the laboratory of the College, and proves to be a silicate of alumina with 
traces of calcium sulphate and iron, showing that it is a species of kaolin, and owes 
its detersive qualities to its mechanical rather than chemical action. 

Prof. Maisch showed specimens of drugs that had been presented to him, as being 
very beautiful, carefully prepared and of such superior quality as not often seen in 
the market ; they were the root of Archangelica officinalis, the flowering herb of 
Erythrasa Centaurium, or European Centaury, and Manna in very large, white Hakes- 
There being no further business, o'n motion, the meeting adjourned. 

Thos. S. Wiegand, Registrar. 


Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The junior examination was held about 
the middle of February, 94 first course students participating. As in the preceding 
year, twelve specimens had been laid out for identification, and the same number of 
questions prepared to be answered in writing. The time allowed was five hours, of 
which fifteen minutes could be devoted to the examination of the specimens. The 
result was in the main satisfactory to the examiners. The following were the 
questions : x 

1. What is the chemical name of Chalk? State its composition and name the 
gas which is separated from it by the action of acids. Give the composition of this 
gas, its symbol, its physical and chemical properties and the method by which it 
may be detected. 

Am M™%2:8* rm '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 139 

2. What are the officinal names (U. S. P. and B. P.) of the solutions of Am- 
monia? Give the method of preparing them 'and explain the chemical changes 
which take place. State the relative strength and the specific gravity of each. 

3. What forms of Sulphur are used in medicine? State their modes of prepara- 
tion, the impurities they may contain, and the method of detection of the more 
common impurity. 

4. Explain the meaning of the terms root, rhizome, tuber and bulb, and give two- 
officinal examples of each. 

5. What is a berry? A drupe? A capsule? Name several officinal examples 
of each kind. 

6. Enumerate the officinal leaves which have the margin entire, and state which 
are of a leathery texture. 

7. Define briefly the following pharmaceutical terms: Hydrometer, Elutriation> 
Conical Percolator, Infusion, Decoction, Fluid Extract, Cerate, Ointment, Plaster 
and Suppository. 

8. Explain the following : Specific Gravity (of liquids), Trituration, Percolation, 
Distillation, Dialysis. 

9. Explain the theory of the fermentation of Grain. Enumerate the various 
products used in Pharmacy in the order in which they are formed by this process,, 
and give the Specific Gravity of the officinal liquids obtained by this kind of fer- 

10. Give the officinal name, locality and natural order of the plant which furnishes 
Liquorice Root. What officinal product is made from the root, and how is it pre- 
pared ? Name two officinal preparations into which this product enters. 

11. State the officinal formula for the preparation of Magnesia. What change 
takes place during the process ? What is its metallic base ? Into what officinal 
solution does the carbonate enter ? Give the formula and process for making this 

12. State how you would prepare this, and when prepared, would you dispense it ? 

R Acid: Arsenios: . . . . gr. xxxii 

Potassii Bicarb: . . gr. xxxii 

A Spirit: Lavand: Comp: . . . f ^ss 

Aquae Destillatae, . . . f^viiss 

Signa: A teaspoonful to be taken every two hours. 
What reaction will take place in the following prescription ? Would you 
dispense it ? 

For T. Brown's Wije. 
R Potassii Cyanid: . . . . gr. iv 

Syrup: Simp: • . 
B Syrup: Acidi Citrici, da f t ^ii 

Signa: A teaspoonful to be given night and morning. 
How would you prepare and dispense this prescription ? 
R Plumbi Acetat: .... 
C Zinci Sulphat: . . . .ad 

Misce. Fiat chart: no: xii. 

Add one powder to half pint of water and use as directed. 

Alumni Association of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. — The reg- 
ular meeting was held on the evening of Feb. 7, President Kelley in the chair. 
Mr. Kelley called attention to an article called Absorbent Cotton, which had recently 

S4-0 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { Am *M °r U ^8 P 7 8 arm ' 

made its appearance ; he stated that both this and Dennison's jewelers"" cotton were 
•much superior to tow for straining solutions. The absorbed cotton sinks imme- 
diately on being thrown into water. 

Mr. Kelley exhibited some samples of dialyzed and of recrystallized salicylic acid, 
the latter being the cheaper article, but the general opinion seemed to be that the 
former was handsomer. 

Mr. Doliber exhibited a specimen of Xanthium spinosum, and the fluid extract 
of the same. This article had been introduced as a remedy for hydrophobia, but 
there are no cases of cure on record since its introduction. The drug possesses a 
strong odor and taste, and probably will prove useful for something. 

Mr. Bartlett spoke of cosmolin, vaselin, dermolein, etc., and exhibited a prepara- 
tion similar to these in nature and appearance. It is of the consistence of an oint- 
ment and can be made from Downer's heavy marine lubricating oils, which costs 
fifty cents per gallon, by mixing it with animal charcoal at i5o°F., and then filtering 
in a jacketed funnel. (See, also, "Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1875, P- 2 57-) This led to 
conversation on animal charcoal. Mr. Doliber had seen some which contained con- 
siderable sulphur. Prof. Markoe thought it must have been previously used and 
partially restored. 

Mr. Doliber spoke of an error which occurred in printing Dr. Brown-Sequard's 
prescription for epilepsy in the Boston " Medical and Surgical Journal," in an article 
written by Dr. Ayer. The second article in the prescription was "iodidi bromidi," 
and should have been potassii bromidi. The error was corrected in small type on 
the bottom of the last page of a subsequent number, but probably a great many 
had not seen it, as he had since received many orders for bromide of iodine. 

The New York College of Pharmacy, weare pleased to learn, has purchased a build- 
ing, hitherto used as a church, and conveniently and accessibly located. It is pro- 
posed to raise the roof and put in an additional floor, with the view of having two 
lecture rooms and a laboratory, besides other necessary rooms. The new building 
will probably be occupied about May 1st. 

Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. — In response to an invitation (p. 142) 
:a number of leading druggists from different parts of the State assembled together 
in the rooms of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society, in Harrisburg, Feb. 
26th, at 11 o'clock, for the purpose of organizing a State pharmaceutical associa- 
tion. There were present representatives from Philadelphia, Lancaster, Reading, 
Pottsville, Columbia, Chambersburg, Carlisle, Shippensburg and Harrisburg. The 
meeting was temporarily organized by the appointment of Charles A. Heinitsh, of 
Lancaster, President, and John M. Maisch, of Philadelphia, Secretary. The morn- 
ing session was occupied in the adoption of a constitution and by-laws. 

After a recess of an hour for dinner the association reassembled at half-past two 
o'clock. The committee appointed at the close of the morning session to nominate 
permanent officers for the ensuing year, reported as follows : 

President, Charles A. Heinitsh. Vice-Presidents— Geo. W. Kennedy, Pottsville j 
Dr. W. H. Egle, Harrisburg. Secretary, J. A. Miller, Harrisburg. Assistant Sec- 

Am Mar U "'i878 arm '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, \\\ 

retary, Jacob H. Stein, Reading. Treasurer, Joseph L. Lemberger, Lebanon. Exec- 
utive Committee — Chas. H. Cressler, Chambersburg 5 W. F. Horn, Carlisle; J. A, 
Meyers, Columbia. 

Various resolutions were adopted. The officers of the association were empow- 
ered to obtain a charter; a Committee on Pharmaceutical Legislation, consisting of 
Dr. W. H. Egle, Charles T. George and Dr George Ross, was appointed, and the 
Secretary was authorized to send a circular to every druggist in the State explaining 
the objects of the organization and invite him to become a member. The associa- 
tion then adjourned to meet in Reading on the second Tuesday of June next. 
Those present at the meeting were very much gratified with the success of the 
movement, and expressed their belief that in a short time the association would 
embrace in its membership all the reputable pharmacists throughout the State. 

Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The final meet- 
ing of the session was held February 7, 1878, President Mattison in the chair. In 
point of attendance it surpassed any previous one, over seventy persons being pres- 
ent. The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. Mr. Kennedy 
gave the result of an assay of a sample of gun-powder which he had analyzed. He 
also gave the particulars of the case of poisoning by potassium chlorate, to which he 
alluded at a former meeting (see page 112). The President mentioned a case where 
the careless use of the troches of the substance had produced alarming symptoms. 

Mr. Trimble read a paper prepared by Mr. Pennypacker, containing valuable 
information on the subject of the Salicylates (see page 114). 

Mr. Betz reported an examination of the expressed oil of wild cherry pits, referred 
to him at an earlier meeting (see page 111). 

Dr. Miller gave a resume of some curious facts connected with Chinese and 
Mexican pharmacy, gathered from the respective exhibits of those countries at the 
Centennial. He also submitted a label for specimens, which, on being filled out,, 
would state much information connected with the Materia Medica specimen on 
which it was employed. Samples of drugs, with the appropriate facts, were shown, 
and presented to the Alpha Phi Society. Highly aromatic oil of mace, obtained 
from mace by hydraulic expression, was brought to the notice of the meeting by 
the same gentleman. 

The President showed a convenient and desirable little addition to the dispensing 
counter, .in an apparatus for rapid filtration, which deserves to be generally adopted 
(see page 105). A paper on dialysis, explaining the meaning of the term, and pro- 
cess, was also read by Mr. Mattison (see page 102). 

Mr. Sayre remarked on the use of dialyzed iron as an arsenical antidote, and the 
necessity of changing it into the form of a magma ; also desired information on the 
subject of chrysophanic acid, which at present he is making from the East India 
goa-powder. Its use in certain skin diseases was adverted to. 

The names of a number of specimens which had been submitted to the class for 
examination were then announced. They were very generally recognized by the 

On motion the meeting adjourned. Wallace Procter, Secy. 

1 42 Editorial. { Am ifcs7 h 8 ann - 


State Pharmaceutical Societies. — We are much pleased that our suggestion as 
to the advisability of calling a convention, with the view of organizing an associa- 
tion embracing all the reputable pharmacists and druggists of Pennsylvania, has been 
promptly acted upon, as will be noticed from the subjoined circular: 

" Harrisburg, February 14, 1878. Dear Sir — You are hereby cordially invited to 
meet with us in this city on Tuesday, the 26th inst., at 11 A M., in the rooms of 
the Pennsylvania Agricultural Society, for the purpose of organizing a State Phar- 
maceutical Association. Please extend the invitation to all druggists in good stand- 
ing in your locality. Charles A. Heinitsh, Lancaster 5 Geo. W. Kennedy, Potts- 
ville 5 Joseph L. Lemberger, Lebanon ; J. A. Miller, Wm. H. Egle, M.D., C. K. 
Keller, Chas, T. George, G. H. Markley, A. W. Nunemacker, J. H. Boher, Har- 

As will be seen from the report on another page, the Association has been organ- 
ized and is the second one in the Middle States, that of New Jersey being the first. 
We are aware that in others conferences have been held looking towards the same 
end, and we sincerely wish that they may likewise lead to the same desirable result. 

Hospital Stewards, U. S. A. — The importance of securing for the armies the 
services of educated pharmacists is generally recognized in Europe, and in no coun- 
try, perhaps, has this necessity been brought to such a state of perfection as in 
France, where there is ample chance given for promotion for services rendered, and 
where, as a natural consequence, many highly-educated pharmacists are found in 
responsible positions, and with a military rank commensurate to their responsibility. 
The medical service of the United States Army offers similar inducements to grad- 
uates in medicine, who before they are admitted as assistant-surgeons, have to sub- 
mit to a thorough examination. It is different with the pharmacists of the army, 
the hospital stewards as they are now officially termed, or the medical stewards as 
they are proposed to be called hereafter. It is true that, previous to their appoint- 
ment from the ranks of civil or military life, they must be recommended as being 
** temperate, honest, and in every way reliable, as well as sufficiently intelligent and 
skilled in pharmacy for the proper discharge of the responsible duties likely to 
devolve upon them 5" but we regard it as a radical error, that they should not, like 
the surgeons, be required to have been specially educated to their calling. We are 
well aware that there are many pharmacists enlisted as hospital stewards, and the 
sooner it is recognized that the best pharmaceutical skill is not too good for the 
army, the better will it be for this special branch of the service, and the more readily 
will the army secure the services of well-educated pharmacists. A system of enlist- 
ment and promotion, similar to that of the French army, would secure this. 

The hospital stewards of the army are now endeavoring to secure for themselves 
a well-recognized rank, and in this they should be successful. The demands to be 
recognized as sergeants and sergeant-majors, with an occasional promotion to the 
rank of lieutenant, are moderate enough, and, in our opinion, by far below their 
responsibilities and the duties required of them. 

Am. jour. Pharm ) 
Mar., 1878. J 



Curious Synonym for Quinia. — Recently we were shown a prescription in which 
the first article ordered was, 

R Sulphatis americanas australis, gr. xxiv. 

This South American szlphate was interpreted to mean quinia sulphate, the former 
term having been probably selected by the physician because, from a fancied idiosin- 
cracy or dreaded ill-effects, the patient imagined to be unable or refused to take 

Prescription Blanks and the Percentage Business — We have occasionally 
referred to the nefarious collusion between some physicians and apothecaries, by 
which the patient is made to pay extortionate prices so that the attending physician 
may, besides his regular fee, secure some additional cash through the apothecary. 
On various occasions we have alluded to these corrupt bargains, and we are prompted 
to again refer to them by having seen a prescription blank, upon the back of which 
is printed the following notice: 

" N. B — In justice to myself and the profession, attention is called to the fact 
that the physician who writes upon this blank does not accept percentage from the 

We are not aware to what extent the practice prevails, or is by the public sup- 
posed to prevail in the community where the blank before us originated ; but for 
the honor of both professions we trust that the honorable physicians and pharma- 
cists, who would spurn such collusion, are vastly in the majority, and do not form 
the exception. 

The Prolificness of Stramonium Some time ago, Mr. Theodore G. Davis 

informed us that last year he had chosen a plant of Datura stramonium with the 
intention of collecting its leaves and seeds. The plant, however, was destroyed by 
a storm in September, at which time it had attained a height of four and a half feet, 
and with its branches spread over an area five feet in diameter. It had produced 
125 flowers and capsules ; each capsule contained between 700 and 735 seeds, and 
as it takes between 9 and 10 seeds to weigh one grain, the plant would have pro- 
duced nearly 20 troyounces of seeds, if all had ripened. 

The Necessity of Forest Culture. — We find it stated that in ten years there have 
been destroyed in the United States not less than 12,000,000 acres of forest trees. 
We do not know how accurate this estimate may be, but it must be evident to all 
observing travelers that in many localities forests are ruthlessly destroyed for the 
sake of the timber, and without making any endeavor of replanting them. The 
important influence of forests upon the climate is well known and generally admitted, 
and with such a wholesale clearing of timber land as above indicated, must soon 
impress upon all the necessity of rational forest culture, which, up to this time, has 
been almost completely neglected. 

144 Obituary. { A %K 8 arn - 


Paul Antoine Cap died November 12, 1877, at tne advanced age of 90 years. 
.He was a prominent pharmacien at Paris and the author of an elementary work on 
pharmacy and of numerous essays on pharmaceutical subjects, a number of which 
were transferred to the earlier volumes of the "American Journal of Pharmacy M 
up to the year 1865. The deceased was a corresponding member of the Philadel- 
phia College of Pharmacy. 

NAPOLeoN NiCKLes, pharmacist at Benfeld, Alsace-Lorraine, died there January 
6, aged 69 years. The deceased was born Oct. 23, 1808, became an apprentice in 
January, 1822, and subsequently served as clerk at Strasburg and other towns of 
Alsace-Lorraine. He graduated at Strasburg in 1833, and in the following year 
established himself at Benfeld, where he continued to cultivate his favorite study of 
botany. His scientific attainments were recognized by many French and German 
societies, in electing him honorary or corresponding member. He was the author 
of several works on botanical and agricultural subjects, and a contributor to the 
"Journal de Pharmacie d' Alsace-Lorraine." 

Henry Daniel Ruhmkorff, the famous magneto-electrician, died at Paris 
Dec. 20, 1877, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. He was born at Hannover, 
Germany, but, while a youth, came to Paris, where, in 1844, he attracted attention 
by a new thermo-electric battery, and in 1851 constructed the apparatus known 
everywhere as RuhmkorfTs apparatus. In 1855 he was awarded the first prize of 
50,000 francs for the excellence of his electric apparatus. 

Antoine CesAR Becquerel was born March 8, 1788, at Chatillon sur Loing, 
Department of Loire, and received his scientific education at the Paris Polytechnic 
School. After having served in the army until 1815, he devoted himself to his 
favorite branch of science, physics, and more especially to magnetism and electricity 
in their application to the arts and sciences. One of the fruits of these investiga- 
tions was his well known work, Electrochimie appliquee aux arts, which appeared in 
1842. A number of his essays have appeared in the earlier volumes of this journal. 
He labored for a long time as professor of physics at the Jardin des Plantes, and 
was a member of the Academy of Sciences since 1824, and of many learned socie- 
ties. He died January 18, having nearly completed his ninetieth year. 

Victor Henri Regnault, another eminent scientist of France, died at Paris, 
January 19, at the age of 6 7 \ years. He was born at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1810, 
finished his scientific education at the Paris Polytechnic College, occupied after- 
wards the chair of physics and chemistry at Lyons, and was then called to Paris, 
first to the Polytechnic School, and in 1841 to the College de France. Since 1854 
he was director of the porcelain manufactory at Sevres. The most important 
researches of the deceased were on the expansion, compression and density of gases 
and liquids, on the latent heat of vapors, on the specific heat of bodies, etc. A 
few of his papers, having some bearing on pharmacy, will be found, in abstract, in 
former volumes of this journal. 



APRIL, 1878. 


By Henry G. Debrunner, Chemist. 
As it is quite customary in many parts of the United States that 
druggists are at the same time dealers in paints, colors, window glass, 
putty, etc., a closer examination of these articles, as to their composi- 
tion, character and most frequent adulterations, will probably be of 
some interest to the readers of this journal. 

White Paints. — In speaking of white lead, the following classifica- 
tion will be most suitable : 

1. Pure white lead, a mixture of plumbic carbonate and oxy hydrate. 

2. White paints, bearing the above name and containing a certain 
percentage of real white lead, which very often decreases to mere traces. 

3. White paints, not unfrequently marked " pure white lead," but 
without the name of the manufacturing firm, and containing no lead 

The following analysis of a sample of white lead, prepared by the 
Dutch method and exhibited at the Centennial Exposition in Philadel- 
phia, may be taken as a representative of the first-class, the approximate 
formula derived from the analysis being Pb 50 C 29 H 86 O 151 . 

Plumbic oxide, . . 83*9668 per cent. 

Carbonic acid, . . . 9-6000 

Water combined, . . . 5*8332. 

Moisture, . . . o*6ooo 

There are chiefly two methods in use for the manufacture of white 
lead, viz. : the Dutch and the French process. The former consists in 
a slow corrosion of plates or buckles of metallic lead in pots contain- 
ing a small quantity of dilute acetic acid ; the basic acetate thus formed 
is changed into the corresponding carbonate by the action of the car- 
bonic acid of the atmosphere, "which requires several weeks' time. The 
French process consists in forming a basic acetate by saturating acetic 


146 Paints, Colors and their Analysis. { % J p c n ^s? 8 arm ' 

acid with plumbic oxide, and precipitating the latter by carbonic acid, 
prepared from lime-stone or marble dust and muriatic acid. The pro- 
duct of the Dutch process is a mixture of plumbic oxyhydrate and car- 
bonate in varying proportions, that of the French process an almost 
pure carbonate. The gloss and brilliancy of the pigment is chiefly 
due to the plumbic carbonate, while the oxyhydrate increases its body. 
Representatives of the second class are very frequently met with in the 
trade, containing from 10 to 50 per cent, of " pure white lead," the 
remainder being substituted by oxide of zinc, plumbic sulphate, chalk, 
whitening, gypsum, barytes (BaS0 4 ), clay, etc. 

The following " white lead " may fairly represent the third class : . 

Calcic carbonate, . . . 14 800 per cent. 

Zinc oxide, .... 60*500 

Baric sulphate, .... 19*400 

Silicic acid, .... i"35° 

Iron and alumina, . . . 2*300 

Lime (in insoluble residue), . 560 

Sulphuric acid (in HC1 sol.), . . 1*710 
Plumbic oxide (as PbSOJ, . slight trace. 


Insoluble residue in hydrochloric acid, 21*50 to 21*57 per cent. 

It is evident that this latter " white lead " was prepared by mixing 
and grinding together whitening 15, barytes 25 and zinc white 60 
parts. Silicic acid, iron, alumina and the insoluble portion of lime are 
frequent impurities in barytes. Plumbic oxide is very often found in 
commercial zincs, in quantities varying from one-half to 10 per cent., 
as we will see later. As the term " white lead " has become almost 
synonymous with " white paint," it will suffice to state that numerous 
combinations and mixtures of all the white pigments mentioned, are 
sold partly as liquid, or ready mixed paints, or brought in the market 
as dry colors in form of powder or ground in oil. In the following I 
add a few analyses of "zincs," as they are found in our present 
market : 

1. Sample. 

Very fine white, best quality. 

Moisture, 0*4 per cent. Zinc oxide, 99*1720 per cent. 

Sulphuric acid, 0*0122 Sulphate zinc, 00243 

Zinc oxide, 99*4 Sulphite zinc, 0*3870 

Sulphurous acid, 0*1711 Moisture, 0*4000 




of iron. 

99'9 8 33 

A \l™\*£ rm '} Paints, Colors and their Analysis. 147 

2. Sample. 3. Sample. 

Zinc oxide (uncombined), 98-298 per cent. Moisture, o 636 per cent. 

Zinc oxide (combined), 0*270 Sulphurous acid, o 627 

Sulphuric acid, 0*375 Sulphuric acid, 4*656 

Sulphurous acid, 0-122 Plumbic oxide, 5*453 

Lime (as sulphate), 0-123 Zinc oxide, 88 254 
Trace of iron, Lime and iron, trace. 

9918" 99-676 

5 -453 per cent. PbO is equal to 7*41 per cent. PbSC) 4 , and of the 
sulphurous acid 0*1125 per cent, was combined, and 0*5145 per cent, 
mechanically absorbed. 

Lime, gypsum, plumbic sulphate and sulphurous acid are accidental 
impurities due to the process of manufacture and depending also on 
the quality of the ore from which the zinc-white is directly prepared. 
In some of the samples — particularly in moist ones — the larger por- 
tion of the sulphurous acid is merely mechanically absorbed or enclosed, 
and can be expelled with the moisture by heating on the water bath. 
In the course of time, however, zinc sulphite, ZnS0 3 , is formed, 
which, finally, is converted into zinc sulphate ZnS0 4 . If such 
zincs " containing sulphuric acid are used for the adulteration of 
white lead, plumbic sulphate is formed, which may considerably alter 
the quality of the paint. A patent white paint, said to be manfactured 
by precipitating zinc sulphate with baric sulphite, analyzed as follows : 

Baric sulphate, . . . 60*83 P er cent. 

Zinc sulphite, . . . . 32*28 

Zinc oxide, .... 6*88 


That " pure zincs," like " white lead," are sometimes adulterated, 

may be illustrated by the following analysis : 

Baric sulphate, . . 54*200 per cent. 

Zinc oxide, . . . 44*300 

Sulphuric acid, . . . 788 

Lead, lime and alumina, . . traces. 


It is evident that the practical working formula for making this zinc- 
white was : barytes, 55 and zinc (ZnO), 45 parts. Besides the brands 
mentioned there are numerous white paints perfectly free from lead and 
zinc, consisting of mixtures of China clay, barytes, whitening, etc. 

Blue Colors and Paints. — The most prominent pigments of this 

148 Paints, Colors and their Analysis. {^ApX^"" 

class, which are extensively used in the arts and manufactures, are 
ultramarine and Prussian blue. The former is a combination of sodic 
sulphide with alumina silicate. Lapis lazuli, the native ultramarine, 
is a very beautiful, though rare mineral, and resists the action af acetic 
acid and alum, while the artificial product is more or less acted on by 
these chemicals, and entirely destroyed by strong mineral acids, with 
evolution of sulph-hydric gas. There are several shades of ultramarine 
in the market, viz. : 

a. Green or bluish-green ultramarines. 

b. Light blue shades of great intensity. 

c. Pure deep blue shades. 

d. Reddish or violet ultramarines. 

They all have qualitatively the same composition, merely differing 
in the percentage of sulphur and oxygen, and are most generally manu- 
factured by ignition of a mixture of China clay, sodic sulphate and 
charcoal. The product is green, and is sometimes brought into the 
market after grinding, washing and drying. On mixing this green 
powder with sulphur, and heating till the latter burns out, forming sul- 
phurous anhydrid, a light-blue shade is obtained, containing from 6 to 
8 per cent, of sulphur. 

Beautiful deep blue shades are formed by addition of sodic carbonate 
and sulphur to the charge previously mentioned, and subsequent reheat- 
ing with sulphur. The product of this process contains from 10 to 
12 per cent, of sulphur. Mixtures of China clay, infusorial earth, 
coal, sodic carbonate and sulphur yield reddish-blue and violet shades 
on ignition. 

The more silica an ultramarine contains the better it resists the acids. 
These pigments are extensively used in fresco painting. 

As to Prussian blue — ferrocyanide of iron — I refer to my article on 
" Wash-Blue and its Analysis," in the " American Journal of Phar- 
macy," Feb., 1877. The lighter shades of blue are obtained by grind- 
ing white pigments, as chalk, whitening, barytes, zinc, clay, etc., with 
a certain quantity of pure Prussian or Chinese blue. It is astonishing 
what an immense colorific power this pigment possesses, particularly 
if very finely distributed. 

The following experiment, which may be worth while trying, proves 
the latter assertion. Take 9/6 grams of whitening and 0*4 of pure 
blue. After mixing them in a mortar and rubbing with a pestle for 

Am Ai Xi^78 rm '} Paints, Colors and their Analysis. 149 

awhile, take a sample of the mixture, while the remainder is treated in 
the above-mentioned manner for about half an hour longer. The mixture 
now exhibits a far deeper shade than the sample previously taken, with 
which it corresponds in composition, so that the uninitiated will hardly 
believe that both are formed from the same constituents, in the same 
proportion. 1 per cent., even J- per cent., of blue with 99 to 99J per 
cent, of whitening or u zinc " (ZnO) will yet form a fine sky, or celes- 
tial, blue, as some manufacturers prefer to call it. Everybody has 
seen those blue-painted barrels in which coal oil is shipped. An ana- 
lysis of said paint gave the following result : 

Calcic carbonate, .... 59*032 per cent. 

Sulphuric acid, .... 0*583 
Ferric oxide (from blue), . . .2 200 

Volatile portion of the blue, . . , 2*200 

Zinc oxide, . . . . . 36.120 

Lead, .... trace 


The white paint of the lid of these barrels analyzes as follows : 

Sulphuric acid, .... 12*546 per cent. 

Lime (as sulphate), . ■ . . . 9*068 

Zinc oxide, ..... 78 500 
Traces of alumina. 

ioo*i 14 

This paint had been ground in oil, which was eliminated by ignition ; 
the calcic sulphate, CaS0 4 , therefore, is to be calculated as gypsum, 
CaS0 4 -{-2H 2 0, which approximately leads to the following working 
formula: Gypsum (CaS0 4 -f-2.H 2 0) = 25, and zinc white (ZnO) = 
75 per cent. 

The following analyses of " coal oil " blues of different make show 
that they all contain about 4 per cent, of the blue pigment, and solely 
differ in quality and quantity of the white admixtures : 

Ferric oxide (from blue), . . , 2*023 per cent. 

Volatile portion of blue, . . . 2*023 

Carbonic acid, ... . . 25*232 

Silicic acid, .... o 269 

Sulphuric acid, .... 1*048 

Lime, , 35'2i5 

Magnesia, . . o*6oo 

Plumbic oxide, .... 1*987 

Oxide zinc, ..... 31*538 


150 Paints, Colors and their Analysis. { Am xS' I ? 7 h 8 a . rm ' 

These results, like the preceding analysis of coal oil blue, lead to 
the following working formula I, while a sample made by a Pittsburg, 

firm showed the composition II. 

I. II. 

Whitening, . . .60 per cent. 46 per cent. 

Zinc white, ... 36 50 

Prussian blue, ... 4 4 

Yellow Paints. — Plumbic chromate is the most prominent color- 
ing constituent of these paints. Light shades, as "canary," " lemon," 
etc., are obtained either by admixture of white substances on grinding, 
as previously mentioned, or, for finer brands, by precipitating the lead 
solution (nitrate, in some cases acetate) by mixtures of potassic bichro- 
mate and alum solutions, thus producing mixed precipitates of very 
finely divided plumbic sulphate and chromate, which afterwards can be 
further u thinned down " on grinding. The more dilute the solutions 
the more tender and finer is the shade of the product. Acetic solu- 
tions give a deeper yellow precipitate than those of plumbic nitrate. 
Temperature, dilution and the mode of precipitation also exert great 
influence on the quality of the product, more marked in this, although 
generally observed in the manufacture of all colors. A sample of com- 
mercial chrome-yellow analyzed as follows : 

Moisture, ..... 0-150 per cent. 
Baric sulphate, .... 47*050 
Plumbic sulphate, .... 7*205 

Plumbic chromate, .... 45*849 
Gypsum, .... traces 


Orange shades are obtained by boiling the yellow precipitate with 
caustic soda, whereby a basic chromate is formed. Other inorganic 
yellow pigments, as baric chromate, cadmium sulphide, arsenic sul- 
phide, etc., have but very limited application, the latter on account of 
its poisonous qualities. 

Red Paints. — Vermillion, or mercuric sulphide, and chrome-red, 
or so-called American vermillion, a very basic plumbic chromate, are 
extensively used in painting, the latter for agricultural implements, the 
carriages of fire-engines, etc. 

Vermillion is prepared by shaking mercury in iron flasks with solu- 
tions of alkali-polysulphurets, or caustic soda, and flowers of sulphur. 
The shaking is done by machinery, and lasts for several hours, when 

Am &™\w rm '} Paints, Colors and their Analysis. 1 5 1 

the previously black sulphide will assume a beautiful red color. The 
quicker the motion the lighter and more fiery will be the shade. Its 
high price prevents an extensive use of this pigment in painting. 

American vermillion is formed on boiling white lead with a solution 
of potassic bichromate. The genuine article is of a beautiful red 
color, which resists very well to atmospheric influences. In order to 
hide the decrease of intensity of this color, resulting from excessive 
admixture of white bodies, it is now often brought to the necessary 
shade by the addition of anilin dyes or corallin. The following ana- 
lysis of a scarlet shows the composition of this class of paints : 

Moisture, . . . . . 0*250 per cent. 

Organic pigment, .... 2*400 
Baric sulphate, 46*500 
Basic lead chromate, . . ■ . 20*093 

Plumbic sulphate, . 31*700 


The organic pigment was extracted with alcohol, and the beautifully 
colored solution left, on evaporation in a watch glass, a crystalline crust 
having a green metallic lustre. Further tests proved it to be corallin, 
soluble in alcohol and alkalies, insoluble in water. The immense 
colorific power of anilin dyes renders it possible to give red lead, 
Pb 3 4 , 'orange mineral, (Pb 3 4 ) x H-(PbO) y and even massicot, PbO, 
a beautiful scarlet shade. These " dyed pajnts " fade very rapidly 
when exposed to light and air, but keep well when sold in hermetically 
sealed tin cans, either dry or in oil. 

A beautiful red pigment, consisting of antimony sulphide, Sb 2 S 3 , can 
be obtained by boiling antimony chloride with sodic hyposulphite, when 
an elegant reaction will take place, resulting finally as follows : 

2SbCl 3 -h3Na 2 S 2 03+3H 2 0-=6HCl+3Na 2 S0 4 4-Sb 2 S 3 . 

E. Kopp, who first showed that the red precipitate was neither oxy- 
chloride nor oxysulphide, also communicated a practical method for its 
manufacture on a large scale. The by-products, sodic sulphate and 
hydrochloric acid, could easily be recovered, and the latter utilized 
again to convert the black native antimony-sulphide into the desired 

1 Orange mineral is the product of calcination of white. lead, at a moderate tem- 
perature, with free admission of air. It is made from the sweepings of white lead 

152 Paints, Colors and their Analysis. { Am A^X'x8 7 h 8 arm * 

chloride necessary for this manufacture. The fact, however, that this 
color is readily influenced by the atmosphere, etc., has so far prevented 
a more extensive application. 

Green Colors and Paints. — These are either green colored chem- 
ical combinations like Paris-green, Scheele's green and chromic oxide, 
or secondly, mixtures of blue and yellow pigments like the so-called 
chrome-greens, which consist of lead chromate and Berlin-blue. 

Paris-green, aceto-arsenite of copper, =C 4 H 6 4 Cu-f 3 (As 2 4 Cu) 

is one of the most beautiful pigments, which, however, on account of 

its extreme poisonous qualities, is very limitedly used in painting. It 

is the more astonishing, therefore, to find this very pigment often used 

for staining wall-paper and fancy paper for confectioners' use (see my 

article " Dangerous Candy," vol. 49, 1877, p. 14, of this journal). 

Muspratt gives the following analysis of this pigment : 

Arsenious acid, As 2 3 , . . 58 65 per cent. 

Cupric oxidej CuO, . . 31*29 

Acetic acid, C 2 H 4 6 2 , . . . 10*06 

Immense quantities of Paris-green are used to kill potato-bugs. It 
is often adulterated with gypsum, which will be left as insoluble resi- 
due on addition of ammonia, in which the pure pigment dissolves 

Scheele's Green is cupric arsenite, and also highly poisonous. It is 
darker and of a less bright and elegant shade than the former. 

Guignet Green, chiefly consisting of chromic oxyhydrate or oxyborate, 
is perfectly harmless, and forms on fusing potassic bichromate with 
boric acid, the mass being subsequently extracted with hot water, when 
the pigment will be left as a beautiful green powder, which is of more 
importance in calico printing than in the manufacture of paints. 

The most prominent representatives of the second class are the 
numerous shades of varying mixtures of Prussian-blue and lead chro- 
mate, which, in regard to their manufacture as well as to their analysis, 
are the most complicated colors in the market. Almost every color- 
work and, doubtless, every color-maker, pretends to have some secrets 
about the " greens.'' Very often these colors contain tartaric, oxalic 
or citric acid, not unfrequently all three in minute quantities, which the 
color-maker adds when the green precipitate has already formed, " to 
improve the shade." (?!) It would require too much space to dwell 
on the manufacture of chrome greens, and it therefore may suffice to 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1878. J 

Paints, Colors and their Analysis, 

l S3 

state that these mixtures are obtained by precipitation, so that the yellow 
and blue pigments meet in statu nascendi. For instance, into a large 
vessel containing a solution of blue in oxalic acid, lead nitrate or acetate 
is run in at one and potassic bichromate at the other extremity, while 
the contents of the vessel are constantly agitated. The lime contained 
in the large quantities of water used as solvents suffices to deprive the 
blue of its relatively small quantity of solvent, forming calcic oxalate. 1 
In this case the use of oxalic acid is fully justified. Far more frequently, 
however, the blue is applied as a thin pulp, not dissolved in oxalic acid, 
which process, besides being cheaper, answers equally well. Clay, 
gypsum and barytes, or whatever white admixture is desired, are added 
to the green pulp with constant stirring, and more thoroughly incor- 
porated by subsequent repeated grinding. Various other methods, 
though chiefly based on the above principles, are in use at the different 
works to produce different qualities and shades of chrome-greens. The 
following analyses may illustrate the composition of this class of paints: 

Shade — Light-green, similar to Paris-green, but less fiery : 

Moisture, .... 0-4500 per cent. 

Loss on ignition, . . . 31750 

f Baric sulphate, . . . 61-2200 

{ Gypsum, . . . 0*1290 

Plumbic sulphate, . . . 5*0000 

Zinc oxide, • . . 0*5750 

\ Alumina, .... 4 0500 

! Magnesia, .... 0-2736 

j Lime, .... 0*5000 

[ Silicic acid, . . . 11-2400 

( Plumbic oxide, .... 7*4700 
{ Chromic acid, . . .3 3400 

Ferric oxide, .... 2 8000 




a = barytes ; b — China-clay ; c = chrome-yellow ; d = non-vola- 
tile portion, namely, ferric oxide of the blue, which is equal to half the 
quantity of pure u commercial" blue present (see " Wash-blue and its 
Analysis," vol. 49, 1877, P- 67, °f this journal). The practical work- 
ing formula, derived from this analysis, is as follows: Prussian-blue, 
5*5; chrome-yellow, II'O; barytes, 62*0; China-clay, i6'0, and 
plumbic sulphate, 5-5 parts — total, 100. This green also contained 
small quantities of tartaric and oxalic acids. 

'An oxalic solution of Prussian-blue easily throws down the pigment when other 
precipitates are produced in it, as in this case, even without presence of lime or other 
similarly acting agent. 

154 Paints, Colors and their Analysis, { '^Xi^t™' 

Another sample analyzed as follows : 

Moisture, .... oioo per cent. 

a | ^ 

f Plu 
1 Chi 

Ferric oxide, 
Calcic carbonate, 
Baric sulphate, . 
Sulphuric acid (soluble in HC1), 
mbic oxide, 

romic acid, 






Direct estimation of carbonic acid = 4*2 per cent, a Prussian- 
blue \ b chrome-yellow. The practical working formula for this color 
would be : Chrome-yellow 10, blue 5, barytes 75 and whitening 10 
parts— total, 100. 

This green contained, besides the constituents mentioned, also oxalic, 
tartaric and citric acids in minute quantities. 

Brown and Black Pigments.— Quite a number of iron ores, par- 
ticularly the manganiferous oxyhydrates, either raw or in the calcined 
state, are frequently used as paints and termed umber and burnt umber. 

A number of argillaceous iron ores have found similar application 
and yield brown paints of great durability. Light-brown shades of 
leather color are produced by boiling a neutral solution of ferrous sul- 
phate with potassic bichromate. For darker shades a small quantity of 
caustic soda is added, together with the bichromate. Although these 
precipitates are of a leather color, their application is but very limited- 
Cupric ferro-cyanide, doubtless one of the most handsome brown-red 
mineral pigments, also belongs to this class. It is rather expensive > 
which circumstance seems to have prevented a more general applica- 

The coloring principle of most of the black mineral pigments is 

carbon, as, for instance, lampblack, boneblack and graphite or plumbago. 

The following is an analysis of a plumbago lately found in this State, 

of which I happened to obtain a sample. It consists of fine leafy 

particles, and is of sufficient purity to find useful application in either 

manufacture of crucibles and paints : 

Moisture, ..... o 26 per cent. 
Ash, . . . . . 8-55 

Carbon, ..... 91-19 


Some of these black pigments possess great colorific intensity and 

Am 'j$l\lX™'} P^nts, Colors and their Analysis. 155 

will stand an admixture of 50 to 75 per, cent, of white pulverulent 
substances, as, for instance, barytes, whitening, etc., without assuming a 
grey appearance. The different grey shades are obtained by mixing 
and grinding black pigments with large quantities of white substances 
as theabove mentioned. Zinc dust — a by-product of the zinc distillation, 
the well-known reducing agent in chemistry — is also used as a grey 
paint. A sample of this substance, which, spontaneously ignited 
through the action of moisture, had the following composition (vide 
Berg und Hiittenmannische Zeitung, 1877) : 

Zinc, ..... 40 o per cent. 

Lead, . . . . .2*5 

Cadmium, .... 40 

Zinc oxide, ..... 50^0 
Zinc carbonate and dust, . . 3-5 


Several samples analyzed by me contained in toto 63*637, 79*978,. 
54*727 per cent, of zinc. 

It would require too much space to treat of all the numerous pig- 
ments of less commercial importance ; therefore, only those have been 
considered which are most frequently met with in the market. Con- 
cerning the different chemicals used in the manufacture of paints it 
may be stated that large colorworks very often prepare their own supplies,, 
as, for instance, acetic acid, potassic ferrocyanide, alum, copper sul- 
phate, the different lead salts, etc. As in many instances the solutions 
of freshly formed compounds can at once be applied without previous 
evaporation and crystalization, many colors can thus be far cheaper 
prepared than by those concerns who buy their supplies and produce 
the solutions from the crystallized chemicals. A similar saving is also 
caused by the use of ct pulps " in producing color mixtures. 

Analysis of Paints.— The sample to be analyzed may be in the 
dry state, ground in oil or in liquid form, ready for use. In the latter 
cases the fatty or resinous portions of the paint are extracted with 
benzin, alcohol and ether, which leave the pigment in form of a 
powder suitable for analysis. In some cases the additions may be 
removed by simple ignition ; however, as reductions are very apt to 
take place, this process recommends itself only in a limited number of 
cases. If a complete analysis of a liquid paint is required, whereby,, 
not only the pigment but also the vehicle, the different oils, the quan- 

156 Paints y Colors and their Analysis. { Am x&8 P 7 8 arm ' 

tity of resinous matter, benzin and turpentine are required to be known, 
the modus operandi becomes very complicated, and a strictly correct 
solution of this task is in some cases impossible. 

We will first consider the analysis of the dry colors, or those freed 
from oil by extraction, and finally dwell on the ways and means by 
which we may get some information on the nature of the vehicle of a 
paint and the quantitative relations of its constituents. 

The main difficulty in these analyses consists in the separation of 
the different lead salts which may be present, as, for instance, plumbic 
sulphate and chromate from each other, and from baric sulphate and 
silicates (clay). We have, however, in sodic hyphosulphite an excel 
lent solvent for plumbic sulphate, by means of which we may separate 
it from the above compounds. The analysis of a chrome-green, con- 
taining a blue and a yellow color, is among the most complicated ones ; 
the analytical method most suitable in these cases may be illustrated by 
the recapitulation of an actual analysis. 1 Let us suppose the qualitative 
analysis indicated the following constituents : Plumbic chromate, ferric 
ferrocyanide, plumbic sulphate, calcic sulphate, zinc oxide, silicates of 
lime alumina and magnesia (clay), baric sulphate and moisture. The 
estimation of these constituents is best done in the following manner : 

1 or 2 grams are used for the determination of moisture, and the 
dry powder is then ignited in a procelain crucible at a low heat just 
Sufficient to destroy the ferric ferrocyanide, and reweighed to find the 
loss on ignition. 

The calcined residue is extracted with sodic hyposulphite to dissolve 
the plumbic sulphate, which is subsequently precipitated with sulphuric 
acid, reconverted into plumbic sulphate, and finally weighed. Sodic 
hyphosulphite may be advantageously used in the color analysis as a 
test for plumbic sulphate. Plumbic carbonate is perfectly insoluble in 
the hyposulphite solution, while traces of gypsum and minute quantities 
of lead chromate— particularly of the orange and red basic chromates 
will dissolve — a fact which must be borne in mind when performing a 
quantitative analysis of a paint. The errors thus caused are, however, 
very slight, and of no significance for practical purposes. It is advis- 
able, and may serve as confirmation for the correctness of a result, to 

1 For other paints, like Paris green, white lead, zincs, etc, the usual analytical rules 
will give satisfactory results. 

Am Ai rn r ;i8^8 arm *} Paints, Colors and their Analysis. 1 57 

weigh the insoluble residue left after extraction with hyposulphite as 
well as the plumbic sulphate actually dissolved and reprecipitated. The 
difference must be very small. 

The undissolved portion is washed, and finally treated with concen- 
trated hydrochloric acid and absolute alcohol. The result is a green 
solution containing the chlorides of iron, aluminum, calcium, mag- 
nesium, chromium (from chromic acid acted on by alcohol) and zinc y 
and a white insoluble residue consisting of lead chloride, baric sul- 
phate and the silicates of clay. This insoluble residue is collected on 
a tared filter, washed with strong alcohol, dried and weighed. 

The filter is re-introduced into the funnel, the residue exhausted with, 
boiling water in which plumbic chloride will dissolve, again dried and 
re-weighed. The aqueous filtrate is precipitated with sulphuric acid, 
and from the weight of the plumbic sulphate is calculated that portion 
of oxide of lead which has been combined with chromic acid. Deter- 
mination by loss on washing and direct estimation agree well if the 
manipulations have been properly conducted. 

The last insoluble residue, after washing with hot water, consists of 
baric sulphate and clay. The quantitative analyses of it and of the 
alcoholic muriatic acid solution previously obtained, are performed 
according to the usual methods, and need no further comment. 

To detect organic acids in chrome-green the following process will 
give satisfactory results: About 10 grams of file green powder are 
macerated in dilute sulphuric acid, and filtered. The clear liquid is 
rendered alkaline by sodium carbonate, whereby iron and chromium 
are partly precipitated. After acidulation with muriatic acid the sulphate 
is removed by the careful addition of baric chloride, after which an 
excess of calcic chloride and sodium acetate is added. Calcium oxa- 
late, being insoluble in free acetic acid, is precipitated, while the tartrate 
and citrate remain in solution. Neutralization of the free acid preci- 
pitates the former, and, on boiling, also the latter salt. 

To ascertain the relative "strength" of two colors of similar shade, 
the following experiment is made: Half to 1 gram of each sample is 
mixed with 5 to 10 times its weight of a white pulverulent substance, 
which exerts no chemical action on the pigment, as, for instance, baric 
sulphate. After sufficient mixing, the shades are compared and the 
darker one made equal to the light one by further addition of baric 
sulphate. On re-weighing the samples their weights will give the ratio 
of their relative u strength." 

158 Paints, Colors and their Analysis. {^^l™' 

To test whether red anilin or corallin (rosolic acid) is contained in a 
scarlet color, it is best to extract with water. If the resulting filtrate 
is colored red or pink, rose-anilin is very probably present. Corallin, 
the more frequently used pigment for this purpose, is insoluble in water, 
but dissolves easily in alcohol and alkaloids. Rose-anilin and corallin 
(a derivate of phenol) are very easily distinguished from each other by 
addition of ammonic sulphide, which converts rose-anilin into colorless 
leukanilin, while it does not change the beautiful scarlet shade of 

Sometimes a chemist is asked to determine the relation between the 
dry pigment and the vehicle of paints, either liquid or ground in oil. 
In this case a weighed quantity of the pasty or pulpy mass to be 
analyzed is freed from the fatty and resinous bodies by extraction with 
ether. The weight of the dried pulverulent residue collected on a 
tared filter, gives the necessary data for the information desired. In 
cases where the nature of the pigments will not be changed on ignition, 
oil and resinous matter may be destroyed by combustion, and the quan- 
tity of tlie dry pigment determined on re-weighing the crucible. A 
white paint in oil thus left 31*412 per cent, dry powder, consisting of 
baric sulphate, clay and calcic carbonate. 

Far more difficult than these investigations is the analysis of those 
so-called liquid or ready-mixed paints, in case that vehicle as well as 
the suspended coloring matter are objects of analysis. The vehicle for 
paint is combined with the aim of obtaining approximately the same 
specific gravity as that of the pigments, so as to keep the latter sus- 
pended (most of them " settle," however, nevertheless). Among the 
most commonly-occurring constituents of the vehicle may be men- 
tioned benzin, oil of turpentine, resins, linseed oil, etc, ; soap, water, 
glue, small quantities of soda, borax or alum, besides all kinds of low- 
grade oils, are frequently met with. The nature of a vehicle may be 
approximately determined by fractional distillation ; exact and reliable 
analytical methods are so far not known. 

In the following I add such an analysis of a liquid (white) paint : 

Solid incombustible white pigment obtained 
on extraction with benzin, ether and sub- 
sequent ignition, .... 34-405 per cent 
Linseed-oii and resinous matter, . . 49 095 

Oil of turpentine, .... 16-500 


Am ^Xi8 7 t rm '} Paints, Colors and their Analysis. 159 

No water nor benzin. (Test for water — anhydrous cupric sulphate.) 

The fact that this paint began to boil at 250°F., when also distilla- 
tion began, excludes the probability of the presence of the volatile 
petroleum-benzin. A separation of oil of turpentine from the above- 
named hydrocarbon by fractional distillation is impossible. The oil 
and resinous constituents began to decompose at 350 to 400°F. on 
formation of acrolein. 

The white pigments, of which said paint contained 34*405 per cent., 
analyzed as follows : 

Oxide of zinc, . . . . . 66-400 per cent. 

Lime, . . . . i'758 

Sulphuric acid, .... 1 920 

Clay, ... 14 per cent. sol. 30 300 


besides traces of lead and iron. 

Probable working formula, 70 "zinc" + 30 alum-clay. 

The tests for magnesia, borax, water and carbonic acid gave negative 
results. It is evident that in liquid paints a "cheap" vehicle will per- 
mit their sale at a low price or help to increase the profits already pro- 
duced by a strongly adulterated colorific base ; it is also in these very 
paints — -not without some exceptions, however-— where the u humbug " 
reaches its highest point of culmination. 

Lake Colors.— I may be allowed to insert here a few remarks on 
lake colors. The numerous pigments of vegetable and animal origin 
show, to a certain extent, a great deal of similarity among each other, 
as most of them form insoluble colored compounds with alumina, 
wiiich are generally termed lakes, and whereby the coloring principles 
of dye-woods are transferred into insoluble colored compounds, which 
find frequent application in paper-staining, calico-printing and various 
other industries. Stannous chloride also forms lakes with a large num- 
ber of pigments ; it is, however, more expensive than the alum solu- 
tions required in the former process. One of the most beautiful lakes 
is undoubtedly carmine, an insoluble compound of the pigment con- 
tained in cochineal. There are quite a number of brands in the mar- 
ket, of which Carmine No. 40 is the finest. While the lower grades 
contain alumina, this latter one is free from it, and perfectly soluble in 
ammonia. From its mode of manufacture, which may be fairly termed 
a public secret, as well as from the fact that it leaves but very little 
non-aluminous ash, it may be considered an insoluble combination of 

160 Paints, Colors and their Analysis. { Am A&x8 7 h 8 arm ' 

carminic acid, C 17 H 18 O 10 , with animal matter, it being precipitated by isin- 
glass from an acid aqueous decoction of cochineal, containing potassic 
bitartrate, alum and an excess of citric acid. The mother-liquor of 
this first precipitate, which is termed " black liquor" by the practical 
men, very probably on account of its beautiful u red " color, will 
yield a second precipitate of carmine-red, C u H 12 7 , on standing for 
some time. The red pigments of the " black liquor " are almost per- 
fectly precipitated by alumina in statu nascendi. Stannous chloride and 
mercury nitrate also produce scarlet precipitates, which, however, are 
of mere scientific interest. 

Anilin and phenol colors in many instances show a similar affinity to 
alumina and stannous oxide ; the only drawback to a general applica- 
tion of these beautiful pigments in form of lakes is their rapid fading. 
Quite fiery shades can also be prepared by merely immersing starchy 
flour or whitening in a solution of these pigments. In the French 
department of the Philadelphia Exposition a number of such lakes 
were exhibited, the base of which was said to be starch. The quality 
of these colors can be considerably improved by the addition of certain 
animal substances, as, for instance, albumen, casein, isinglass or 
white glue, for which these artificial pigments show a great affinity, 
thus effecting a more intimate union between base and pigment. This 
process possesses some similarity with the tl animalization of cotton," 
in dyeing, which consists in impregnating the vegetable cotton fibre 
with animal matter, in order to facilitate the fixation of the dye. For 
corallin lakes I can recommend the following process from my own 
experience : 

Two liters of corallin solution, containing 250 grams of corallin^ 
rendered soluble by one pound of sal soda, are equivalently precipitated 
by one liter of calcic chloride, containing 200 grams CaCl 2 . Corallin,. 
the product of the action of nascent carbonic oxide on phenol, being 
soluble in alkaline carbonates, becomes deprived of its solvent on addi- 
tion of calcic chloride, and will precipitate together with calcic car- 
bonate in a state of very fine division. This precipitate may be mixed 
with starch or flour to produce lighter shades of scarlet. If a solution 
of isinglass has been added, on precipitation a small quantity of alum is 
added. The lake thus obtained, which is of a beautiful scarlet shade > 
is dried at about I50°F. It fades less readily than if prepared without 
addition of isinglass, which seems to prevent, at least to some extent, 
the formation of the light rose-colored calcic rosolate. 

Black Diamond Steel Works, March 12, 1878. 

Am Aprii%8?8. r,D '} Oil °f Sweet Almonds. — Impure Magnesia. 161 


By C. E. Df.Puy, Ph.G. 

Having noticed, while preparing unguentum aquae rosae, an almond- 
like odor, and, thinking it came from the supposed oil of sweet 
almonds which I was using, it led me to an examination of the article. 

I observed that the oil possessed an odor resembling that of oil of 
bitter almonds, and, that by heating a short time, this odor disappeared 
and in its stead the oil had acquired a slightly rancid odor. It also 
soon produced quite a heavy precipitate of a white flocculent character. 
The oil congealed at a temperature of I5°F., and had the sp. gr. 
0*945. It was insoluble in ether, soluble in two volumes of oil of 
turpentine and in an equal portion of chloroform, insoluble in cold 
alcohol of the sp. gr. 0*827, but soluble m 3° volumes of boiling 
alcohol of the same sp. gr. 

Treated with cold HNO s the oil assumed a violet tinge, which soon 
developed into a bright yellow color. But even after long standing it 
neither became hard or emulsionized. The action of HN0 2 fully 
coroborated this test in neither solidifying the oil nor separating crys- 
talline particles of elaidin, thus proving it to be a drying oil, while, on 
the contrary, the true oil of almonds belongs to the class of none- 
drying oils. 

Heated with HNO s the oil at first changed to a dark-yellow and 
finally to a reddish-brown color. 

With H 2 S0 4 the oil at first assumed a bright yellow color, which 
gradually changed to a dark purple, a test which, as well as the previous 
one with cold HN0 3 , would particularly indicate the presence of large 
quantities of poppy seed oil, while the reaction obtained by heating 
with HNO3 would indicate probable admixture (though I think in a 
small degree) of the oil obtained from either the peach or apricot 
kernel, which, if present, might furnish the almond-like odor a first 

Chelsea, Mich., March Sth, 1878. 


By H. C. Archibald Ph.G. 
In the course of ordinary business, I had occasion to order from a 
wholesale druggist some heavy oxide of magnesium, for which there is 

Quinia Pills. 

{ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t April, 1878. 

a great demand all over the city. Upon receiving the article in ques- 
tion, from its apparent bulk and grittiness I was induced to make a 
qualitative examination, which showed me that it was not a perfectly 
pure oxide, it dissolving with effervescence in HC1, and a precipitate 
forming with a solution of BaCl 2 , insoluble in excess of HC1. A quan- 
titative examination was made to determine the amount of C0 2 it con- 
tained, and by volumetric determination with Scheibler's apparatus the 
amount of C0 2 was found to be 4*14 per cent., corresponding to 
MgO.C0 2 . The amount of sulphuric acid present was found to be i*l 
per cent., equal to MgS0 4 r6 or nearly 2 per cent. Na 2 S0 4 , which 
is more than probable it was. The magnesia in question resembled in 
feel, and very much in appearance, the old magnesia alba of the shops, 
differing only in its greater density. It was not as unctuous to the 
feel as that prepared by Messrs. Powers & Weightman of our city, nor 
when taken was it near so palatable. I have been informed that the 
magnesia was of foreign manufacture, and was sold in good faith to the 
trade as being absolutely a pure oxide of magnesium of proper density, etc. 
West Philadelphia, Feb. 27, 1878. 


Camp Halleck, Nevada, Feb. 14, 1878. 

Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : 

As I have often seen formulas in various medical journals for com- 
pounding pills of quinia, none of which seem to have been satisfactory, 
permit me to inform you that if a small quantity of powdered gum 
arabic be added to the quinia and thoroughly mixed with it, and glycerin 
added, a few drops at a time, triturating well after each addition, it will 
make an excellent mass, which can be easily and leisurely worked into 
nice smooth and compact pills, which will remain unalterable indefinitely. 

I have used the above-mentioned ingredients in the preparation of 
quinia pills nearly seven years, and think if they are tried perfect satis- 
faction will result. Yours respectfully, 

James E. Brett. 


By G. H. Chas. Klie. 
The Pharmacopoeia directs to make this pill with compound extract 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1878. J 

Compound Cathartic Pills. 


of colocynth, in powder, 1 J grain ; extract of jalap (in fine powder), 
mild chloride of mercury, of each 1 grain ; gamboge, in fine powder, 
\ grain — for one— which weighs 3^ grs. For a good and active pill, 
it is of primary importance to use active and pure ingredients. 

The compound extract of colocynth consists of 3J troyounces 
extract of colocynth, 12 troyounces of purified aloes, 3 troyounces of 
resin of scammony, \\ troyounce of cardamom and 3 troyounces of 
soap, all to be finely powdered and then intimately mixed. 

One of the most active ingredients in this compound extract is 
the 1 extract of colocynth. The Pharmacopoeia has it prepared by 
macerating, for four days, 48 troyounces of colocynth, deprived of the 
seeds, with 8 pints of dilute alcohol, expressing strongly, packing the 
broken up residue in a percolator, and pouring on dilute alcohol until 
the percolate and expressed tincture mixed together measure 16 pints. 
Ten pints of alcohol are to be regained by distillation, the residue dried 
on a water-bath and reduced to a fine powder. The last time that I 
prepared the extract I proceeded as follows : 48 troyounces of colo- 
cynth (not of the best quality of colocynth, the fruit being of medium 
size, with quite a number of small ones, and some discolored 
and misshapen) were deprived of the seeds and yielded 15 troy- 
ounces of pulp, which was ground tolerably fine and macerated 
for five days with 4 pints of alcohol, this being just sufficient 
for complete immersion, if the powder is pressed down. The 
expressed liquid measured 3J pints. To ascertain the strength of the 
tincture the alcohol was regained by distillation and the residue evap- 
orated to dryness ; it weighed 3 troyounces. The expressed mass was 
then broken up thoroughly and packed in a percolator. If tightly 
packed, it was found percolation would proceed but very slowly. The 
alcohol that had been recovered was properly diluted and poured on. 
The bulk of the colocynth in the percolator increased fully one-fourth. 
5 pints of dilute alcohol, altogether, was used. When 3 pints of per- 
colate had been obtained, percolation ceased. The mass, subjected to 
powerful pressure, yielded \\ pint more of tincture, making in all 4J 
pints. The alcohol was regained from this, and the residue was evap- 
orated to dryness on a vapor-bath ; the yield was 2J troyounces, mak- 
ing a total yield of troyounces from 48 troyounces of colocynth, 
or 15 troyounces without the seed. The extract was easily pulveriz- 
able in a flat-bottomed porcelain mortar. 


Compound Cathartic Pills, 

(Am. Jour. Pharm. 

I April, 1878. 

Mohr, in his " Commentary on the Prussian Pharmacopoeia," 1 
according to which this extract is obtained by two digestions of colo- 
cynth, the first with rectified spirit, sp. gr. '892, and the second the 
same diluted with an equal weight of water, says: U The yield of 15 
ozs. of colocynth without seed is 2 ozs. 5 j drs. of dry extract." 

Hager, in his " Commentary to the Pharmacopoea Germanica," 
states that " 100 parts of peeled dry colocynth, of the inferior Cyprian 
or the better Egyptian kind, yields, after separating the seeds, 35 and 
50 parts of pulp, and of dry extract from 10 to 15 or 20 parts." 
According to this, the inferior would yield to 15 troyounces of seedless 
colocynth at the least 4*27 troyounces, and the better kind 6 troyounces 
of extract. 

The United States Pharmacopoeia says : " The extract obtained by 
this process weighs about 7 ozs." Comparing the weight of the pro- 
ducts of the different processes, the Pharmacopoeia claims the largest. 
I will not say that 7 ozs. of extract from 48 troyounces of colocynth 
cannot be obtained \ but if the soundest and fleshiest, in short the best 
colocynth is not used, such a yield would seem somewhat difficult to 
obtain. A colocynth as just mentioned is not readily obtainable. From 
48 troyounces of common colocynth, which, deprived of the seeds, 
weighed 16 troyounces, I have by thorough exhaustion obtained 6 
troyounces of dry extract •> but in this case exhaustion was carried 
beyond the common limit, just to ascertain how much could be 

There is some difference in the menstrua of the different processes. 
The Pharmacopoeia uses dilute alcohol, sp. gr. '941 ; the Prussian 
Pharmacopoeia directs rectified spirit, sp. gr. 0*894 — 0*890, and the 
Pharmacopoea Germanica the same, spec, grav., 0*892 — 0*893. ^ have 
used alcohol spec. grav. '825, and dilute alcohol spec. grav. 941. 

Recapitulating, the yield of extract in per cent, from seedless colo- 
cynth by the several processes would be as follows : 

Process, TJ. S. P. Ph. Ber. Ph. Germ. Own make. 

Yield, , 46 6 14-5 28*46 to 40*0 35'o to 40*0 per cent. 

Of the other ingredients in compound extract of colocynth, there is 
no difficulty in making purified aloes, and powdering it if sufficiently 

1 " Pharmacopcea Germanica, 1 ' which has superseded the Prussian, has retained 
the same formula.— Editor. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1878. J 

Compound Cathartic Pills. 


dry. The resin of scammony, on account of its high price, is often 
adulterated. I have, off and on, heard it remarked that, by its entire 
omission from, it was most conspicuous in some of the compound 
extracts of the market. The Pharmacopoeia gives tests for detection 
of adulteration in the resin. Cardamom, of the proper degree of 
fineness and purity, and a fine quality of powdered white soap, can be 
purchased in the market. Powdering soap is very disagreeable, if nose 
and mouth are not protected. The powder ought to be of the very 
finest quality, otherwise small specks of white soap are discernible in 
the finished extract. 

The thorough mixing of the ingredients is accomplished by passing 
all through a fine sieve, then placing the powder in a bottle which it 
will fill one-half or two-thirds, and shaking for a minute or two. The 
finished extract ought to be kept in bottles, sealed, and in a cool place. 
If in warm weather it is kept in a common extract jar, it shows a ten- 
dency to cake. It turns several shades darker with keeping. It is infi- 
nitely superior to some extracts of the market, which often have the 
appearance of very coarsely ground coffee, and sometimes exhibit a 
decidedly burnt odor. To make a quantity of pills is one of the most 
tedious operations. You may commence pounding in the morning, 
and continue at it all through the day, and if you have a smooth, homo- 
geneous mass by evening you are fortunate. If the exertion proves 
too much or too tedious, a pill mass is the result filled with smaller and 
larger grains of extract, which do not become pliable by any amount of 
subsequent rolling on the pill machine or kneading between the 
fingers. 1 

Following is a table showing the difference of price between pur- 
chased extract and that of own matufacture : 

One pound avoirdupois (7,000 grains) of extract 

Ext. Coloc. Pulv. Aloes. Res. Scammon. Pulv. Cardam. Pulv. Sapon. 

Contains 106519 3652 08 913 02 456'5i 9i3'02 grs. = 6999-82 grs. 
Costing $ 7307 3392 1-565 -1141 -0773 = $ 2-8263 

At the market price of $3.25, this leaves in favor of own make 

1 No difficulty whatever is experienced if the mass is made in a hot iron mortar; 
'very little water should be used, and the mass rolled out while warm 5 or, if it has 
become cold and hard, it should be warmed again in an air-bath. If too much 
water is used, the pills will flatten on keeping. — Editor. 


Compound Cathartic Pills. 

Am. Jour. Pharro. 

April, 1878. 

$0.42.37. In the above, extract of colocynth was reckoned at $0.30 
an ounce, powdered aloes at $0.65 per pound, powdered resin of scam- 
mony at $0.75 an ounce, powdered cardamoms at $1.75 per pound, 
and powdered soap at $0.60 a pound. 

The second ingredient of compound cathartic pills is pulverized 
extract of jalap. In the directions for the preparation of this extract 
the Pharmacopoeia says : " Evaporate to the proper consistence," i. e. y 
to an extract of such consistence that pills may readily be formed from 
it. If extract of this consistence is evaporated to dryness, a troyounce 
will lose about 52 grains. It is very difficult to preserve the extract 
in the state of powder, especially in warm weather. 

Mild chloride of mercury and pulverized gamboge, the two other 
ingredients, can be procured, of excellent quality, in the market. 

The perfect round form of compound cathartic pills is somewhat 
difficult to preserve. In warm weather they become flat, and when 
kept in a oottle, where they press one on another, assume irregular 
shapes. This is a characteristic of the pill, which is brought about by 
the resin contained in extract of colocynth and jalap. When resin of 
jalap is substituted for the extract the pills show the same character- 
istic. The pills made with extracts of own make, for medicinal action 
can be uniformly depended upon. 

Below I give a list of comparative prices of pills made with pur- 
chased extracts and extracts of own make. 

The weight of one piil being 3^ grs., the weight of five hundred 
pills = i,79if grs., or 3 troyounces, 5 drs. 5 if grs. 

500 pills contain of: 

Compound extract of colocynth 

Extract of jalap 

Mild chloride of mercury 





\hen prepared 
with purchased 

£0.3 1 00 
0.31. 51 

Cost when prepared 
with extracts of 
own make. 


50.69 96 


Am Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1878 

Compound Cathartic Pills. 


Five hundred compound cathartic pills, U. S. P., sugar-coated, cost 
in the market $1.35, and gelatin-coated $1.65. If 25 cents is allowed 
for sugar-coating, and 55 cents for gelatin-coating, which is a liberal 
allowance, the plain pills will cost $1.10, leaving a margin of $0.40 
for the pills made with the purchased extracts, and $0 67.82 for the 
pills prepared with those of own make. 

Compound cathartic pills can be kept in perfect shape and thera- 
peutic qualities unimpaired, for any length of time, by coating them 
with gelatin. The coating of pills with gelatin is a somewhat tedious 
process. As is well known, it is performed by dipping them, adjusted 
to the ends of needles or short wires, into a solution of gelatin, and 
for drying, pressing the needles or wires into soft cork or a cushion. 
Finally, the small, sharp edged gelatin tubes left when the wires or 
needles are withdrawn are cut off with small scissors, and the orifice 
is closed with a minute drop of gelatin solution. The mass ought to 
be pretty tough if the compound cathartic pills are to be immediately 
coated with gelatin.' The adjusting, dipping, etc., of these pills occa- 
sions no more work or extra amount of precaution than any other, but 
while drying a difficulty occurs. Substances during the process of dry- 
ing contract. The gelatin coating of pills contracts powerfully while 
drying. The solution of gelatin, coming in direct contact with, and 
remaining, at least a short time, in a semi-fluid condition, softens the 
surface of the pills. When the coating dries, it contracts so power- 
fully that it is ruptured, and a small portion of the softened mass is 
forced through the rupture in the form of a small bead, or one might 
liken it to a minute tumor. As a consequence the appearance and 
weight of the pills is impaired. From 30 to 50 per cent, would thus 
rupture. When they were first coated with an ethereal solution of 
mastic and then with gelatin, between 20 to 30 per cent, would 

The solution of gelatin was made, in a vapor bath, of gelatin, 1 part, 
and water, 2 parts ; one dipping was found sufficient to form a good 
coating. I have had occasionally to coat other pills with this solution, 
but have not come across any that showed the same characteristics as 
the compound cathartic pills. The solution of gelatin, however, was 
improved to an extent that the coating of only from 4 to 6 per cent, 
of these pills would rupture, by the addition of \ part of pure 

1 6 8 Compound Cathartic Pills. { ^^^1™' 

During the dipping process it is advisable to keep the gelatin solution 
at a temperature between 140 — I50°F., and to turn the dipped pills 
backwards and forwards and sideways, so as to distribute the solution 
equally, until it has slightly congealed, otherwise it will gather on the 
lower side of the pill in a drop, and the coating on that side will be out 
of all proportion to that of the other parts. When the solution has 
to be kept on the fire for some time it will be found necessary to add 
water now and then to make up for that lost by evaporation. 

Lowell, N. St. Louis, Mo. 

Remarks by the Editor. — In the calculations contained in the pre- 
ceding paper, it seems that the items of labor and fuel have not been con- 
sidered, and it appears to us very properly so, as long as the pharmacist 
manufactures for his own use, and without the employment of additional 
help can thereby advantageously turn to account hours of leisure, and 
utilize heat otherwise wasted. 

It will be noticed that " powdered " aloes is accounted for, while the 
Pharmacopoeia directs u purified " socotrine aloes. The purification 
may, at first sight, appear to be an unnecessary refinement, since 
impurities in that variety of aloes are not readily observable. But any- 
one who will undertake to purify a larger quantity of the drug will 
collect sufficient vegetable fragments, stones, goat skins and the like, 
as to induce him to change his mind. 3,342^ lbs. of air-dry socotrine 
aloes, purified in different lots, lost 478 J lbs. or 13*42 per cent., a 
good portion of which consisted of the impurities mentioned. 

In making extract of colocynth on the large scale, the separation of 
the seeds is a practical impossibility, and even on the small scale the 
operation is tedious and incomplete, the immature and shrivelled seeds 
at least remaining firmly imbedded in the pulp. For this reason manu- 
facturers crush the fruit with the precaution not to break the seeds. 
Thus prepared and treated with the officinal menstruum, 3,460!- lbs. 
of commercial colocynth of average good quality hare yielded us 495J 
lbs. of drv extract, equal to 14*32 per cent. The details of the different 
operations are now not accessible to us, but they doubtless agree closely 
with those of Dr. Squibb (see t -Am. Jour. Phar.," 1867, p. 16), who 
obtained from 9951 J lbs. of colocynth 1349J lbs. = 13*56 per cent, 
of extract, the highest yield being 16*2, and the lowest, in an excep- 
tional case, 1 1 '3 per cent. Dr. Squibb [Ibid., 1857, P* 9%) also records 

Am .Jour. Pharm. 1 
April, 1878. J 

Benxoic Acid in Pharmacy. 


a yield of 20*6 per cent, from colocynth, which had been kept for three 
years in a dry store-room. This large yield was doubtless due to the 
more complete drying of the fruit. The important influence of the 
moisture naturally contained in drugs on the quantitative yield is often 
not sufficiently taken into account, but may be readily gleaned from 
the paper by Mr. G. W. Kennedy in "Am. Jour. Phar.," 1874, p. 1 74. 


By B. Archer. 

Within the past two or three years the comparative merits of the 
various anti-ferments have been pretty thoroughly discussed, and the 
result has been to place benzoic acid first on the list. At present its 
use i,s limited to only a few officinal preparations, but there is no doubt 
it may be advantageously used in quite a number. In the next revision 
of the Pharmacopoeia I would suggest, among the additions, that of 
benzoic acid water (gr. iv to Oi) and its substitution for water in such 
syrups, infusions, decoctions and mixtures as are specially prone to decom- 
position. The instances in which there could be objection, either 
chemical or therapeutical, to such substitution, would be rare, as it is 
harmless and will not materially affect the taste, odor or color of the 
preparations. While benzoic acid in the small quantity here suggested 
will not make very instable preparations permanent, it will so increase 
their stability that they may be kept as long as it is usually desired to 
keep them. Some have recommended salicylic acid as an antiseptic, 
but this will not do for general use on account of the color imparted to 
mixtures containing the salts of iron, and, besides, as an anti-ferment 
it is not the equal of benzoic acid. 

I have found the benzoic acid water especially useful in preparing 
solutions for hypodermic use. The small vials of such solutions carried 
in the pockets of physicians, and thus kept at a high temperature soon 
undergo change unless protected by some antiseptic. It may not be 
out of place to say just here that physicians, who do not have daily use 
for their hypodermic syringes, are often annoyed by the packing becom- 
ing dry, and, consequently, so contracted that the piston will not work 
smoothly in the barrel. This annoyance may, to a great extent, be 
overcome by the addition of a few drops of glycerin to each fluid- 
ounce of hypodermic solution. 


Benzoic Acid in Pharmacy. 

{Am. Jour Phtrm. 
April, 1878. 

In extemporaneous pharmacy it is often more important that the 
diluent in mixtures should play the part of an antiseptic than that of a 
mere flavoring ingredient, for it is a fact well known to all observing 
pharmacists that many of the mixtures, emulsions, etc., dispensed by 
them must become unfit for use, especially in the summer months, 
before all is taken by the patient. In dispensing such mixtures, benzoic 
acid water may well replace water or the medicated waters. I have 
substituted benzoic acid water for water with great satisfaction in pre- 
paring solution of citrate of magnesium, mucilage and syrup of gum 
arabic, Jacksons' Pectoral Syrup, and many other officinal and unoffici- 
nal preparations which I need not enumerate. 

The present formula is a most expeditious method of preparing 
syrup ipecac, but this is all that can be said in its praise. It should be 
changed or else that for the fluid extract so modified as to yield a hand- 
some preparation when mixed with syrup. By adding two fluidounces 
of the fluid extract to one pint of benzoic acid water, filtering upon 
twenty-six troy6unces of sugar, and making two pints of syrup when 
cold, a beautiful, and permanent preparation is the result. 

There can be no doubt of the fact that benzoic acid contributes to 
the preservation of cerates, ointments and all unctuous substances, but 
whether or not the difficulty of stability is entirely overcome by its 
use, and the smallest quantity necessary to accomplish it, I am not 
prepared to say. It has been stated that the addition of five per cent, 
of powdered benzoin to powdered ergot will preserve without alteration 
its physical and medicinal properties. Acting upon this suggestion, I 
added two grains of benzoic acid, dissolved in a few drops of acohol, to 
one ounce of powdered ergot, mixed thoroughly and spread the powder 
on a sheet of paper an hour or two to allow evaporation of the alcohol 
before bottling. Sufficient time has not yet elapsed to say whether or 
not the ergot is thoroughly protected by this treatment, but from its 
present condition there is no doubt that deterioration is at least greatly 

The instability of sweetmeats, preserves, marmalades, etc., is annu- 
ally a source of much annoyance to housekeepers. If sugar enough 
is added to prevent change during the summer months, when the jar is 
opened in December, they find a mass of candied fruit ; while, if to 
prevent this trouble, a smaller quantity of sugar is used a few weeks of 
hot weather will produce lively fermentation. Four grains of benzoic 

A Vp°ri^878 arm '} New Device for Perforating Plasters. 171 

acid, dissolved in a little boiling water, added to each pound of pre- 
serves, while yet warm, will protect them without imparting any 
"pkysicky" taste. 

Norfolk, Va. 


By Joseph P. Remington. 
{Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, March 19.) 
Porous plasters have been used so extensively, and their merits of 
furnishing external medication, whilst permitting the escape of exhala- 
tions from the skin, are so well known and appreciated that the notice 
of the expiration of the patent, which was circulated a few years ago, 
was to many pharmacists a welcome one. Since this time several 
manufacturers have been very industrious in increasing their lists of 
ready-made plasters, and now the varieties are numbered not by ten but 
by hundreds. 

The introduction of rubber into the basis of spread plasters marked 
an era, and the advantages soon giew to be appreciated. First, the 
plaster was rendered much more flexible and, hence, more comfortable 
to the wearer, the stiff, often brittle combinations in use were rapidly 
replaced. Secondly, by a peculiar combination the plaster remained 
soft and could be applied to the skin without application of heat, and 
thus it was fair to presume that, if a plaster was adhesive at ordinary 
temperature of the air, it would be very apt to stick to the skin, which 
usually has a temperature of 98*6°F. 

Thirdly, when to the above valuable points was added perforation, 
or as it is technically termed, " porousing," it was believed that perfec- 
tion was attained. 

One of the principal reasons for the decline in the demand for plas- 
ters spread by the apothecary has undoubtedly been the superiority of 
the porous plasters furnished by the manufactures on a large scale and 
machine-made; the patient recognized this fact and called for them — 
the apothecary was usually too glad to be relieved of what is almost 
always regarded as one of the most disagreeable duties of the shop, 
and hence the prosperity of the manufacturers. 

But the same causes which undermine so many industries in our 
country (as in others) is actively at work among the plasters. Compe- 
tition, and the demand by apothecaries for cheaper products, has resulted 

I 7 2 

New Device for Perforating Plasters. {^ m ^;^ rm '' 

in depreciating the quality of the plasters furnished until now in the 
case of belladonna plaster (probably the most used), the principal 
manufacturers of rubber combination plasters will each furnish a plaster 
labeled in bold type belladonna plaster, which they will admit contains 
no belladonna extract. They do sell a higher priced plaster which pro- 
fessedly contains the officinal proportion — but does not this policy tend 
to sow distrust in the minds of buyers ? How can a conscientious 
pharmacist dispense them as standard goods when he knows that plas- 
ters stamped with a lie are sold, and that he has no means of knowing 
the true from the false without an investigation, which would not 
occur to every one to institute, and then the facts in the case are usu- 
ally reluctantly admitted. . 

It is owing to the lack of medicinal effect in manufactured plasters 
that physicians in many sections prefer to undergo the inconvenience, 
of the hand-made plaster, and prescribe it because they feel sure of 
getting what they want, and the writer has endeavored to supply one 
deficiency in the hand-made plaster by the following device, whereby 
any apothecary may porous the plaster which he has spread, irrespective 
of its size or shape or material upon which it is spread. 

This device or tool consists of a brass cylindrical wheel, fin. wide, f- 
in. in diameter, with two circular depressions turned out of each end, J 
in. deep, leaving a hub on each end of wheel, through which a steel 
axle passes into the prongs of steel handle, which is driven into an 
ordinary tool handle 9 inches long. 

The cylindrical wheel is studded with 16 punches, arranged on either 
side \ in. apart alternately ; these punches are of steel, tapered and are 
\ in. long, and \ in. bore^at the end making a \ in. perforation. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1878. J 

Various Notes. 

l 73 

To operate the tool all that is necessary is to dip it first in water, 
then having secured the plaster firmly by tacking it to several layers of 
old newspapers on a rather low counter, grasp the tool tightly with both 
hands and drive the punches with some force through the plaster, push- 
ing it along, from the operator, the wheel revolving as it is pushed 
forward, the little disks of plaster collect in the punches, stick 
together and form a core, which falls towards the axle of the wheel 
and is driven out by the inclined hub. 

A cheaper tool could be made with but one series of punches 
arranged on the wheel, but two series have the advantage of doing the 
work, more quickly, and less skill is necessary to operate it. 

Hand-made plasters, spread on kid, may be perforated in this way by 
hand, and physicians may order any combination that they may desire, 
and secure one of toe advantages of the machine-made plasters. The 
tool should be cleaned with cloth moistened with a little turpentine, 
and kept in a box to prevent punches from being injured by coming in 
contact with hard objects. 
Philadelphia, Third mo. iSth, 1878. 


By X. Landerer, Athens, Greece. 
A Useful Bird. — A raven (Corvus fructilegus) is in the habit of 
burying the acorns of Quercus aegilops by the thousands to serve as 
food in the winter time. As the bird generally forgets where he buries 
them, the acorns soon germinate and grow up to stately trees, and in 
this way the raven contributes very materially to the welfare of hun- 
dreds of families and thereby to that of. Greece, since the cups (valonia 
of commerce, which are much used in tanning and dyeing) represent an 
annual income of three to four million drachms. The name aegilops 
comes from aix (a goat), and opsis (eye) from a supposed resemblance 
of the cupula to the eye of a goat. 

Heron's Fat. — A popular remedy with the Greeks and Turks is 
the fat from the neck of several species of heron (Ardea cinerea, 
egretta, etc.), which is used as an embrocation against whooping cough 
and scrophulous swellings. The beautiful, and, in many countries, so 
highly-priced plumage of those birds is thrown away, and thus one 
source of income neglected. 


Various Notes. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t April, 1878. 

Artichokes, the unexpanded flower-buds of Cynara scolymus, 
ankynaros of the Greeks, are among the most favorite vegetables in 
the Orient. The juice colors the skin a beautiful reddish-brown, which 
color is with difficulty got rid of. The involucral scales are used for 
dying the hair brown, also for staining wood of a mahogany color. The 
name cynara is supposed to be derived from kyon (dog), because the 
scales of the anthodium are hard and pointed like the eye-teeth of a dog. 

Adulteration of Ferrum Hydrogenio Reductum. — A sample 

offered for analysis had a blueish-black color, and, under a magnifyer, 
could be distinguished small light-blue grains. Boiled with liquor 
potassae, cyanide of potassium was formed and red hydrated oxide of 
iron, thus showing that the iron in question had been prepared by insuf- 
ficient ignition of ferrocyanide of iron (Prussian blue). Its proper 
name would be iEthiops martialis or Ferrum oxydulatum cum carbone. 

Catching Fish by Poisoning Them. — Although the laws of Greece 
are quite severe respecting the use of poisonous substances in fishing, 
different species of Euphorbia are generally resorted to, occasionally 
also Cocculus indicus. Once a seal (Phoca vitulina) was found stupefied 
by feeding on poisoned fishes, and as its oil is very generally used in 
Greece as a substitute for cod-liver oil, it can be easily understood that 
the above-named practice must be considered as quite dangerous, so 
much the more so, as the meat of poisoned fishes easily spoils. 

Pitch is collected in the Orient from Pinus maritima and Cephalonica, 
and is used in millions of okkas for making pitch-wine (retsinato, which 
has been in use since the time of Homeros). The collectors {retino- 
lektes) are not content with making incisions through the bark, but cut 
deeply into the wood itself, sometimes nearly half way through the 
trunk. Trees mutilated in this way are destroyed in a few years and 
present a curious appearance, since the leaves on one side are withered 
and rust-coiored, while on the opposite side they are still green. 

Substitutes for Q uinia. — Although quinia is the only reliable remedy 
for the chronic fevers of the Orient, its high price forbids its use among 
the poorer classes, and therefore several substitutes are resorted to. 
Physicians use often with success an extract of olive leaves and imma- 
ture olives, made with diluted sulphuric acid. A popular remedy with 
poor people is Cayenne pepper, in doses of one to two drachm with rum 
or mastichonaki. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1878. J 

Various Notes. 

1 1S 

Pistacia Terebinthus. — A strong decoction of the leaves of this 
tree has been found very useful in albuminuria, and I have known a patient 
whose urine was so much loaded with albumen as to give quite a con- 
sistent milk on the addition of nitric acid ; but after several weeks' per- 
sistent use of the above-named decoction, did not show even a trace of 
albumen. Pistacia terebinthus yields by incision Chian turpentine, and 
is not to be confounded witji Pistacia lentiscus, which yields mastix, 
nor with Pistacia vera, from which come the well known pistachio 
nuts of the confectioners. 

Adulterations. — Powdered drugs are generally imported into Greece 
from France, and are not unfrequently adulterated. Powdered jalap 
has been found mixed with various powders, amongst them with the 
residue from the preparation of the resin ; lycopodium with over 50 per 
cent, pollen of pinus ; cubebs with the residue from the preparation of 
the extract, and flavored with oil of pennyroyal; rhubarb with powdered 
rhapontic and other allied roots, etc. 

Orobanche (grandiflora and caryophyllacea) is one of the greatest 
nuisances the Greeks and the Eastern people generally have to con- 
tend with, since it is a parasite and eventually destroys leguminous 
plants, which, particularly beans, form the staple food of these people. 
The ancients called all leguminous fruits kyamos or orobos, and a temple 
was dedicated to Apollo Kyametes. The name orobanche is derived 
from orobos (leguminous fruit), and ancheln to choke; English broom-rape. 

Shell-fish. — In probably few countries are there consumed in lent 
more shell -fish, chiefly Pinna nobilis, than in Greece. In each pinna 
is to be found a kind of silken appendage which in Italy is made use of 
by the poorer girls arid women to make purses, necklaces, ear-rings, 
etc., and thus proves no mean source of income to hundreds of families. 
In Greece, on the contrary, these silken tissues are thrown away ; 
the pearls which are occasionally found with it, however, being col- 
lected ; otherwise the pinna is only used for its meat. The shell would 
yield excellent lime on being calcined. 

Terra sigillata, T. Lemnia and T. miraculosa Saxoniae, are argil- 
laceous earths which were well known to the older pharmacists. The 
Lemnian earth is still largely used in the Orient as an absorbent, and 
comes in the form of troches, sometimes gilded and bearing the impres- 
sion of a Turkish seal. They are much used together with a decoc- 


i 7 6 

Various Notes. 

( Am Jour. Pharnu 
\ April, 1878. 

tion of mastic as an infallible remedy in cholera infantum. Externally 
is applied a poultice of bread, boiled in strong red wine, and mixed with 
powdered aromatic herbs. These poultices are called Krasospoma y 
from krasi, wine, and psoma, bread. 

Ink (melani) is generally used by the Orientals for burns and scalds. 
It is applied in a thick layer, and often leaves a permanent mark. 

Enchantment.- — To guard valuable horses against the " evil eye,'* 
a large crystal of sulphate of copper, enclosed in a silver box, is sus- 
pended from the neck of the animal. This is called filakta. Against 
bewitchings and enchantments, the stables are very generally fumigated 
with asafoetida, galbanum and other ill-smelling substances. 

Veterinary Surgery. — Although there exist in Greece about one 
million horses, twelve to fifteen million sheep and goats, two million 
asses and mules, and so on, there is as yet no veterinary school in the 
country ; only five or six regularly educated veterinary surgeons are to 
be found. Besides these there are many self-taught farriers, called 
albanides, whose cures very often are successful. 

Falling out of hair is prevented in the Oriental countries by using 
an ointment consisting of the bruised fresh bulbs of Asphodelus bulbosus 
or of garlic, onions mixed with gunpowder. An infusion of small 
leaves of the lemon or orange tree in red wine has likewise proved 
serviceable, about twenty grains of tannin having been added to the 
liter of this aromatic wine. 

Jaundice is cured by drinking freely of a strong decoction of the 
flowers of Tamarix africana (myriki). Some native empirics use gold 
(chryson), the Greek name for jaundice being chrysi (golden disease). 
They get a few gold pieces from the patients, put them in a yellow 
liquid, when, by some hocus-pocus, the gold pieces disappear, and are 
to be found in the pockets of these charlatans (keki?n). 

Spartium junceum (hinosparton, sparton of Dioscorides and Theo- 
phrastus) in a strong decoction, is considered a sovereign remedy for 
diseases of the urinary organs, particularly stone in the bladder. 

Elcktron, the Greek name for amber, is probably derived from the 
Phenician elek, which signifies a resinous exudation. The Arabs of 
the present day call amber elek. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1878. / 

Various Notes. 


Olives of the unusually large size 2 to i\ inches in diameter are 
occasionally met with. The trees, which bear only few fruits, are 
said to have come from the island of Rhodus. 

Two new industries have, of late years, sprung up in Greece. 
Until recently the lees of wine (katapatid) were thrown away, and thus 
thousands of kilos of tartrates lost. In the last three or four years the 
lees, dried in the sun, have been exported to Italy, where they are con- 
verted into cream of tartar. This industry might be much enlarged 
were it not for the pernicious habit of the Greeks to " pitch " most of 
their wines, particularly those of the Peloponnesus, which makes the 
lees unsalable. 

Of late the Greeks have introduced the use of bisulphide of carbon 
for extracting all the oil from the olives after they have been expressed. 
Oil extracted by this means is called pyrenelaion, from pyren, a kernel. 

Change of Color of Hair. — One case has been observed where the 
red hair changed, two or three hours after death, to blond, and within 
thirty hours to gray. 

Extractum Ferri Pomatum. — Owing to the scarcity, if not the 
absence, of sour apples in Greece, it is proposed to substitute grape 
juice instead, and thus make an extractum ferri uvicum. 

Emery. — In Smyrna they use the following test for determining the 
quality of emery. One grain is rubbed on a previously accurately 
weighed glass plate with a glass pestle until no more glass is ground off. 
The plate is washed off, dried and weighed ; the greater the difference 
the higher the quality of the emery. 

Mineral Springs. — -Visitors to mineral springs often seek dissipa- 
tion rather than relief from sickness. Those who need the latter are 
recommended to use plenty of exercise, and, instead of most mineral 
waters, drink sea water in small doses, either pure or diluted with more 
or less fresh water, as a cheap substitute for the former, the expenses 
for traveling, etc., being thus also avoided. 

178 Distinction of the Cinchona Alkaloids. {^^Sg^- 


By Dr. Richard Godeffroy and C. Ledermann. 

The price -currents of different German drug houses frequently quote 
several cinchona alkaloids under very different and often arbitrary 
names, which occasionally are well adapted to cause confusion or mis- 
takes. Thus we find quinidia (or conchinin) sulphate quoted as chini- 
num sulfuricum Bi, or B, or b, or /?, or as chinidinum sulfuricum 
purum verum, etc., and sulphate of cinchonidia as chininum sulfuricum 
B or Bii, chinidinum sulfuricum, or I ma, etc. 2 To distinguish the 
various cinchona alkaloids from each other appears to be the more 
important since quinia sulphate commands a high price in the market, 
and an adulteration or substitution of it with the cheaper sulphates of 
cinchonidia and quinidia is not impossible. 

The microscope alone enables us to test the purity of quinia sulphate 
quickly and accurately. Stoddart and F. Schrage have published some 
interesting information in this direction ; but, since they have confined 
their researches only to quinia, cinchonia and quinidia, and since it is 
uncertain whether the latter term was intended for conchinia (quinidia) 
or cinchonidia, the authors deemed further researches advisable, and 
observed that F. Schrage must have made some statements partly 
incomplete and partly incorrect. 

The method of microscopic examination by Stoddart and Schrage is 
based upon the characteristic reactions of the cinchona alkaloids with 
potassium sulphocyanide. For the success of the reaction there are 
required a concentrated solution of the potassium salt and a solution of 
the salt of cinchona alkaloid, saturated at the temperature existing at 
the time of the examination. For salts which are difficultly soluble, 
Schrage recommends a solution saturated at a temperature io°C. higher 
than that of the atmosphere. According to the authors this is wrong, 
since in the manner stated microscopic pictures are obtained which are 
at variance with the appearance of the reaction. The preparations used 
by them were the pure sulphates of the four alkaloids manufactured 

1 Translated and abridged from "Archiv der Pharmacie," Dec, 1877. 

2 This confusion in the nomenclature of the cinchona alkaloids is unknown in the 
United States, where the nomenclature, as corrected by Pasteur's researches in 1853, 
has been generally adopted, and^where, therefore, no excuse existed for the intro- 
duction of the term conchinin for quinidia, as proposed by Hesse in 1869, and now 
beginning to be employed in Germany. — Editor Am. Jour. Phar. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1878. 

Distinction of the Cinchona Alkaloids. 


by Merk of Darmstadt. Of each a saturated aqueous solution was 
made, and filtered only when needed for the microscopic examination. 
When a drop of the filtrate is placed upon a glass slide and mixed with 
a drop of the solution of potassium sulphocyanide a white turbidity is 
at once produced, which is faintest when quinia sulphate is used. 
Examined under the microscope with a magnifying power of 110 
diameters, the following is observed : 

Fig. 1. Quinia Sulphate with KScy. 

Quinia sulphate. 

I. Ghiinia Sulphate. — Small globules or round vesicles, which even 
after a day do not unite and form neither groups nor crystals (Fig. 1). 
Schrage described stellate groups of thin needles or spikes, which were 
also observed by the authors when working after Schrage's directions, 
but only in that portion of the liquid which had not become milky, 

Fig- 3. Quinidia sulphate with KScy. 

Fig. 4. Cinchonia sulphate with KScy. 

while the latter contained only the described globules or vesicles. The 
stellate groups (Fig. 2) were, by comparison, recognized as quinia sul- 

180 Distinction of the Cinchona Alkaloids. { Am xfc£ 7 h 8 a . rnfc 

phate. The above minute globules were also obtained with valerianate 
and acetate of quinia, and in one case spike-like crystals appeared, which 
were due to an admixture of cinchonidia salt. 

Fig. 5. Cinchonidia sulphate with KScy. Fig. 6. Cinchonidia sulphate with KScy. 

2. ^uinidia Sulphate. — Crystals are at once observed united into 
striking groups (Fig. 3). They are of a brownish-yellow color in trans- 
mitted light, and in general resemble Schrage's quinidia crystals. 

3. Cinchonia Sulphate. — Long radiating crystals, mostly considerably- 
branched (Fig. 4), and resembling antlers or equisetum. They agree 
with one of Schrage's pictures, and with the other only in the presence 
of cinchonidia. 

Fig. 7. Cinchonidia sulphate with KScy. Fig. 8. Cinchonidia sulphate with KScy- 

4. Cinchonidia Sulphate. — The crystals, which appear at once, form 
either dense tufts stellately arranged around a central point (Figs. 5 and 
6), or uneven, thin spike-like crystals, which are united into star-like 
(Fig. 7) or fan-shaped (Fig. 8) groups. 

A V P Xi878 arm '} Gleanings from the Foreign Journals. 181 

By means of the microscopic examination described, the cinchona 
alkaloids may not only be distinguished from each other, but the differ- 
ence in the crystalline form will likewise detect all impurities and 
adulterations ; and this method is the more important as, for the latter 
purpose, the so-called wet way is much more tedious, though by no 
means superfluous. When purchasing a quinia salt the authors recom- 
mended to dissolve about *i gram of it in 10 or 15 cc. of chlorine 
water, and add two or three drops of ammonia. If an emerald-green 
color is produced quinia or quinidia, or both, are present, but possibly 
also cinchonia or cinchonidia. The microscopic examination described 
gives the best results. The authors made about twenty mixtures of 
quinia sulphate with variable quantities of the other three alkaloids, the 
presence of which was in every instance revealed by the microscope. 


By the Editor. 

Preparation of Pure Scammony] Resin. — E. Perret recommends 
to exhaust the scammony with boiling alcohol, and to neutralize the 
alumina and lime of the blackish liquid, which has an alkaline reaction, 
with a few drops of sulphuric acid, whereby a colored precipitate is 
obtained, leaving the supernatant liquid colorless. The clear filtrate is 
distilled, the residue completely dried at about io4°C. (2i9°F.), and, 
while still warm, poured upon a marble slab ; when cool it is powdered 
and yields a white and very dry product. — Bull. Soc. Chim. Phar., N. 
Ser. xxviii, p. 522 — Jour, de Phar. et de Chim., Feb., 1878, p. 120. 

Suppositories Containing Extracts. — Paul Petit obtains perfect 
suppositories by the following method : the extract is liquified in a 
porcelain capsule, with a small quantity of water, and animal soap, 
equal in quantity to the extract, is added ; the solution is evaporated at 
a moderate heat to a syrupy consistence, and fused together with the 
requisite quantity of cacao butter ; the mixture is well agitated until it 
commences to solidify, when it is poured into well-cooled moulds. With 
a little care, the suppositories thus prepared, ate perfectly homogen- 
eous and uniform in color. — Jour. Phar. d* Anvers., 1877, p. 300. 

Soluble saccharate of iron, Ph. Ger., is rather tedious to prepare on 
a somewhat larger scale, the precipitation by boiling water, the settling 
of the precipitate and the washing, consuming much time ; but when 

1 8 2 Gleanings from the Foreign Journals. { Am ApX':S78 arm * 

the mixture of soda solution, ferric chloride and simple syrup is poured 
into three times its volume of strong alcohol, a resin-like precipitate is 
deposited, which is readily washed by alcohol, and converted into a 
dry powder with the requisite quantity of sugar. — Archiv d. Fkar., Jan. 

Dispensing of Monobromated Camphor. — Lepage recommends 
to dissolve monobromated camphor in six times its weight of expressed 
oil of almonds, and emulsify the solution in the usual manner. — Jour, 
de Phar % et de Chim.^ June, 1877, p. 535. 

Bibromide of Acetic Acid.— Bromine 54 grms. and glacial acetic 
acid 20 grms. do not react upon each other at the ordinary temperature ; 
but in the presence of a very small quantity, 4 to 10 drops, of carbon 
bisulphide, the mixture becomes warm and finally congeals. The 
compound forms orange-colored thin needles, or thicker pale- red crys- 
tals, which fuse at about 36°C, have a pungent odor and are very 
deliquescent, producing a red liquid, which, by water, is decomposed into 
bromine and acetic acid. It is also soluble in carbon bisulphide, but 
more freely in chloroform, benzol, ether and alcohol ; its composition 
is C 2 H 4 2 Br 2 . — Ber. deutsch. Chem. Ges.^ 1877, p. 2103. 

The distillation of castor oil, when carried on under a pressure 
diminished by the action of a water-air-pump, yields at first about one- 
third of its volume of an "oily liquid, nearly one-half of which is 
cenanthol. On continuing the heat, the thermometer rises more than 
I00°C, and a crystallizing body is obtained, which appears to belong 
to the oleic acid group, and to have the composition C u H 20 O 2 . — Ibid, 

Salicylate of Zinc. — Ferdinand Vigier prepares it by mixing sali- 
cylic acid with distilled water in a porcelain capsule ; the mixture is 
heated to boiling and small quantities of oxide of zinc added, previ- 
ously diffused in a little water. The solution is readily effected and 
when the zinc oxide ceases to dissolve, filtered and cooled ; the 
mother liquor is evaporated at a moderate heat, and again set aside to 
crystallize. If the heat of the concentrated solution is raised to boil- 
ing, a decomposition into a sparingly soluble basic zinc salicylate takes 
place. The contact with iron, and other metallic substances, must be 
scrupulously avoided. 

The normal zinc salicylate occurs in glossy, satiny needless, having 
a sweet, somewhat styptic and bitter taste; it is very soluble in hot 

Am A J prii? x8 7 t rm *} Gleanings from the Foreign Journals. 1 83 

water, in alcohol, ether and methylic alcohol. Its composition is 
C u H 5 5 ZnO+3aq, and it contains 23*95 per cent, zinc oxide. It has 
been employed as an antiseptic astringent in the blennorrhagia, puru- 
lent ophthalmia, etc., the solution containing 0*5 to 4 grms. of the salt 
to 100 grms. of distilled water. — your, de Phar. et de Chim., Jan., 1878, 
p. 41. 

The transformation of glycerin into glucose has been reported 
by C. Kosmann, and was asserted to have been accomplished by four 
processes, in all of which the reduction of Fehling's solution was 
regarded as sufficient proof of the presence of glucose. L. Lieber- 
mann has repeated the experiments and found the reducing action due 
in two cases to the presence of ferrous oxide, caused by the oxidation 
of iron (on digesting lard or glycerin with sheet iron), or of mangan- 
ous salt (resulting by treating aqueous glycerin with permanganate of 
potassium in the cold), or of chromic hydrate remaining dissolved in the 
glycerin ; the latter was obtained by the action of solution of potas- 
sium bichromate and sulphuric acid upon glycerin, and, subsequent, 
neutralization with sodium carbonate. Liebermann recommends 
caution in testing urine for glucose, since iron preparations are fre- 
quently used in medicine. 

Redtenbacher has previously observed that glycerin, in contact with 
yeast, evolves a gas, producing at the same time metacetic acid without 
undergoing alcoholic fermentation. — Ber. d. deutscb. Cbem. Ges., 1877, 
p. 2095. 

Atropia and Daturia. — A. Poehl has investigated the cause of the 
well-known and generally acknowledged difference in the medicinal 
activity of commercial atropia and its salts, which Hager has been 
inclined to attribute to the presence of another alkaloid, probably bella- 
donnia. The supposed chemical identity of atropia and daturia, asserted 
by Planta, has led to the practice of preparing atropia not only from 
the root and leaves of belladonna, but, likewise, from the leaves and 
seeds of stramonium. Poehl has recently again examined the two 
alkaloids prepared by himself and found the following differences : 

Atropia is optically inactive, but daturia turns polarized light to the 
• left, its specific rotating power being — 14* 12 . Atropia salts are preci- 
pitated by platiiiic chloride, but daturia salts are not affected by the 
same reagent. Atropia salts are not precipitated by picric acid, which, 
however, precipitates daturia salts. The two alkaloids are therefore 

1 84 Gleanings from the Foreign Journals. { ^XXt™' 

chemically not identical, and the differences in the physiological action 
of commercial atropia is doubtless due to the absence or presence, in 
larger or smaller proportion, of daturia. — Cbem. Centralbl., 1878, No. 
7 — Peter sb. Med. Wochenschr,, 1877, No. 20. 

Morphiometric Examination of Opium. — Prollius recommends 
to prepare a tincture of opium of officinal strength, using, however, 
34 per cent, alcohol. 100 parts of the tincture are agitated with 50 parts 
ether and 2 ammonia and then set aside. The liquids separate slowly, and 
retain, partly in the ether, partly in the alcoholic liquid, the coloring 
matter, narcotin and other crystallizable constituents of opium, while 
the morphia separates in crystals between the two layers and finally 
sinks to the bottom. The fluid portion is decanted, the crystals are 
washed with a diluted alcohol, dried and weighed. This method has 
the advantage over Guillermond's, in the use of a weaker alcohol and 
the addition of ether. — Phar. Cen. Halle, No. 2 — Schweiz. Wochenschr. 

Pao-Pereira. — This Brazilian tree belongs to the Apocynaceae 
and has been variously designated as Picramnia ciliata, Vallesia punctata, 
Taberntemontana Icevis and Geissospermum Vellosii ; after examining the 
leaves and stems, Baillon referred it to Geissops. lave. The very bitter 
bark contains an alkaloid which was obtained by Santos in 1838, and 
named pereirin, but is now proposed to be called geissospermia. 

Bochefontaine and DeFreitas have found the leaves to be likewise 
bitter and to contain the same alkaloid, though in less quantity. The 
alkaloid, as used in Brazil, is not pure but occurs as a brownish-yellow 
amorphous powder. The authors found geissospermia to be a toxic 
substance, exercising no local irritant action when administered subcu- 
taneouslv ; it is a poison which acts by destroying the physiological 
properties of the central nervous grey matter. — Phar. Jour, and Tran., 
Sept. 8, 1877 — Comp. Rend., lxxxv. 

Geissospermia has likewise been obtained by O. Hesse, indepen- 
dently of the above named authors. It occurs in small white prisms, 
easily soluble in alcohol, nearly insoluble in ether and water, but 
readily soluble in dilute acids. Concentrated nitric acid dissolves it 
with a purple color, passing, when heated, to orange yellow. Concen-- 
trated sulphuric acid dissolves it, the solution becoming gradually hjue 
and finally again colorless ; in the presence of iron the solution is at 
once blue, but likewise becomes colorless. The dark-blue color, with 

Liquefaction of Gases. 185 

sulpho-molybdic acid, remains unchanged after 24 hours. Its compo- 
sition is C 19 H 24 N 2 2 -}-H 2 0. 

The bark contains also a greyish-white amorphous alkaloid, which 
is readily soluble in ether, colors nitric acid blood-red and pure 
sulphuric^acid violet-red ; the name pereirina is proposed for it. — Ber. 
d. Chem. Ges., 1877, p. 2163. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

April, 1878. j 


Almost simultaneously, and entirely independent of each other, the 
liquefaction of oxygen was accomplished in December, 1877, by L. 
Cailletet of Paris and Raoul Pictet of Geneva. Cailletet's letter to 
the Academy of Sciences announcing his discovery was dated Decem- 
ber 2, sealed by the permanent secretary on the following day, and read 
before the Academy December 24, when Mr. Dumas announced that 


Fig. 1. 

the same result had been accomplished by Pictet December 22, of 
which he had been informed by telegraph. „ 


Liquefaction of Gases. 

J Am. Jour. Pharm„ 
( April, 1878. 

The liquefaction of one of the hitherto so called " incoercible " gases 
having been accomplished, it was followed before the close of the year 
by similar results obtained by Cailletet with the remaining two, nitro- 
gen and hydrogen, the latter of which was solidified by Pictet January 
9; atmospheric air has likewise been liquefied. The following descrip- 
tion of the apparatus with which these results were accomplished has 
been condensed from "Jour, of the Franklin Institute," to which we 
are likewise indebted for the cuts. 

Pictet's apparatus, Fig. 1, contains two pairs of pumps, ^and 5,so 
coupled that while one exhausts the other compresses. One pair oper- 
ates upon liquid sulphurous anhydrid contained in the annular recipient 
C, its evaporation reducing the temperature to — 65°C. ; the gas is 
pumped into Z), where it is condensed by pressure and cold water, and 
returns through d to C. The other pumps remove from the annular 
recipient, H y liquid carbonic acid, the evaporation reducing the tem- 
perature to — 140 , and force the gas into K y where it is recondensed 
by pressure and cold, the liquid flowing through k again into H. 

Fig. 2. 

L is a wrought-iron retort resisting a pressure of 500 atmospheres, in 
which oxygen is generated from a mixture of chlorate with chloride of 
potassium. When the pressure in the tube M has reached 320 atmos- 
pheres, the temperature of the contents being — 140 , the removing of 
the plug A 7 " opens the orifice P, through which the oxygen escapes with 
violence, producing an absorption of heat sufficiently great that a part 
of the gas liquefies in and is thrown out in a liquid jet from the 
orifice if the apparatus be inclined. 

The same retort, tube and condenser are shown in Fig. 2, in which 
the entrance of the liquid carbon dioxide is shown at a, and the exit of 
the vapors withdrawn by the suction pump at b. Instead of the orifice 
in the tubulure of the retort the condenser is closed with a screw valve, 
E y which connects with a manometer, graduated to 800 atmospheres. 

Am. Jour. Pharra. ) 
April, 1878. J 

Liquefaction of Gases. 

Since isomorphic bodies have the same atomic volume, equivalent 
divided by density, and oxygen belongs to the group of sulphur, the 
atomic volume of which is ? 2 2 — ID > according to Dumas the density of 
solid, and probably also of liquid oxygen, should be J J=i . Pictet has 
verified this by determining that a tube of 46*25 cc. capacity held 
45*467 grams of liquid oxygen, the slight difference of *8 gram being 
probably due to incomplete filling or slight variation in temperature. 

Cailletet's Apparatus. — The hollow steel cylinder A is fastened 
to an iron frame by the straps i?, and when filled with water through 
the cup G, a very high pressure may be produced in any vessel with 
which it may be connected, upon turning the large hand-wheel M, the 
hub of which, revolving in the journal-box jP, forms a nut, by which 
the square-threaded screw of a steel plunger is worked. The flow of 
water is controlled by a screw plug operated by the small hand-wheel 
O, whereby also the pressure exerted upon gases may be suddenly 
relieved. The water is forced through a small metal tube into the 
hollow cylinder which is supported by the tablet />, and capable of 
withstanding a pressure of 900 to 1, 000 atmospheres, measured by the 


Liquefaction of Gases. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( April, 1878. 

gauges N and N'. a contains the mercury reservoir, into which is 
plunged the glass tube filled with gas. This part of the arrangement 
is shown in Fig. 4, which is half size. 

Fig. 4. Fig. 5. 

Fig. 5 represents the same portion of the apparatus supported on a 
tripod, P, for. use in lecture experiments in connection with any power- 
ful force-pump. E is a hollow nut for connecting the pipe U, and N 
is a plug for closing the orifice in R when the reservoir a is being filled 
with mercury. After introducing the open end of the gas tube, T, into 
the mercury the other parts of the apparatus are placed in position, as 

Am A P °rn r ;i8?8 arm ' } Minutes of the College, 1 8 9 

shown. The upper end of T is surrounded by the glass cylinder M y 
containing liquid nitrous oxide or other freezing mixture, and covered 
by the bell-glass (?, which contains material for absorbing the moisture 
which would otherwise collect upon M and obstruct observation. The 
liquid freezing mixture may be withdrawn through the stop-cock r. 

The water entering through U presses upon the mercury, forcing it 
into T, and compressing the gas, which is finally liquefied between b 
and p. The.apparatus is easily managed, and with it and the aid of 
the oxy-hydrogen light, all the phenomena of the liquefaction of gases 
can be projected on the screen. 


Philadelphia, March 25th, 1878. 

The annual meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held this day, 
at the hall, No. 145 North Tenth street, Dillwyn Parrish, President, in the chair. 
Nineteen members were in attendance and signed the register. 

The minutes of the meeting in December last were read and, on motion, adopted. 
The minutes of the Board of Trustees were also read by the Secretary of the board, 
and, on motion, adopted. 

The by-law defining the duties of the Actuary, which was proposed at the last 
meeting of the College, and referred to this meeting, came up for consideration. 
After some discussion it was amended and, on motion, adopted as follows: 


The Actuary shall be elected by the Board of Trustees, and shall be in attendance at the hall of the 
College, which shall be kept open, under his care, from the hours of 3 to 5 P. M , and 6 to 10 P. M., 
during the continuance of the lectures; and for the remainder of the year from 3 to 6 P. M. (Saturdays 

He shall also discharge the duties of the Librarian, of the Curator, and of the Registrar of the Phar- 
maceutical Meetings, under their advice and direction. 

This addition would necessitate the following changes : Present Chapter VII to be Chapter VIII, 
Chapter VIII' to be Chapter IX, Chapter IX to be Chapter X, Chapter X to be Chapter XI, Chapter XI 
to be Chapter XII, Chapter XII to be Chapter XIII, Chapter XIII to be Chapter XIV, Chapter XIV 
to be Chapter XV. 

Mr. Wiegand, Librarian, read the following, which was, on motion, accepted : 

The Librarian respectfully reports that during the past year he has bound the theses for the year 1877 
and that there has been added to the library 304 volumes — 210 presented, 30 by exchange, 64 by 

There has been expended, by order of the Board of Trustees, on account of books purchased, $76.44 ; 
for binding of books (202 volumes), $80.25. 

During the past year the "Repertoire de Pharmacie" has been completed, except the 29th volume ; 
also the "Chemical News" and " Chemist and Druggist," " American Naturalist " and " Popular Sci- 
ence Monthly," "Watts' Dictionary of Chemistry," " Silliman's Journal of Science and Arts," "Jour- 
nal of Franklin Institute," "Archiv der Pharmacie," " Proceedings of American Pharmaceutical Associ- 
ation," "Sanitarian" — all being serials of general interest to our members. 

Any of the members who may have any of the following editions of U. S. Dispensatory, namely, ist f 
3d, 6th, 9th, nth, which they be willing to dispose of, would confer a favor by sending them to the 


Minutes of the College. 

{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1878. 

J. P. Remington, Curator, read a report of the condition of the cabinet, as fol- 
lows, which was accepted : 

Philadelphia, 3d mo. 25th, 1878. 

The Curator would report that, owing to the prospect of a gift of new cases for the accommodation of 
the Centennial specimens, the labor of relabeling and arranging has not yet been commenced. 

Manj' specimens have been presented at the Pharmaceutical Meetings through members of the College, 
students, etc., and it is believed that time will be had during the coming months to resume work upon 
the labeling and rearrangement. The action of the College in appointing an Actuary, part of whose 
duties shall be those of the Curator, will no doubt result in an improvement to the interest of the 

Respectfully submitted, JOS. P. REMINGTON. . 

The report of the Publication Committee was then read by Henry N. Ritten- 
house, on behalf of the committee. It was approved and is as follows: 

Philadelphia, March 25th, 1878. 

To the Philadelphia College 0/ Pharinacy : 

Gentlemen— We have the pleasure to report to you the operations ol the Publishing Committee of 
the College for the year just closed. Considering the very discouraging condition of mercantile and 
financial affairs which now and for some time past have continued in this country, the committee are 
well satisfied with the result of the year's business, which will be seen by a reference to the reports of the 
Treasurer, Editor and Business Editor. 

We would suggest to the members that more advertisements of a suitable character are desired, and 
we think will repay those who use the pages of the "Journal" for this purpose. The charges will be 
found reasonable for the service rendered. 

We would urge upon the members of the College who are engaged in laboratory work, to contribute to 
the "Journal" such observations as they may deem of general interest. This is particularly desirable 
for the next year, during which time the Pharmacopoeia will be in review by different commi'ttees 
appointed fer that purpose. HENRY N. RITTENHOUSE, Chairman. 

The report of the Treasurer of the committee was read by Mr. Bullock. It 
exhibits the usual favorable condition of that department of the College, and merits 
the approval of all the members. 

The Editor's report to the Publishing Committee was then read, and, on motion, 
accepted. It gives a very interesting account of the Editor's labors. 

The Editor respectfully reports, that the "Journal " has been regularly issued during the past year on 
the first of each month. The original papers contributed to the "Journal," it is believed, have been of 
such a character as to sustain its scientific, and, at the same time, practical character, both at home and 
abroad, as may be judged from the transferring of many of its original articles to the columns of other 
journals ; and likewise, from the fact that four citizens of foreign countries, three of whom are connected 
with the College by corresponding or honorary membership, have contributed five papers. The amount 
of this original matter has been so great, as to render it necessary to increase the size of two numbers 
from forty-eight to sixty-four pages, while, at the same time, most of the essays appearing in foreign 
journals had to be made accessible to the readers in a materially condensed form. 

For the year ending with the March number, 1878, the original papers, exclusive of editorials, glean- 
ings and original translations, reached the number of one hundred and six, being only five less than in 
the preceding year, in which probably the largest number of original essays had been published. Sixteen 
of these papers contained longer or briefer abstracts of theses, representing altogether twenty-six of the 
latter, of which fifteen related to strictly pharmaceutical subjects, one to chemistry, nine to materia medica 
and one to a subject of general interest. The direct contributions to the "Journal," similarly classed, 
embrace forty-five papers on pharmacy, twenty on chemistry, twelve on materia medica, and thirteen 
on subjects of general interest. 

The contributors during the past year were sixty-three in number, which is an increase over the years 
up to March, 1875, but a falling off as compared with the reports in 1876 and 1877, when respectively 
seventy-two and seventy-seven authors had contributed. The smaller number of authors was, however, 
compensated for by an increased number of papers furnished by some. While forty-six papers were 
credited to the same number of authors, we have had seven contributors furnishing two papers each, three 
with three papers each, six with four papers each and one contributing thirteen papers. 

Am, Jour. Pharm, 
April, 1878. 


Minutes of the College. 


During each of the last three years sixteen members of the College have written for the "Journal," 
while their contributions have increased from twenty seven in 1876 to thirty-five in 1877, and forty-one 
during the year just closed, without counting those of the corresponding and honorary members. 

Four of the published papers had been read before pharmaceutical associations in other cities, and 
twenty-one at meetings held in this College. 

The chairman of the Sinking Fund Committee furnished a statement of the 
condition of the fund, which shows that the College is steadily discharging its 

A letter from William Evans, tendering his resignation as a member of the 
College, was read, and, on motion, accepted. 

Prof. Maisch stated that a number of answers had been received from individuals 
and associations abroad, stating that the offers of this College to furnish specimens 
of indigenous drugs would be acceptable, and that they would endeavor to recip- 
rocate such favors as far as practicable, by exchanges of such drugs as were 
indigenous to their localities. 

Mr. Bullock moved that a committee of five be appointed to consider the pro- 
priety of changing the mode of electing the Board of Trustees; the committee to 
perfect a plan and report to the next meeting of the College. 

The motion, after discussion, was adopted, and the following gentlemen were 
appointed the committee, viz.: Chas. Bullock, Ambrose Smith, Thos. S. Wiegand, 
Daniel S. Jones, Robert Shoemaker. 

This being the Annual Meeting, an election was ordered. The President 
appointed Samuel S. Bunting and Edward C. Jones tellers, who reported the 
following officers, trustees and committees elected : 

President— Dillwyn Parrish. 
First Vice President— Z. Bullock. 
Second Vice President— Robert Shoemaker. 
Treasurer — Samuel S. Bunting. 
Recording Secretary — William J . Jenks. 
Corresponding Secretary — Alfred B. Taylor. 

Board of Trustees — Robert Bridges, M. D., John M. Maisch, Daniel S. Jones, Thomas S. Wiegand, 
James T. Shinn, T. Morris Perot, William B. Webb, Joseph P. Remington. 

Publication Committee — John M. Maisch, H. N. Rittenhouse, Thomas S. Wiegand, James T. Shinn, 
Charles Bullock. 

Sinking Fund Committee — Thomas S. Wiegand, T. Morris Perot, James T„ Shinn. 
Editor— John M. Maisch. 
Librarian — Thomas S. Wiegand. 
Curator — Joseph P. Remington. 

Respectfully submitted, 


Then, on motion, adjourned. 

William J. Jenks, Secretary* 

192 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. { Am Aprii"'i8 > 7 h 8 arm ' 


Philadelphia, March 19th, 1878. 

The meeting was called to order by Dillwyn Parrish, President 5 the minutes of 
the last meeting having been read, they were approved. 

Prof. Maisch, on behalf of Dr. F. V. Greene, U. S. N., presented a specimen of 
the fruit of the Jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum, preserved in alcohol, which resem- . 
bles the fruit of the potato, and an examination of which was published in "Amer. 
Jour. Pilar.," 1877, page 506 ; also a section of the wood of a species of Bauhinia, 
from Brazil, peculiarly variegated with dark veins, susceptible of high polish and 
evidently well adapted for cabinet makers' use. 

Mr. Debrunner, of Pittsburg, sent specimens of cast steel containing 99 per 
cent, of pure iron 5 also drillings and filings, obtained without the use of oil, from the 
same metal, and a sample of Saxony manganese containing 93 per cent, of manganic 

A specimen bottle of a kind intended to be employed for poisonous liquids was 
exhibited ; the bottle was shaped like an ordinary Seltzer bottle, but upon one side 
was cast a death's head and cross-bones, with the word poison — a most hideous 
looking affair — the objection to these bottles, which have raised figures on them, is 
the great liability to breakage ; the prominences being very apt to be broken 
through. The whole subject of employing particular styles of bottles for poisons was 
debated for a short time, Prof. Maisch referring to the danger arising from the fact 
that those who had become used to having all poisonous substances dispensed in a 
peculiar style of bottle, would conclude that those articles in other kinds of bottles 
were innocuous. 

A sample of the fruit of the Japan persimmon, a species of Diospyros, was pre- 
sented 5 a member stated that the tree had been acclimated in this country. 

Prof. Remington read a paper upon an apparatus for " porousing" plasters, as it is 
termed (see page 171) ; such an apparatus he thought desirable, as the plasters of 
this kind, put upon the market by some wholesale manufacturers, were not reliable, 
some of the makers admitting that they made two articles of the same name, one 
which did not contain a trace of the drug after which it was called ; the apparatus 
was exhibited and explained, and the paper referred to the publication committee. 

One of the members present asked what was meant by un<vitrified salts; he 
believed it was used for battery purposes 5 the expression would properly mean salts 
which had not undergone igneous fusion ; no one present was acquainted with the 
term as applied to any special article. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited samples of coniferin and artificial ^vanillin ,• the former a 
product from the juices of the cone-bearing trees, the latter a derivative of it, has a 
very decided odor of Mexican vanilla, free from that admixture of tonka odor which 
was noticed in the vanillin exhibited^at the Centennial Exposition 5 it is made in 
Germany by a patented process, and, although quite expensive, so great is its strength 
that it is claimed to be much cheaper as a flavoring agent than vanilla itself. 

Mr. Boring inquired whether there was a formula for tincture of protochloride of 

Am Ai rn"'i8 7 h 8 arm '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 193 

iron published anywhere. Prof. Maisch stated such a tincture might be readily 
made, but was neither officinal in the French or German Pharmacopoeia, the 
latter directing an aqueous solution of spec. grav. 1*23 ; ferrous chloride was rather 
less freely soluble in alcohol than ferric chloride. 1 ' 

A formula for Cremers Pomade was asked for 5 the preparation was referred to in 
" Braithwaite's Retrospect," Jan., 1S78, p. 198, as an application to the eye, but 
without giving the formula, which could also not be found in a number of works 
that were consulted. 

A member called the attention of the meeting to a statement in some of the daily 
papers relative to a new industry which has been lately developed in Pottsville, Pa., 
that of distilling the oils of Gaultheria and several other native plants, the children 
gathering the crude drugs and bringing them to those who have commenced the 
distillation of the oils. 

In answer to an inquiry for the formula for nigrosine ink, it was stated that two 
formulae were published in "Araer. Jour. Phar.," 1875, P« 88, and 1876, p. 545 it 
seems to possess the advantage that it penetrates the texture of the paper, and a 
label that has been written with it, when pasted, does not become smeared by the 
necessary handling when being rubbed smooth upon the bottle. This ink seems to 
be more permanent than other anilin inks, which usually fade on exposure. Eosin 
(a very brilliant scarlet) ink is also made from an anilin color, the name, however, 
is improperly applied, the word meaning merely rosy-colored, not scarlet. Some 
remarks were made about writing inks which would not be removed by either acids 
or alkalies, and it was stated that the object could be attained by adding to a nut- 
gall ink some solution of indigo, or a solution of soluble Prussian blue 5 the latter 
compound is obtained by precipitating a ferric salt with an excess of ferrocyanide of 
potassium, decanting the mother liquor, and washing the precipitate with water 
until it becomes soluble therein. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited a specimen of Java cinnamon, it resembled the variety 
that came in the market some years ago as Chinese cassia, but was a much thinner 
bark, and appears to be obtained from Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, grown in Java, 
and not deprived of its suberous layer. 

Adjourned. T. S. Wiegand, Registrar. 


Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The general examination was conducted 
in the same manner as in the preceding year, one afternoon being devoted to each 
branch and written answers required to the following questions: 


i . What sulphates of the heavy metals (Sp. Gr. over 6) are officinal in the U. S. P. ? 
Give the method of preparation of each and explain the reactions which take place, 

lHager directs the tincture to be made by mixing 8 parts, each of alcohol and solution of ferrous 
chloride, and adding i part of simple syrup. — Editor. 


194 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { Am A pXi^8 arm ' 

together with the formulas expressing these changes. State the physical and 
chemical characters which are distinctive of each salt. 

2. What is the source of the Carbonates of Potassium ? State the different 
commercial and officinal forms, the methods by which they are produced, and the 
impurities which may be present in any variety. 

3. What is the mode by which " Sodii Phosphas," U. S. P., is prepared ? Give 
its composition, its physical and chemical characters, and the change produced in 
it by an elevated temperature 

4. What preparations of silver are officinal ? State the methods by which they 
are prepared and explain, both by words and formulas, the chemical changes which 
take place during their production. Which of its compounds is most liable to 
adulteration, and how can this be detected ? 

5. What is the officinal process for preparing Iodide of Potassium ? Explain the 
process and give formulas for the reactions which take place. 

6. State the three principal modifications of Phosphoric Acid. Give of each its 
characteristic chemical name and composition. By what tests may they be distin- 
guished from each other? 

7. What is " Hydrargyri Oxidum Flavum," U. S. P., and what is the method by 
which it is prepared? Why does it differ in color from "Hydrargyri Oxidum 
Rubrum," and by what means can this latter be made to resemble it in appearance? 

8. What are the antidotes for "Arsenic"? State the best form and condition in 
which they can be used. 

9. What are the physical characters and chemical tests by which ferrous and 
ferric Salts are distinguished from each other? 

10. What are the antidotes for the Mineral Acids and for the Alkalies? State 
their mode of action. 


1. Which plants yield the liquorice root of commerce? To which natural order 
do they belong, and where are they indigenous? Describe the principal varieties of 
the root, pointing out the essential differences between them, and give the name and 
nature of their sweet principle. 

2 What is ginger? Give the name, natural order and habitat of the plant 
yielding it 5 describe its physical and structural characteristics, pointing out the dif- 
ferences, with their causes, of the principal commercial varieties, and name its 
medicinal properties and important constituents. 

3. What is slippery elm bark? Name the plant, its natural order and habitat. 
Describe the physical and structural peculiarities of the drug 5 give its medicinal 
properties and main constituents, and state in what respects it differs from other elm 

4. What is Iceland Moss? Give the name, natural order and habitat of the 
plant 5 describe the drug 5 name its medicinal properties and important constituents, 
and state how it may be deprived of its bitter taste. 

5. Name the plants yielding the officinal fioucers of the composita, and give the 
characteristics of these drugs, their constituents and medical properties. 

6. What fruits of the Fiperacea are officinal? Name the plants and their habitat 
yielding them 5 state at what period they are collected ; describe them briefly ; 
enumerate their proximate principles and state to which their medicinal properties 
are due. 

7. Give the name, natural order and habitat of the plant yielding flaxseed] de- 
scribe briefly the physical and structural characteristics of the seed, its important 
proximate principles, their amount and location in the tissues. 

8. Describe the general character of starch, its composition and its behavior to 
solvents and to chemical agents. How may arroiv root be distinguished from other 
starches ? 

Am Ap°rH?i878. rm '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 195 

9. Define volatile oils as to character, origin, preparation, classification and 
physical properties. Name the principal adulterations, with methods for detecting 

10. Give the characteristics of the natural order of Labiata, and name the 
medicinal herbs belonging to it. 


1. A bottle holds 4,860 centigrams of a liquid having the specific gravity "750. 
How many troyounces, drachms, scruples and grains respectively of officinal Aqua, 
Spiritus u^Etheris Nitrosi, Liquor Hydrargyri Nitratis would it contain at the same 
temperature ? 

2. Define, illustrate and explain the objects of the following classes of officinal 
preparations — Chartae, Glycerita, Linimenta, Resinas, Trochisci. 

3 Give the synonyms and brief outlines of processes for Phenylic, Amylic, 
Ethylic, Methylic and Propenyl Alcohols 5 also, for Valerianic, Salicylic, Benzoic, 
Gallic and Hydrocyanic Acids. 

4. Pyroxylon — How is it prepared ? What officinal preparations contain it, and 
how are they made ? What is its chemical name, uses and properties? 

5. Name the ingredients used in preparing Oleum .ZEthereum, Ammonii lodidum, 
Atropiae Sulphas, and describe the appearance of the finished products. 

6. Describe briefly the processes for preparing the following, giving the ingre- 
dients in each: Acetum Scillas, Infusum Gentianae Compositum, Mistura Cretae, 
Spiritus Juniperi Compositus, Pilulae Antimonii Compositse, Syrupus Sarsaparillae 
Compositus, Tinctura Rhei, Trochisci Glycyrrhizae et Opii, Unguentum Cantha- 
ridis, Vinum Rhei. 

7. State the proportions and doses of the officinal preparations of Opium. 

8. Give the ingredients used in five solid and three liquid preparations of 
Aloes, of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. What are the active principles of the 
different varieties of the drug, and how may they be distinguished from each other? 

9. Write out a description of the physical properties of Sulphate of Quinia, 
giving its solubilities and tests for identity, purity — including Liebig's, Herapaths, 

10. Describe the physical appearance and characteristics, and give the tests for 
the active principles obtained from the following: Stramonium Seed, Monkshood, 
Hemlock Fruit, and give the process for the strongest officinal preparation of each. 


1. Define briefly, or illustrate, the following terms: Symbol, Element, Atom, 
Molecule, Atomic Volume, Molecular Volume, Quantivalence, Formula, Equation, 

2. What is the chemical composition of ^Ether, and how is it prepared? Give 
its specific gravity j and name an officinal preparation into which it enters. What 
is the officinal name of the purified product ? Give three officinal preparations which 
contain it. 

3. Sulphuric Acid — state its officinal name and specific gravity ; describe the 
process of its manufacture 5 name two officinal preparations which contain it in a 
free state. What antidote should be administered in case of poisoning with this 
Acid ? 

4. What is nutmeg? Give its officinal name; also, the locality and natural 
order of the plant which produces it. What other officinal drug is obtained from the 
same source j Give its officinal definition and describe its appearance. Upon what 
principles contained in these products do their virtues depend? 

5. Give the botanical name, habitat and natural order of the plant yielding 
Opium. What is the common name of the fruit which furnishes it? Describe the 
process for obtaining it, and give its dose; name four alkaloids contained in it. 


Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 

Am. Jour. Pharos 

April, 1878. 

6. Give the officinal name and definition of Senna, its habitat, medicinal property 
and dose; name four officinal preparations into which it enters. Give the com- 
mercial names of the two chief varieties, and the botanical name of the leaf which 
is usually found mixed with one of these varieties. 

7. State the formula for preparing Donovan's Solution. Give its officinal name,, 
color and dose. What change takes place on standing ? What causes this change, 
and how would you remedy it ? 

8. Give the officinal title, mode of preparation, and the ingredients used in the 
following: Neutral Mixture Soap Liniment, Blistering Cerate, Spirit of Minder erus y 

9. Give the ingredients used and describe the process for making Pilula Ferri 
Carbonatis, Confectio Senna, Syrupus Pruni Virginians, Extractum Ergota Fluidum,. 
Acidum Tannicum. 

10. Would 
your reasons. 

dispense this ? Give 

R— Tinct. Ferri Chloridi, 

Spirit. Arrimon. Aromat., 

Sig: — Twenty drops to be taken three 
times a day. 

Can this be safely dispensed? 
R — Acid. Arsenios. Cryst., . gr. iii. 
Pulv. Opii, . . . gr. v. 

Mix and divide into 30 pills. 

Sig : One pill to be taken morning and 



B-Olei Tiglii, 

Tinct, Opii, . 
Pulv. Acacias, 

Aquas Menth. Virid., 
•Sig: — A tablespoonful 
every hour till it operates. 

the mode of preparing this., 
you dispense it ? 

f su. 

ad, 3 i. 
be taken 


How would you 
the following Gar 
well ? 

R — Potass. Chiorat , . 
Tine. Ferri Chloridi, 
Muc. Acaciae, 
Syr. Zingib., . 
Aquae, . 
Sig : — To be used as directed. 

prepare and dispense 
3-le ? Would it keep 



The specimens for recognition were as follows : 

Acid, nitro-muriaticum. 
Potassii bicarbonas. 
Potassii chloras. 
Sodii carbonas. 
Liqu. sodas chlorinatse. 
Ammonii chlorid. punf. 
Ferri subcarbonas. 
Plumbi oxidum. 
Plumbi acetas. 
Acidum oxalicum. 

Materia Medica. Pharmacy. 

Senega. Alcohol. 

Filix Mas. ^Sther. 

Geranium. Tinct. nucis vom. 

Cascarilla. Vinum Ergotse. 

Stramonii Fol. Infus, Rosas comp. 

Hedeoma. Syrup. Ipecacuanha. 

Rhus glabra. Confectio Sennae. 

Coriandrum. Ung. Stramonii. 

Myrrha. Pulv. Rhei comp. 

Cantharis. Morphias Sulphas. 

In the practical examination the candidates were required to put up the following 

Examining Committee, 
Acid, aceticum. 
Acid, gallicum. 

Cerat. Cantharidis. 
Syrupus Scillse. 
Tinct. Opii camphor. 
Extr. Buchu fluid. 

prescriptions : 

R Extract : Opii, . . . . gr. vi. 
01 : Theobromas, . . . . q. s. 
Make 6 suppositories, 15 grs. each. 

R Olei Ricini, f 3 iss. 

Pulv: Acaciae, .... J iii. 

Pulv : Sacchari, 3 1. 

Tinct : Opii, f 3 i. 

Aquae q. s. ut fiant . . f 3 iv. 
Make an emulsion. 

R Cinchonidiae Sulph : . gr, 
Acid: Tartaric: 


Make 12 pills. 


gr. x. 
q. s. 

R Zinci Oxidi, . . . . gr. lxxx. 
Ung : Benzoini q. s. ad ^ L 

Make an ointment. 

Am X J p°Hi r ; 1^78 rm * } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 197 

The following candidates passed the examination, and were recommended for the 
Degree of Graduate in Pharmacy : 

David Patrick Miller, Virginia, Tobacco Cultivation in Virginia. 

William Reynolds Keeney, Pennsylvania, Extemporaneous Pill-Coating. 

Charles Herman Gardner, Pennsylvania, Borate of Bismuth. 

Ernest Charles Federer, Ohio, Powdered Calisaya of Commerce. 

Frank Roop Smith, Delaware, Carya Tomentosa. 

Charles Edwin Barton, Ohio, Dialyzed Iron. 

Charles Edwin Button, Missouri, Syrups, by Cold Percolation. 

Wilford Oldham Higgate, Pennsylvania, Extractum Pruni Virginians Fluidum. 

Delbert Elwyn Prall, Michigan, Infusum Digitalis. 

Lawrence Minor Bullock, New Jersey, Bark of Castanea Vesca. 

Ernest William Reinecke, Pennsylvania, The Fruit of Citrus Limonum. 

David Wilmot Fawkes, Delaware, Grindelia Robusta. 

William Spencer, Pennsylvania, Preparations of Subacetate of Lead. 

Francis Xavier Wolf, Pennsylvania, The Pharmacist. 

Charles Foster Lilly, Pennsylvania, Linimentum Saponis. 

Evan Davis Lloyd, Pennsylvania, Opium. 

Thomas Canby Craig, Pennsylvania, Analysis of Chambersburg Hydrant Water. 
Joseph Vincent Wingert, Pennsylvania, Iris Versicolor. 
Louis Adolph Podolski, Pennsylvania, Chloral Hydrate. 
Wallace Geary Bobb, Pennsylvania, Prescriptions. 
Norman Isaac Brunner, Georgia, Pharmaceutical Legislation. 
David George Hurley, Pennsylvania, Japan Wax. 
Cornelius Ederson Spenceley, Pennsylvania, Hepatica Triloba. 
John Windham Harrison, West Virginia, The Necessity for Thorough Pharma- 
ceutical Knowledge. 

George Washington Gray, Delaware, Tuber of Exogonium Purga, Ipomaea 

Elwood Gouldy Hendricks, Pennsylvania, Hints on Pharmaceutical Manipulations. 
Frank Fremont Trimble, Ohio, Cimicifuga Racemosa. 
Jacob Francis Orsell, Jr. 4 Pennsvlvania, Salicylic Acid and its Congeners. 
George William Sample, Pennsylvania, Arsenicum and Acidum Arseniosum. 
Herman Lerchen, Iowa, Hydrastis Canadensis. 
Andrew Alexander Kroeg, South Carolina, Doubtful Opium. 
Benj. Carpenter Waterman, Indiana, Disinfectants. 
Jacob Samuel Beetem, Pennsylvania, Doryphora Decemlineata. 
William Henry Deprez, Indiana, Extractum Cannabis Indicae. 
George Perry Hilton, New Jersey, The Papaver Somniferum, its Products and 
their Uses. 

Edward Peat, Ohio, The Double Formula oj the U. S. P. 

Henry Bedell Crane, New Jersey, Ferrum Dialysatum. 

Thomas Winfield Wilson, Pennsylvania, Dispensing of Prescriptions. 

Edward Jacobs Newcomer, Virginia, The Responsibility of Pharmacy. 

George William Davy, Pennsylvania, Murexide. 

John Aiken Falck, Pennsylvania, Aqua Acidi Carbonici. 

David Franklin Shull, Ohio, Erythroxylon Coca. 

John Frederick Mossberg, Sweden, Emulsions. 

Herman Betz, Iowa, Coagulating Power oj Pepsin. 

Otto Werckshagen, Pennsylvania, Syrupus Rhei Aquosus. 

Lorenzo Dow Loper, New Jersey, The Progress of Chemistry. 

John Anthony Selinger, Pennsylvania, Belladonna and Opium. 

Thos. Trew Brown, Maryland, Faults of the Pharmacopoeia. 

Harry Cox, Pennsylvania, Tinctura Opii. 

198 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { Am A Jest's 

Samuel E. Robinson, Pennsylvania, First Tears Apprenticeship. 
Edwin Rosenthal, Pennsylvania, Liquor Potassa. 
Geo. Walbridge Brown, New York, Saccharated Pepsin. 
Mahlon Kratz, Pennsylvania, Ihe Pharmic Lantern. 

Omar Henry Musser, Pennsylvania, The Lavo of Equal Molecular Volumes and 

the Atomic Theory. 
Paul John Suess, Pennsylvania, Rubus Villosus. 

John Wesley Lehman, Pennsylvania, The Use of Glycerin in Fluid Extracts. 
Norman R. Dean, Pennsylvania, Suppositories . 

Charles Thomas Cahoon, Pennsylvania, Sugar and its Derivatives. 
Charles Darius Farwell, Vermont, Assay of Commercial Extracts and Resins of 

Andrew Allison White, Pennsylvania, Tincture of Kino. 
Franklin Pierce Albright, Pennsylvania, Phytolacca Decandra. 
Charles Fosselman, Kansas, Benzin," 

William Scott Flemming, Pennsylvania, Ung. Oxidi Unci. 
Harry Augustus Hall, Illinois, Chemistry. 
Jacob Strickler, Pennsylvania, Chimaphila Umbellata. 
George William Whitehill, Pennsylvania, Sulphur 
Henry Noss, Connecticut, Phytolacca Decandra 

Daniel Parke Custis, Florida, The Officinal Products of Apis Mellifica. 

Alonzo George Mackenson, Pennsylvania, Plasma vs. Adeps in Unguenta. 

John George Johnson, Minnesota, Preservation of Drugs. 

Clayton Ricker Myers, Pennsylvania, Pharmacy. 

Howard Malcolm Levering, Pennsylvania, Calamus. 

Edwin Robert Ziebach, Pennsylvania, Hydrargyrum cum Saccharo Lactis.. 

George Cooper Porter, Pennsylvania, heat. 

Isaac Penrose Jones, Pennsylvania, Triosteum Perfoliatum. 

Peter Frederick Neppach, Oregon, Berberis (Mahonia) Nervosa. 

Wm. Perry Porterfield, West Virginia, Ozone as a Disinfectant. 

Walter Kulp Lits, Pennsylvania, Areca Nut. 

Charles Morrison, Indiana, False Pareira Brava. 

Marshall Moses Andre Davis, Pennsylvania, Opium. 

George Wagner Mann, Pennsylvania, Preservation of Syrupus Scillte Compc, 
Joseph Halbert Kernan, Pennsylvania, Prescription Department. 
Nehemiah Davis, Delaware, Salicylic Acid. 

John Stevenson Barnitz, Pennsylvania, Pharmaceutical Uses of Paraffin. 

James W. Horner, Canada, The Science of Chemistry. 

Edward Lee Hudgin, Illinois, Melia Azedarach. 

Albert Krout, Pennsylvania, Pharmaceutical Uses of Glycerin. 

John Hays Allen, Jr., Pennsylvania, Systematic Pharmacy. 

John Knight Bennett, New Jersey, Disinfectants. 

Benjamin Franklin Bache, Pennsylvania, Duty of Pharmacists. 

Seymour Snowden Burns, Pennsylvania, Fungous Gronvth. 

David Hambleton Ross, Pennsylvania, Oleum Cajuputi. 

Richard Cordelion Marley, Delaware, Accuracy, Neatness and Attention. 

William Weis, Pennsylvania, Dialyzed Iron. 

Thomas Jefferson Woodworth Phillips, New Jersey, Pharmacy. 
Morris Kemerer Sweitzer, Pennsylvania, Fucus Vesiculosus. 
Isaac Davis, Pennsylvania, Medicated Syrups. 
Thomas Craighead, Pennsylvania, Salicylic Acid. 
Peter Graybill, Pennsylvania, Chemical Research. 

On the evening of March 14th the successful candidates assembled at the College 
building in response to an invitation from the professors and the members of the 
Board of Trustees. After spending some time in pleasant conversation the com- 

Am Ai°Xi878 arm '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 199 

pany repaired to the museum, on the ground floor, where an inviting supper was in 
waiting for them. After justice had been done to the various good things, a num- 
ber of toasts were proposed and responded to, mostly in a humorous strain, and 
brief speeches made by members of the class and of the board. The time passed 
pleasantly and merrily until the late hour admonished the company to disperse. 

The Commencment exercises were held on the evening of March 15th. The 
Academy of Music was crowded on the occasion, and the stage handsomely deco- 
rated, a huge pyramid of bouquets attracting general attention. The degrees were 
conferred by the President of the College, Dillwyn Parrish, and the valedictory 
address delivered by Professor Maisch. At the close of this, Mr. Wingert, on 
behalf of the class, presented a handsome analytical balance to Prof. Remington, 
who expressed his thanks, with some remarks appropriate to the occasion. 

The exercises were enlivened by music from the Germania Orchestra, and closed 
with the distribution of the bouquets, books and other substantial presents, which 
had been sent upon the stage by the friends of the graduates. 

In response to a call issued in the last number of the " American Journal of 
Pharmacy," a meeting of the members of the Zeta Phi Society of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy was held to take into consideration the celebration of the 
Twenty-fifth Anniversary, which will occur a year hence. Members of the various 
classes from 1854 to 1878 were present, and the proposition was received with 
general satisfaction. A committee was appointed to issue a circular, and prepare 
business for the next Meeting, which will be held in the College, on Tuesday even- 
ing, April 9th, at 8 o'clock, when a general attendance is requested. 

Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy.— The Four- 
teenth Annual Meeting was held on the afternoon of March 13th, President Mat- 
tison in the chair. Eighteen members present. 

On motion, the reading of the minutes of the previous Annual Meeting, the 
several meetings of the Executive Board and those of the Social Series was dispensed 
with, and the annual report of the President was then read, approved and ordered 
to be printed. 

A Nominating Committee from eight graduating classes reported for President, 
Albert P. Brown j Vice Presidents, Wallace Procter, W. E. Krewson ; Recording 
Secretary, W. W. Moorhead ; Corresponding Secretary, F. Marion Murray j 
Treasurer, Edward' C. Jones 5 to fill vacancies in the Executive Board, John C. 
Martin, R. V Mattison, who were duly elected. 

The Treasurer's report was read, a balance of $85.52 being shown on the credit 

The Committee on Social Meetings reported in favor of their continuation. 

It was resolved, that in future, the committees should consist of two members 
each from the Board, from the Association at large and from the Zeta Phi Society. 

Mr. James A. Stratton, of Bordentown, N. J., was elected as Orator for the next 
annual reception. 

Communications were received from the Alumni Associations of the Cincinnati, 
St. Louis and New York Colleges, and ordered to be acknowledged. The meeting 
then adjourned. 

200 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { ^a^^s!" 1 ' 

In the evening, a reception was tendered to the graduates at the College by the 
Alumni Association. After a short address by the President, Dr. A. W. Miller 
delivered the annual address, and the following prizes were distributed : The 
Alumni gold medal to D. P. Miller, of Virginia, and certificates to C. E, Button, of 
Missouri, for proficiency in Chemistry; C. E. Barton, of Ohio, for Materia 
Medica; C. H. Gardner, of Pennsylvania, for Pharmacy, and D. E. Prall, of 
Michigan, for Pharmaceutical Manipulations ; also to David Costelo, of Indiana, 
for having obtained the highest average in the junior examination. A new feature 
of this entertainment was the delivery of a valedictory address, on the part of the 
graduating class. Mr. D". E. Prall, who had been selected for this task, acquitted 
himself very creditably. The presentation of the Alumni album and remarks by 
several visitors concluded the exercises. 

Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. — At the annual meeting, held Marh 4th, 

1878, the following-named gentlemen were elected officers for the ensuing year: 

President, Samuel A. D. Sheppard. Vice-Presidents — Thomas L. Jenks, M.D.; 
William S. Folger. Recording Secretary, D G. Wilkins. Corresponding- Secre- 
tary, George F. H. Markoe. Treasurer, Charles I. Eaton. Auditor, James S. 
Melvin. Trustees — Benj. F. Stacey, I. B. Patten, S C. Tozzer, Geo. H. Cowdin, 
Chas. P. Orne, Edgar L. Patch, Edw. S. Kelley. Secretary of the Board of Trus- 
tees, Henry Canning. 

The College and the School of Pharmacy were reported to be in very satisfactory 

New York College of Pharmacy. — At the close of the forty-eighth session, the 
following candidates passed the examination, and received the degree of Graduate 
in Pharmacy : 

George P. Bagley, New York, Results of several Percolations made with the object oj 

finding the exact weights of several carefully prepared tinctures. 
A. P. Baxter, New York, An Examination of Granular Citrate of Magnesia. 
A. C. Behrens, Germany, Officinal Ginger. 

H. L. F. Behrens, Germany, Zinc and its Officinal Preparations. 

P. B. Boles, Virginia, Borate of Sodium and its Uses. 

C. W. Brunner, New York, The Officinal Labiates of the United States. 

T. R. Burgtorf, Germany, The Products of Apis mellifica, their Medicinal Properties 

and Uses, Adulterations and Tests. 
S. E. Dougherty, New York, Syrups by Cold Percolation. 
M. C. Drescher, Geimany, Iodine and Iodide of Potassium. 
A. A. Edlich, New York, Arsenic a?id its Officinal Preparations. 
H. W. Evans, Kentucky, Crab Orchard Salts. 
Gerson Gans, New York, Historic Pharmacy. 
W. Glatzmayer, New York, Pills and Wajers 

G. D. Hayes, New York, The Morphia Value of Commercial Powdered Opium. 
Theodore Heller, Austria, Oxide of Ethyl, "Ether." 

Daniel Huber, Jr., New York, Antimony and its Principal Preparations . 

George Inness, New York, Hydrobromic Acid [HBr.]. 

J B. Jacobus, New Jersey, Reading and Compounding of Prescriptions. 

Am Ai°rii?i878 arm '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. lo\ 

W. H. Keeler, New Jersey, Jalaps and the Percentage Strength of Commercial Sam- 

L. G. Ketchum, New York, Secundem Artem. 

C. G. Koehler, New York, The Natural Order Composite. 

J B. Kunath, Germany, Senna. 

Daniel Leibe, New Jersey, Arsenic. 

E. N. Liell, New York, On the Principal Constituents of Digitalis purpurea, 

F. W. Luerssen, Germany, Iodine and its Preparations. 
Silas Mclver, Georgia, Dialyzed Iron. 

Joseph McMahon, New York, Liq. Ferri Chloridi and Ung. Hydrarg. N'itr. 

John Metzger, Long Island, The Atomic Theory. 

R. C. Miot, South Carolina, Gelsemium sempervirens. 

Silas H. Moore, Vermont, Plant Life and its Relations to the Animal Kingdom. 
A. J More, Pennsylvania, Damiana : an Investigation of the Commercial Variety. 
William H. Muller, Germany, Volatile Oils: their Composition, Adulterations and 

Modes for Detecting them 
Charles Potberg, Pennsylvania, Benzoinum. 
Q. E Reynolds, Ohio, Strychnos Nux Vomica. 

Richard J. Reynolds, New Jersey, Elegant New Pharmaceutical Preparations, 

W. F. Riecker, New York, Eucalyptus globulus. 

Edward Roth, New York, Urine and Some of its Constituents. 

J. W. Schelpert, Georgia, Glycerin. 

L. J Schlesinger, Virginia, Sugar from Sugar Cane. 

W. H H Schofleld, New York, Iodine and Potassic Iodide. 

George Schreyer New York, Starch. 

W. A. Smith, New Jersey, Digitalis purpurea. 

A. T. Snelling, Virginia, The Preparation of Fluid Extract of Ipecacuanha and 

A. F. Stevenson, New York, Jalap and its Resin. 

Louis Thurn, New York, Iron and its Officinal Preparations. 

A. G. Uber, Illinois, By-products of Gas industry. 

R Vandenhenden, Belgium, Theory of Nitrif cation. 

W. M. Walker, New York, Pharmaceutical Advancement and the Public. 
Paul Weber, Germany, Observations from the Pharmaceutical Laboratory. 
Louis F. Weismann, New York, Humulus lupulus and its Officinal Preparations. 
John Wimmer, New York, Detection and Isolation of Arsenic in Organic Matter. 

The Commencement exercises were held in Chickering Hall, on the evening of 
March 19th. The degrees were conferred by the President, Ewen Mclntyre, and 
the Alumni prizes (consisting of a gold, silver and a bronze medal), were awarded, 
through Mr B. F Mclntyre, to G. D. Hayes, Silas H. Moore and Daniel Huber, 
Jr. An address was delivered by Prof. R. W Raymond, and in behalf of the 
graduating class by R. Robeson. The class presented to the College a spectro- 
scope, which was received by Prof. Bedford. 

Later in the evening the officers of the College and invited guests assembled 
socially and had a pleasant reunion. The supper over, a number of toasts were 
proposed and responded to. 

Alumni Association of the College of Pharmacy of the City of New York.— 
The Annual Meeting was held Thursday evening, March 14th, in the University 

The following officers were chosen for the ensuing year : President, Starr H. 

202 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { Am xJ r °i?, r i8 P 7 8 arm ' 

Ambler ; Vice Presidents, B. F. Mclntyre, J. L. A. Creuse, B. F. Hays ; Treasurer, 
Theobald Frohwein 5 Secretary, H. L. Coit ; Registrar, L. M. Royce ; Delegates to 
"the Twenty-sixth Annual Meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
P. W. Bedford, Theo. Frohwein, Starr H. Ambler, B. F. Hays, E. Montanus. 

At 10 o'clock, the members and invited guests proceeded to the Sinclair House, 
and gave a collation in honor of the graduating class of 1878, at which, with toasts 
and speeches, a few hours were pleasantly spent, B. F. Mclntyre, the retiring 
President, presiding. 

Alumni Association of the St. Louis College of Pharmacy The third annuai 

meeting was held at the lecture-room of the College on the evening of February 19, 
President Lindeman in the chair. Present twenty-four members. The minutes of 
the last annual meeting and of the Executive Board were read and approved. The 
annual reports of the president, officers and committees were read and acted upon, 
the Treasurer reporting a balance on hand amounting to $115.25. The election of 
officers for the ensuing year resulted as follows : Francis Hemm, President ; Henry 
Strassinger and O. E. Trentler, Vice Presidents ; W. C. Bolm, Recording Secretary j 
R. H. B. Hunstock, Corresponding Secretary ; Ad. Pfeiffer, Treasurer ; C. A. Ben- 
del, Registrar; H. E. Lindeman, Chas. Geitner and F. F. Reichenbach, members of 
the Executive Board. The newly-elected president appointed a committee of five 
to suggest amendments to the Pharmacy Act of St. Louis, which, as it stands at 
present, was pronounced in the retiring president's address as being very impotent and 
almost useless. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — At the pharmaceutical meeting, 
held Feb. 6, President John Williams in the chair, Prof. Bentley exhibited some 
Chinese opium and the poppy capsule from which it had been prepared. It appears 
that in China the capsules are not incised but punctured, and after a day, or a day 
and a half, the opium is scraped off and put into jars; it seems to be generally 
quite moist and often of a musty odor. Some specimens of Chinese opium had been 
found to contain as much as 15 to 17 per cent, of morphia; the specimen, examined 
by Mr. Thirlby, had yielded 775 per cent of morphia and 675 per cent of narco- 
tina. Prof. Bentley considers Chinese opium altogether inferior to Smyrna opium. 

Prof. Bentley also showed matura flowers, which, on a superficial examination, 
resemble fruits, but are really the corollas of Bassia latifolia, a tree common in 
India, in some parts of which they are used for food. They have a saccharine smell 
and contain a large quantity of sugar. A spirit may be obtained from them, which, 
when new, is regarded as injurious, and there appears to be a difficulty in freeing it 
from its disagreeable qualities; but when it is old it is said to get better. Several 
tons of the flowers are now coming into the English market to be used in distillation. 

Prof. C. H. Wood, of Calcutta, read a paper on the progress of cinchona cultiva- 
tion and alkaloid production in Bengal. The cultivation was commenced in 1861, 
by Dr. Anderson at the botanical gardens at Calcutta, and in the following year 
preparations were commenced for establishing a permanent plantation in Sikkim, oa 

Am ApXi878 arm " } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 203 

the slopes of the Himalayas. The first patch of 500 cinchonas was planted in 1864,. 
in the valley of Rungbee, 12 miles distant from Darjeeling; at present the total 
number of cinchona trees is 3,000,000, covering about 1,900 acres. Of the species 
experimented with C. Pahudiana was proved to be comparatively worthless ; C. offici- 
nalis and Pitayensis will not thrive under the climatic conditions of Sikkim, and 
C. Micrantha yields a bark rich in cinchonia only ; their cultivation has been aban- 
doned. C. Calisaya grows under rather limited conditions, is more difficult to pro- 
pagate and has a tendency to run into varieties which do not furnish bark of equal 
value. Its cultivation has not made the same progress as that of C. succirubra y 
which has proved a decided success; the tree is hardy, growing well under a suffi- 
ciently wide range of conditions, seeds freely, is easily propagated and has little 
disposition to run into varieties. There are now about 2,500,000 of these trees in 
cultivation, and if regularly cut at the end of their seventh or eighth year (a corres- 
ponding number being at the same time planted out), it is estimated, would yield 
annually 366,000 lbs. of bark, the yield from each tree varying between 6 oz. and 6 
lbs. (exclusive of the rootbark which is richest in alkaloids). The bark crop is taken 
by coppicing (cutting the tree close to the ground) or by uprooting; the experi- 
ments on the most advantageous plan of harvesting are not yet concluded. 

The average yield of the plantations contains 4 to 5 per cent, of total alkaloids,, 
the average composition of which is quinia, 16*31, cinchonidia, 30*53, cinchonia, 
35*26 and amorphous alkaloid, 17*90 per cent. The mixed alkaloids are obtained 
by exhausting the bark with dilute hydrochloric acid, precipitating with soda, redis- 
solving in just sufficient dilute acid, filtering from coloring matter and again precipi- 
tating ; the dried precipitate yields a white powder, acquiring a slight buff tint by 
keeping; it never agglutinates and is readily soluble in weak acids. It is used under 
the name of cinchona febrifuge, and is not intended as a substitute for quinia but a 
supplement to it, useful in the fever prevalent among the natives of India. It is now 
manufactured at the rate of 4,000 lbs. per year, the cost price being one rupee per 
ounce (is. 9d). 

Dr. De Vrij alluded to the rapidly-growing Cinch, pubescens, the bark of which is. 
very rich in quinia, yielding on the first renewal by Mclvor's mossing process 9 per 
cent, of total alkaloids, furnishing 7*2 per cent, of quinia sulphate. The Quinolog- 
ical Congress, held last April in Amsterdam, had decided that that process was the 
future of cinchona cultivation. In his experience coppicing always yielded a poorer 
bark than that produced by renewal. He criticised a statement by Surgeon-General 
Smith in regard to the insolubility of the mixed alkaloids in dilute muriatic acid, 
proposed for this cinchona febrifuge the name of quinetum y and referred to experi- 
ments made by Prof. Binz of Bonn, according to which the amorphous alkaloid is 
much more toxic than quinia. 

Messrs. Moss and Wood objected to the word " quinetum," which meant a collec- 
tion of cinchona trees rather than of its alkaloids. 

Dr. Paul referred to the difference in composition which the cinchona febrifuge 
must necessarily have, and said that whatever might be the advantage of using up 
the bark in the preparation of that substance, it was still a question whether it wuold 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t April, 1878. 

be possible for the latter to stand against the preparations of the pure alkaloids as 
offered in the market. 

Mr. Wood stated that the process of mossing had failed in Bengal, the new bark 
being destroyed by ants and other insects; the economy of the process should like- 
wise be taken into consideration. The bark produced at Darjeeling was valuable 
and very cheap, and, from the observations made, it could be claimed that in a little 
time Bengal would be able to produce barks equal to the Cinch, ptibescens. 

Paris Pharmaceutical Society. — At the session, held January 9, Mr. Mehu pre- 
siding, Messrs. Schaeuffele, Lefort, Desnoix, Marais, Duquesnel and Petit were 
appointed a permanent committee, for the purpose of examining all propositions 
concerning new medicaments or new formulas, and reporting the results to the Society. 

Mr. Stan. Martin presented a specimen of Cremocarpus setigerus of California. 
It belongs to the Euphorbiacea;, resembles a croton, and, with water, yields a dis- 
tillate having a goat-like odor ; sulphide of carbon takes up a brown fat, having the 
same odor, and alcohol a hygroscopic extractive of an acrid and very irritating taste. 

Mr. Petit presented acid bromhydrates of quinia and quinidia, which consist of 4 
equiv. of water, 2 of acid and one of base. He also reported on commercial neutral 
sulphate of quinidia, of which he had examined a sample from London and one from 
Val-de-Grace ; both showed the same rotatory power, and lost at ioo°C. not over 
0-5 per cent, of moisture ; the salt seems, therefore, not to contain any water of 


Synonyms. — On p. 143 of our last number, we referred to a " curious synonym 
for quinia," In a communication to the " Medical and Surgical Reporter," March 
16, Dr. I. Gilbert Young quotes our editorial remarks, with the (undoubtedly 
accidental) addition of the word <was in the sentence : " The patient (<was) 
imagined to be unable, etc.," thereby changing its meaning. But what we partic- 
ularly desire to call attention to are the following remarks in Dr. Young's 
communication : 

From my earliest professional days, however, I have (as doubtless most practitioners likewise), 
encountered a deep, constantly met with, and causeless prejudice to the use of the preparation of 
Peruvian bark in question. With the view, then, of nullifying, as far as possible, the annoyance resulting 
from such prejudice, I early adopted, as a synonym for quinia, the caption of this article, "Sulphas 
Americana Australis," and by having it understood by the druggists of my neighborhood, have not only 
succeeded in puzzling such of my patients as insist on reading my prescriptions, but have also secured to 
them the beneficent results accruing from the taking of this most valuable ''South American Sulphate." 
Whether the general adoption of some such synonym is expedient or necessary at present is respectfully 
submitted. Of one fact, however, the writer is certain : it has done good service in many cases, for him. 

Most pharmacists, undoubtedly, have been as much annoyed, as most physicians 
have been, by the refusal of patients to have prescriptions put up on finding them 
to contain an article which, for some reason or other, they were reluctant to take. 
In such cases well recognized synonyms become of importance. In our opinion too 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1878. J 

Reviews, etc. 

little attention has been paid thereto by both physicians and pharmacists, and the 
subject has been completely neglected by the Pharmacopoeia, while several foreign 
Pharmacopoeias give to some old names the official sanction as synonyms, thus : 
Pharm. Germ, recognizes Opium also as Meconium and Laudanum 5 Tinctura Opii as 
Tinct. thebaica and Tinct. Meconii, etc. It would not be necessary to unearth all 
the ancient names, but the recognition of one or two synonyms for the most 
important articles with which the difficulties alluded to have been experienced 
(quinia is one of these) would prevent that annoyance altogether. 

The Western Druggists' Mutual Benefit Association, is the title of an Asso- 
ciation, which was incorporated in the State of Ohio about eight months ago. 
From the charter and by-laws before us, we learn that its objects are the insurance 
of the lives of its members for the benefit of their heirs. Persons engaged in dealing or 
manufacturing articles pertaining to the drug trade are eligible to membership, and 
pay an entrance fee, graduated according to their age. $1.25 assessment is paid in 
anticipation of a death. All funds are securely invested, and, on the death of a 
member, his heirs receive a sum equal to one dollar for each member, but not 
exceeding $5,000. The balance is used for defraying the necessary expenses, the 
only salaried officer being the Secretary, and the surplus is allowed to accumulate 
until it exceeds by $3,000 the amount of a death loss, when the latter will be paid 
from the Treasury in place of making an assessment. 

The present Trustees are members of prominent firms of Cincinnati, and as to 
the plan, that appears to speak for itself, combining economy of management with 
all the advantages that may be expected to accrue from a mutual benefit organization. 


Jahresbericht uber die Fortschritte der Pharmacognosies Pharmacie und Toxicologies 
Herausgegeben von Dr. Dragendorff, Professor der Pharmacie in Dorpat. Neue 
Folge. u.Jahrgang, 1876. Gottingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprechfs Verlag, 
1877. 8vo, pp. 682. 

Annual Report on the Progress of Pharmacognosy, Pharmacy and Toxicology. 
For the year 1876. 

The general arrangement of this annual remains as in former years 5 it opens with 
an enumeration of the pharmaceutical literature, giving the titles of books and 
pamphlets and new journals relating to pharmacy and allied branches, and a brief 
review of a number of them. In the second division those essays are considereed 
which refer to general pharmacy and to the condition of pharmacy in different coun- 
tries. The third division embraces pharmacognosy, and is subdivided in drugs from 
the vegetable and animal kingdom. Pharmaceutical chemistry is the subject of the 
fourth and pharmaceutical preparations of the fifth division, the latter with an appen- 
dix giving the composition of those nostrums the analysis of which was published 


Reviews, etc. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ April, 1878. 

in 1876. The publications on toxicology and forensic medicine have been reported 
on in the sixth division. 

The former reports of this work are so favorably known that it is unnecessary to 
enlarge upon the merits of the volume before us. The abstracts have, as usual, 
been made with great care ; sufficient details are given to enable the reader to work 
by or identify the bodies treated of, references being frequently made to reports of 
former years or to other papers published in the same volume, the consultation 
of which is very much facilitated by the thorough systematic arrangement. Papers 
which are not suited for abstracts are enumerated, with the source where published, 
and a general statement of their contents. A good index of authors as well as of 
subjects likewise renders the report very serviceable. 

A Handbook of Volumetric Analysis $ designed for the use of Classes in Colleges and 
Technical Schools. By Edward Hart, S. B , Fellow of Chemistry in the John 
Hopkins University. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1870. i2mo, pp. 326. 
Bound. Price, $2.50 

We have been very much pleased in finding this work so well adapted for the use 
of the student and at the same time as a book for ready reference. It is divided 
into three parts, Part I being devoted to the instruments, the sources of error, pre- 
paration of the solutions and the general methods of volumetric analysis, namely 
those of saturation, oxidation, reduction and precipitation. 

Part II treats of the estimation of the different metals and the non-metallic 
elements and their compounds. Some special subjects, such as steel, oxygen in 
water, urine, water and indigo, have been reserved for Part III, though the last sub- 
ject is scarcely more than alluded to, no details being given 

As far as we have examined it, we have found the descriptions clear and precise, 
the methods well selected and the illustrations good and characteristic. We have 
observed little that we would desire to have altered In some cases, the methods 
might, perhaps, have been described more in detail, but as they are, they are quite 
sufficient for those who understand the reactions, and no others should attempt to 
work by a complicated process. We prefer the term " neutralization," though we 
know that "saturation" is much more generally employed for the methods depend- 
ing upon the neutralization of an acid by an alkali, and vice -versa. On p. 45 it is 
directed to remove excess of baryta by £i Seltzer water " $ carbonic acid water, of 
course, is meant. 

Report on Adulteration of Food; being Supplement No. Ill to the Report of the 
Department of Inland Revenue. Ottawa: Maclean, Roger & Co., printers, 

This report has been printed by order of the Parliament of the Dominion of 
Canada. The report itself is brief, giving merely a summary of the results and the 
proportion of the examined samples adulterated It shows the value of the law in 
exposing dishonesty and protecting the consumer, and argues in favor of extending 
its provisions to the whole Dominion. It is followed by 25 plates, containing 60 

Am. Jour. Pharra. ) 
April, 1878. I 

Reviews, etc. 


•figures of microscopic objects illustrating the adulterants used for the adulteration 
of tobacco and of some articles of food 

The appendix contains the various analytical reports more in detail, and arranged 
in condensed and tabular form. 

Taschenbuch der Nahrungs-und Gen'ussmittel-lehre . Von G. C. Wittstein. Nord- 

lingen : C. H. Beck'sche Buchhandlung : 1878. 12VO, pp. 176. 
Compendium of articles of food and drink. 

The author, who is well known to our readers not only as an authority in phar- 
maceutical matters, but likewise as a man who has ever battled against nostrums and 
adulterations, states upon the title page that the work was intended to take par- • 
ticular cognizance of the deteriorations, impurities and sophistications to which 
articles of food and drink are subject. The material has been arranged in alpha- 
betical order, and in each case has been given as nearly as possible, 1, the physical 
and chemical characteristics of the article ; 2, the changes and adulterations thus far 
observed j 3, the recognition of these with the most simple and, at the same time, 
reliable means, and 4, hints in regard to the proper vessels and means for preserving 
these articles. The aim was to produce a work for the use of every housewife of 
ordinary intelligence \ but it is obvious that, occasionally at least, processes had to 
be described which cannot be performed except by the expert. The book is there- 
fore also* valuable to the latter, and since in cases of doubt the pharmacist is not 
unfrequently applied to for his judgment, and since all the spices and many other 
articles used in the kitchen or for Invalids are legitimate pharmaceutical goods, the 
work before us is likewise of importance to the pharmacist, giving him, in many 
instances, advice as to how to proceed for determining the purity of articles of every- 
day consumption, and as such, we recommend it to our readers. 

Gmelin-Kraufs Handbuch der Chemie. Anorganische Chemie in drei Banden. 

Sechste Auflage. Heidelberg: Carl Winter's Universitats Buchhandlung, 1877. 
■Gmelin-Kraufs Handbook of Chemistry. Inorganic Chemistry, in three volumes. 

Before us are parts 7 and 8 of the first division, and parts 3 and 4 of the second divi- 
sion of the second volume of the sixth edition of Gmelin's Chemistry. The former 
contains the conclusion of calcium and a good portion of magnesium ; the latter 
tungsten and molybdenum. The first and third volumes have been completed, so 
that only the second volume remains to complete this new edition, and, being divided 
into two parts, one being prepared by Prof. Kraut, the editor of the whole work, 
the other by Prof. Jorgensen of Kopenhagen, there is a fair prospect that ere long 
this valuable work will be in the hands of all interested. 

Medicinal Plants', being descriptions with original figures of the principal plants 
employed in medicine, and an account ot their properties and uses. By R, 
Bentley, F.L.S., and H. Trimen, M.B., F.L S. Philadelphia : Lindsay & Blaki- 
ston. 1877. Price per part, $2.00. 

Parts 25 and 26 before us, describe the following plants : Abrus praecatorius, Lin, 


Reviews, etc. 

J Am. Jour Pharm. 
t April, 1878. 

(Indian liquorice); Alstonia scholaris, R.Br. (Dita bark); Arctostaphylos uva ursi r 
Spreng. ; Berberis aristata, DC. j Capsicum annuum, Lin. ; Calatropis procera, R.Br. 
(Mudar); Cassia fistula, Lin. ; Coptis trifolia, Salisb. ; Galipea cusparia, St. Hil.\ 
Gynocardia odorata, R. Br. (Chaulmugra of India); Hydrastis canadensis, Lin. j 
Nectandra Rodiaei, Schomb. ; Solenostema argel, Hayne, and Veronica (Leptandra 
Nutt) virginica, Lin. 

First Annual Report of the Commissioners of Pharmacy of the State oj Maine, 1877. 
Augusta : Sprague, Owen and Nash. 

This official report gives an account of the proceedings of the board during the 
, first year of its existence, and makes some suggestions for modifications ; 1, that a 
registered pharmacist be forbidden to conduct more than one business by virtue of 
his certificate ; 2, that any person may have an interest in the business, but that it 
must be conducted by a registered pharmacist ; 3, modification of the Maine 
liquor law so as to permit pharmacists to dispense alcoholic liquids. 

Proceedings of the Michigan Pharmaceutical Association as its Fourth Annual Meeting. 
Detroit, Oct. 17, 1877, 8vo, pp. 3 v. 

Proceedings of the Sixth and Seventh Annual Meetings of the New Jersey Pharmaceu- 
tical Association, held in New Brunswick, May 17, 1876, and Newark, Wednesday 
May 16, 1877, with an appendix containing the proceedings of a special meeting, 
held at Long Branch, A ugust 16, 1 871, and the proceedings of the Second Annual 
Meeting, held at Trenton, Feb. 7, 1872. 8vo, pp. 73. 

Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Meeting of the California Pharmaceutical Soeiety, and 
the Fifth Annual Meeting of the California College of Pharmacy, held at San Fran 
cisco, Jan. 10, 1878. 8vo, pp. 42. 

The publication of these pamphlets gives evidence of the interest felt in the 
advancement of pharmacy in the three States mentioned. 

The reception of the following pamphlets is hereby acknowledged : 
What am IP A valedictory address to the graduates of the Medical Department ot 
the University of Louisville, Feb. 28, 1878. By J. M. Bodine, M.D. Pp. 28. 

Proceedings of the Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for 
Idiotic and Feebleminded Persons, 1876 aftd 1877. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott 
& Co. Pp. 35. 

Belladonna as a Remedy for Collapse. By Reinhard Weber, M.D . 

Report on One Hundred and Ten Cases of Extraction of Cataract by Von Graefe's 
Peripheric Linear Method. By M. Landesberg, M. 

The last two reprints from Philadelphia " Medical Times." 

Correction. — The cut on page 172 has, through the carelessness of the printer, 
been placed in a wrong position. The plaster being fastened on a table or counter, 
the perforating tool is necessarily worked from above, and the illustration should be 
turned so that the plaster is at the bottom. 



Mjr, 1878. 

Is . 


By Edward R. Squibb, of Brooklyn, 

As the time approaches for a revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia 
those parts of it which require the most time and labor should be recog- 
nized, that due consideration may be given to them ; and there is cer- 
tainly no department of the work where more time and labor is needed 
than upon the Fluid Extracts and Extracts. Should the Committee of 
Final Revision fail to find and adopt the best plan of making this 
important class of preparations the Pharmacopoeia instead of being the 
model and standard of the Nation will be surely disregarded and left 
behind by the practice and the results of the large manufacturer and 
the evil of the present will be confirmed and fastened upon the future. 

It will not do for the Committee to disregard any plan because it is 
laborious, or troublesome, or expensive, or complicated, or because it 
is not adapted to the knowledge and capacity of the large majority of 
physicians and pharmacists. These, though very important, are still 
secondary considerations. The thing to be accomplished in the Phar- 
macopoeia is to have practically perfect preparations in every respect. 
That is, preparations that are really what they profess to be. They 
should contain all the active and useful parts of the drug in their natural 
conditions and associations ; — should reject as far as practicable the 
inert and useless portions of the drug ; and should bear the established 
relation to the drug, of minim for grain ; — or, weight for weight, if 
this can be accomplished without materially disturbing the established 
relation. To effect this object a general scheme, plan or process can 
be adopted, and then every drug must be studied carefully and labori- 

The original p process of Prof. Procter accomplished the exhaustion 
of the drug insufficiently, but that difficulty can be easily remedied by 
carrying the percolation farther. But the concentration of the weaker 


2 1 o Fluid Extracts by Reper eolation. { Jf"* 

percolate to obtain the established relation between the drug and the 
fluid extract presents difficulties which are probably insurmountable by 
that process. It is not simply by the heat and oxidation of the evapo- 
ration process that all the harm is done to that portion of the prepara- 
tion, but the active principles are so dissociated and split up by the 
concentration that they are no longer in their natural condition, but 
form new relations and combinations which change their solubilities, 
and bring a new set of reactions into play, making the preparation 
something else than what it professes to be. The evidence of this is 
found in the fact that a resinous or oleaginous drug can be thoroughly 
exhausted by a menstruum which will permanently hold all its constit- 
uents in solution. But if such menstruum be evaporated off, the same 
menstruum will not dissolve and hold the extract again. Nor will any 
other menstruum ever again reconstruct the extract or restore it to its 
original condition. For example a diluted alcohol will exhaust Buchu 
and will hold the oil, while in its natural relations with other constitu- 
ents of the leaf, in the same kind of combination or emulsion that 
exists in the leaf before extraction, and in such a solution, though very 
dense, the oil does not change in odor much, — if at all more rapidly 
than the leaf does. But if such a solution be evaporated until the oil 
is precipitated and shows itself as a fully formed oil, the same strength 
of alcohol will not redissolve it. Nor will any strength of alcohol 
redissolve the whole of the extract, or recombine its once separated 
elements into their natural condition. And moreover, the oil when 
separated, changes its physical properties more rapidly than when in 
its natural condition in the leaf, or than when separated with its natural 
associations unbroken. These circumstances constitute the chief objec- 
tion to the original process, and to many of the original menstrua of 
Prof. Procter, and led the present writer to try to make improvements 
both in the process and the menstrua. 

This effort at improvement by the writer was begun in a paper pub- 
lished in the Proceedings of The Amer. Pharm. Asso. for 1865, p. 
201. To diminish the proportion of alcohol in the menstrua, and to 
economize its use, were the principal objects of this paper, and it is 
cited here for reference in regard to the importance of the points there 
insisted upon, because these points have not attracted the attention they 

The effort at improvement was continued in 1866 by a paper pub- 

Am MaTi8 P 7 8 arm } Fluid Extracts by Rep er eolation. 2 1 1 

lished in the Proceedings of that year, p. 81. In this paper the method 
by repercolation was first proposed and described as overcoming the 
principal objections to the previous methods. 

This method of repercolation has now been exclusively used by the 
writer for nearlv twelve years in the production of many thousands of 
pounds of all the principal fluid extracts, and the object of this paper 
is to sum up this experience, and publish the modifications of the pro- 
cess, as they have been suggested and successfully applied during this 
prolonged experience, with a view of bringing the process more prom- 
inently into notice in order to be critically examined and tested. The 
general results of the application of repercolation, in the writer's 
hands, are, that no other process yet proposed accomplishes the main 
objects so well ; and therefore that unless some new process can be 
devised that may attain the objects better and more accurately than 
this, it should be the process adopted for the Pharmacopoeia. 

In 1867 papers by the writer upon this same subject, as applied to 
the Cinchonas, may be found in The Amer. Journ. of Pharm. for 
July, August and September, and in the Proceedings of The Amer. 
Pharm. Asso. for 1867, p. 391. All the principles involved in perco- 
lation and repercolation were fully discussed and illustrated in those 
several papers, but they seemed to attract little attention, and they are 
cited here to avoid recapitulation, since they cover nearly every point 
which the writer has now to bring forward. But the papers also 
contain many details which accumulating experience has improved and 
materially modified. 

About 1870 a new form and arrangement of percolator was devised 
by the writer, and was put into practice so successfully that two years 
later in the Proceedings of The Amer. Pharm. Asso. for 1872, p. 182, 
an account of it, with a cut, were given in detail. This contrivance 
has now been in use continuously for about 8 years, upon every scale 
from 4 ounces to about 400 pounds, and by pretty thoroughly carrying 
out the principles involved in percolation, it has contributed very 
largely to the success and uniformity of the process in the writer's 
hands. But the apparent complication of this device, and the details 
of repercolation, seem to have operated against any general under- 
standing of the process, so that it has probably been generally con- 
demned without sufficient trial ; while the physical laws which govern 
the relations between liquids and solids in the direction of discrimina- 

2 1 2 Fluid Extracts by Repercolation. { Am M J a ° y u ;- l8 P 7 h 8 arm " 

tive solubilities have been still too much overlooked, in favor of the 
earlier and more simple processes. 

Whatever may be said of the older processes in regard to simplicity 
and facility of application, by which they are adapted to any capacity, 
and thus go into general use, it may also be said with great certainty 
that under the ordinary conditions of their general use, they do not 
accomplish their object to a reasonable extent, or as well as other pro- 
cesses now known : and that although the resulting preparations are 
put forth in the Pharmacopoeia as representing the drugs minim for 
grain, they do not really come near to this relation. The variations 
in the quality of the drugs used, and the variations in the moisture 
which they contain, are elements of so much uncertainty and want of 
uniformity in the liquid preparations made from them, that it becomes 
very important to reduce all other sources of variability to a minimum. 

Repercolation, well applied, leaves little to be desired in making a 
liquid preparation that will fully represent the drug in almost any 
desired relation of strength ; and if indifferently applied, the inaccura- 
cies of one operation are so made up and controlled by those which 
follow that when the results of the difFerent operations or percolations 
of the process are mixed together the general results must be practically 
good and uniform. 

Indeed, so satisfactory has this process been in the writer's hands 
for the last 8 or io years, that the difficulties of making good fluid 
extracts have been entirely confined to the getting of good materials to 
make them from, and in controlling the hygrometric moisture in such 
materials when used. And in view of the satisfactory results, the 
inconveniences of the process and the disadvantage of having to carry 
a large stock of the weak percolate from each drug, — seem now to be 
of very much less consequence than at first. 

Upon finding out how much more serious these inherent objections 
to repercolation appeared to others than to himself, and how little credit 
the process obtained for its results in the way of counterbalancing these 
objections, the writer set himself to the task of trying to simplify the 
apparatus and the process to the utmost extent that could be done 
without sacrificing the principles upon which the success depends : so 
that by doing away with the machinery and apparent complication of 
a special percolator, and as many details as possible, the process might 
appear less objectionable beside the older methods, and thus induce 

Am May%8 7 h 8! rm '} Fiuid Extracts by Refer eolation. 213 

pharmacists to learn it and try it long enough to become expert at it, 
and to be able to judge wisely in regard to its practicability and its 
appropriateness to pharmacopoeial use. 

These efforts at simplification are now to be set forth for whatever 
they may be worth, and they may be best introduced here by a model 

For this model process it may be well here, again, to take the most 
difficult substance known to the fluid extract maker, — namely Cin- 
chona bark. This was one of the substances investigated in the papers 
of 1867 above referred to, and they may be usefully read as including 
some points of investigation omitted here, — and especially in regard to 
testing the alkaloid value of different portions of the percolates. 

The Cinchona used in the model processes to be given is of excep- 
tionally good quality, and therefore exceptionally difficult to exhaust. 
It is a Yellow Cinchona from the C. officinalis cultivated in Java, and 
contains about 9 per cent, of total alkaloids of which about 7 per cent, 
is quinia. It is therefore more than three times the value of officinal 
Yellow Cinchona, and when such barks are used for making the fluid 
extract, this should be reduced to some standard of strength. That is, 
the Pharmacopoeia should direct that its Fluid Extract should have a 
definite alkaloid strength. In these model processes however this Cin- 
chona is used as if it was of the ordinary quality. 

As the preparation of this paper for publication was undertaken by 
the special request of the Committee on the Pharmacopoeia of The 
Amer. Pharm. Asso. for use in connection with their work of finding 
out the best way of making fluid extracts, the details of the processes 
must be given with a minuteness that may seem useless and tedious. 
Beside, it is a prominent object of the writer to show how, in his judg- 
ment, every individual fluid extract must be studied before is is adopted 
by the Pharmacopoeia, if the utility and character of the Pharmacopoeia 
as a standard for the nation is to be restored to it. Who is to do this 
work, and who is to pay for the time, skill and labor necessary to do it 
well, are problems for the future. 

The first most important question is that of a proper menstruum. 
The present officinal menstruum having proved objectionable soon after 
the Pharmacopoeia was issued, a menstruum was adopted by the writer 
containing 109 parts Alcohol, 16 parts water and 41 parts Glycerin. 
This menstruum has now been in successful use for many years and 

214 Fluid Extracts by Reper eolation. { Am k J a y, r * 33 p 7 8 arm ' 

affords good exhaustion, and a fluid extract which weighs 7685 grains 
to the pint. This is almost exactly minim for grain and weight for weight. 
But as the drug never is quite exhausted even under the very best man- 
agement the measure never should have been made minim for grain if 
the drug was to be fairly and fully represented by the fluid extract. As 
a rule of actual practice, the drug will not often be exhausted within 5 
or 10 per cent, and by the officinal management, will fall greatly below 
this. A more accurate proportion would have been 90 to 95 minims to- 
each 100 grains of drug or about 8000 grains of drug to make a pint 
of fluid extract each minim of which should represent a grain of the 
drug. Even by repercolation some such excess is needed to make the 
therapeutic relation what it professes to be. Beside this objection of 
being too close in theoretical relation to be true in practical value, this 
menstruum has long been believed to be unnecessarily strong in alcohol,, 
and containing too much glycerin. The glycerin in many cases has 
a secondary use in menstrua which is hardly less important than its 
primary use as a solvent. It has the property of wetting substances, 
and permeating them to the exclusion of air, to a much greater degree 
than water or alcohol, and, when mixed with water or alcohol imparts 
this property to the mixture. When used at all, therefore, it must be 
used with both these functions in view, and one step beyond this is 
objectionable. After a preliminary set of percolations with this old 
menstruum to observe how it would work on the small scale of 4 troy 
ounces of powder to each percolation, a new menstruum was tried con- 
sisting of 2 parts stronger alcohol, 2 parts water and 1 part glycerin,, 
and a preliminary set of percolations upon the same scale of 4 troy 
ounces gave good results, but proved that the scale was so small as to- 
need especial skill and care in order to attain the desired accuracy. 

Another tentative trial was then made with this new menstruum on a 
scale of 8 avoirdupois ounces at each percolation, and this proved to be 
a much less troublesome scale. And ( , for Cinchona it is about as small 
a scale as can be worked to advantage. An avoirdupois pound would 
be better and easier still. The details of these trials need not be given,, 
and it is sufficient to say that they indicated, and gave a part of the 
necessary experience needed for another careful trial, in which two very 
important points were still to be settled, namely the proportion of men- 
struum and weak percolate that was best to moisten the powder, and the 
length of time that was best to macerate each portion, the trials having 

Am 'MaTi8 P 7 8 arm } Fluid Extracts by Reper eolation. 215 

shown that great variation was produced by both these elements. It 
was at first believed that 4 parts of liquid was sufficient to moisten 8 
parts of powder, and that 24 hours was long enough to macerate, and 
the first two percolations of the following series were made with these 
conditions. In the third percolation the liquid was increased to 5J 
parts, and the maceration kept at 24 hours. In the fourth the liquid 
was increased to 6 parts. In the fifth it was kept at 6 parts, and the 
time of maceration was extended to 48 hours. In the sixth percolation 
it was increased to 7 parts, and the moistened powder, covered closely 
was allowed to stand 8 hours to absorb the liquid more thoroughly. 
Then the powder was passed through a No. 8 sieve, packed pretty 
firmly, filled with weak percolate and then macerated for 48 hours, 
making a total maceration of 56 hours. 

The first percolation of the series, made with fresh menstruum 
throughout, is of course a simple percolation, and was carried to prac- 
tical exhaustion. And this practical exhaustion was doubtless to within 
5 or 10 per cent, of absolute exhaustion of all matters soluble in the 
menstruum. The residue was quite tasteless for more than half way 
down the percolator, and then began to be very slightly bitter. This 
bitterness increased until at the bottom of the percolator it was quite 
distinctly bitter, after percolation under very favorable circumstances 
with nearly four times its weight of menstruum. 

It is quite certain that the extract obtained from a drug by 
percolation is not uniform throughout the percolation in its medicinal 
value. If the menstruum be well adjusted as a solvent of the active 
principles of the drug it will dissolve and carry out the most soluble 
portions first and in largest proportion, so that although doubtless some 
of the useful part continues to be present in all parts of the percolate 
and its extract, yet the proportion must diminish much more rapidly 
than the proportion of extract. This point is well shown, so far as 
Cinchona is concerned in a table given by the writer in the "Arner. 
Journ. of Pharmacy " for 1867 p. 402, where each portion of percolate 
and its extract were assayed for the total alkaloids they contained. 
Hence, though the quantity cf dry extract yielded by different portions 
of the percolate be not a measure of the medicinal value of the perco- 
late it is still the best guide that is easily accessible. Bearing in mind 
then, that medicinal exhaustion by percolation is more rapid than abso- 
lute exhaustion, and that the dry extract which measures absolute 

2 1 6 Fluid Extracts by Rep er eolation. } Am ^°y%? 7 h 8 arm - 

exhaustion becomes poorer in medicinal efficacy and richer in inert 
extractive matter, and that this divergence in value is greatest near the 
end of the process, the quantity of dry extract yielded by each fraction 
of the percolate is adopted as the most convenient measure of the rate 
and the extent of the exhaustion. 

The want of uniformity introduced into this series of percolations 
by the variation in the quantity of liquid used to moisten the several 
portions of the powder, and the variation in the time of maceration, 
diminishes the value of the series as illustrative of the best results of 
repercolation ; and made it advisable to add a fifth and a sixth percolation 
to show the true character of the process when fairly established in 
actual practice; and thus these two percolations become by far the most 
valuable of the series as results of repercolation in actual practice, 
whilst the formula and process merely show how to begin to use 

The formula and process now to be given embrace the experience 
obtained in making the series which it represents, and is ofFered as a 
model by which other trials should be made by other hands, with other 
varieties of Cinchona. 

Take of Yellow Cinchona, in powder No. 50, . . 32 parts. 

Stronger Alcohol, 1 s. g. -819 at 1 5.6°C.=6o°F., 

or s. g. -8 1 1 at 25 °C.=77°F., 2 parts. ) For a suf- 
Glycerin, s. g. 1-250 at i5'6°C.=6o°F., • flcient quan- 

or s. g. 1 '244 at 25 °C.=77°F., 1 part. [ tity of 
Water, . . . .2 parts. J menstruum. 

Weigh the Stronger Alcohol, Glycerin and water in succession, in 
any convenient quantity at a time, into a tared bottle, and mix them 
thoroughly for a menstruum. 

Moisten 8 parts or the Cinchona with 8 parts of the menstruum, by 
thoroughly mixing them, and allow the mixture to stand 8 hours in a 
closely covered vessel. Then pass the moist powder through a No. 8 
sieve, and pack it firmly in a percolator. Pour menstruum on top until 
the mass is filled with liquid and a stratum remains on top unabsorbed ; 
cover the percolator closely and macerate for 48 hours. Then arrange 

1 It is hoped that in the next revision of the Pharmaccepia the " Alcohol " (s. g. 
'835) may be dropped, and the simple name Alcohol be applied to a clean spirit, of 
about the s. g. here given. 

Am May ) r *i8 > 7 8 arm } Fluid Extracts by Rep er eolation. 217 

the percolator for an automatic supply of menstruum, and start the per- 
colation at such a rate as to give 1 part of percolate in about 4 hours. 
Reserve the first 6 parts of percolate and continue the percolation 
until the Cinchona is exhausted, separating the percolate received after 
the reserved portion into fractions of about 8 parts each. 

Moisten a second portion of 8 parts of the Cinchona with 8 parts 
of the weak percolate, — the first portion that was obtained next after 
the reserved percolate, — and allow the moist powder to stand for 8 hours 
in a vessel closely covered. Then pack it moderately in a percolator, 
and supply the percolator automatically with the remaining fractions of 
the weak percolate in the order in which they were received, and 
finally with fresh menstruum until the Cinchona is exhausted. 
Percolate in the same manner and at the same rate as with the first 
portion of Cinchona, and reserving 8 parts of the first percolate, 
separate the weaker percolate into fractions of about 8 parts each. 

Percolate the third and fourth portions of 8 parts each of the Cin- 
chona in the same way as the second portion. 

Finally mix the four reserved percolates together to make 30 parts of 
finished fluid extract ; and having corked, labelled and numbered the 
bottles containing the fractions of weak percolate, set them away until 
the process for Cinchona is to be resumed 

When this fluid extract is to be again made, repeat the process as 
with the second portion, and reserve 8 parts of the first percolate as 
finished fluid extract from each 8 parts of Cinchona from that time 
forward so long as the fractions of weak percolate are carried forward 
with which to commence each operation. 

In applying this formula and process each part was taken as an 
avoirdupois ounce, and therefore each percolation was made with a half 
pound avoirdupois of the Cinchona ; and the menstruum was made in a 
tared bottle from time to time as required. 

As before stated, the series was made to consist of 6 percolations 
and therefore the last 2 are in addition to the 4 of the formula, as if 
the process had been twice resumed, and the results of these 2 are 
entitled to most attention as showing the true practical character of 
the process of repercolation. And every percolation which might 
follow these can be demonstrated mathematically to approach nearer 
and nearer to accurate results the farther the series is extended, since 

2 1 8 Fluid Extracts by Reper eolation. { %^y%8 7 h 8 arm ' 

every successive percolation tends to correct the errors and improve the 
accuracy of those which have preceded it. 

For the purposes of this paper as a model, and to construct the 
following table, the percolate from the first five percolations of this 
series was divided into much smaller fractions than is directed in the 
process, or needed in actual practice, leaving for a subsequent table 
the model for actual practice. The fractions of the first 5 were 
somewhere near 2 parts or 2 ounces each, =56*7 grams. It was 
not easy to get them uniform in weight, and therefore this was not 
attempted. Each fraction was shaken up and accurately weighed. 
Then about 1 cubic centimetre was measured off into a tared 
shallow watch glass, and quickly weighed to avoid loss by evaporation. 
These weighed portions were then dried by steam heat until they 
ceased to lose weight and the residue carefully weighed. This gave 
the data for calculating the total residue which each fraction would 
give if the whole fraction had been evaporated. But a large pro- 
portion of this residue was glycerin, and it was sought to get at the 
extract only. So a cubic centimetre of the menstruum was weighed 
and evaporated in the same watch glass until it ceased to lose weight 
under the same conditions, and it was found that the residue weighed 
16 per cent, of the weight of the menstruum. This was an unex- 
pected result, for as the menstruum contained 20 per cent, of its weight 
of glycerin, it was to be expected that upon evaporation very nearly 
this proportion would remain on the watch glass. Therefore the trial 
was three times repeated, and the mean of the trials was within. a very 
small fraction of 16 per cent., showing that about 4 per cent, of the 
glycerin went off with the alcohol and water. This gave the remain- 
ing element for closely approximating the extract in each fraction by 
the following formulas. As the weight of the cubic centimetre taken- 
from each fraction of percolate is to the weight of the residue after 
evaporation, so is the weight of the entire fraction to the weight of the 
residue it would leave on evaporation. But had this fraction been- 
menstruum instead of percolate, and been evaporated under the same 
conditions, it would have given 16 per cent, of its weight of glycerin 
as a residue. It was therefore assumed (though of course not cor- 
rectly) that 16 per cent, of the entire fraction was glycerin. Then 16 
per cent, of the weight of each fraction was taken and this amount 

A VaT'i8 P 78 arra '} Fluid Extracts by Refer eolation, 219 

was subtracted from the calculated residue of the fraction, and the 
remainder was assumed as dry extract of cinchona. Next, as these 
fractions were not uniform in weight, the assumed extract did not 
represent a uniform proportion and rate of exhaustion. To show this 
rate of exhaustion better, a second proportion was made to represent it 
by per centage. As the total weight of the fraction is to the weight 
of extract obtained from it, so is 100 to the percentage of extract it 
contained. For example : The first fraction of the table weighed 
62*72 grams. One cc. of this fraction weighed 1*062 grams. This, 
dried on a watch glass, gave a residue weighing '488 gram. Then> 
As 1*062 : -488 : : 62*72 : 28*82. But this 62*72 grams, is assumed 
to give 16 per cent, of its weight of glycerin which does not go off 
by evaporation or (As 100 : 16 : : 62*72 :) 10*04 grams, glycerin : and 
28*82 residue less 10*04 glycerin leaves 18*78 as the approximate dry 
extract contained in the fraction of 62*72 grams, of percolate. Then 
if 62*72 percolate give 18*78 extract, 100 percolate would give 29*9 
extract, equal the percentage of extract contained in the fraction of 

The remaining column of the table gives the difference in specific 
gravity at similar temperatures, between the menstruum and the various 
fractions of the percolates, and this also illustrates the rate of exhaus- 
tion, but in a way much easier of application in practice than that of 
weighing the extract. 


: i : i 

^6 71 

Weight of PoiT 



Weight of Dry 



in S 
cine Gravity. 



Weight of Por- 
tions of Per- 

Weight of Dry 

Extract. 6 


Difference in Spe- 
cific Gravity. 


Weight of Por- 
tions of Per- 

Weight of Dry 

Percentage of Dry 


in S 
cific Gravity. 

! a SS ^ g> 2;^ S S $ % §: tbiS ' 


Weight of Por- 
tions of Per- 

Weight of Dry 


in S 
cific Gravity. 

WW -f-W W + 4i W 0\m 0\Ln uiM COO Ch-£ -£ vO to • 

Weight of Por- 
tions of Per- 

Weight of Dry 



in £ 
cific Gravity. 




Sj a; s ai & 

Weight of Por- 
tions of Per- 


Weight of Dry 


HlliliiiliU!!! liiliiilil 


Am M J a y, r ^ P 78 arrn '} Fluid Extracts by Repercolation, 221 

In interpreting the results of this table the disturbing effect of the 
trials of different degrees of moistening and different length of macera- 
tion, must be borne in mind as largely concerned in the discordant 
results. But this discordance fairly shows first the necessity for care- 
ful investigations and trials, since otherwise the discords would have 
escaped observation ; and next shows the certainty with which each 
operation tends to control and correct the results of the preceding one 
until uniformity be reached. The residue of each percolation was 
critically examined by tasting, and in none was the exhaustion absolute. 
As the percolators were emptied the upper eighth would be tasteless as- 
a rule ; then the bitter taste would be perceptible and would gradually 
increase to the bottom. At three-fourths down it would be very decided, 
and the remaining fourth would be pretty strongly bitter. The different 
percolations were only moderately uniform among themselves, and the 
want of uniformity was mainly in the lower third of the residue. But 
the residues were much more uniform among themselves than were the 
proportion of extract obtained, and all were fairly exhausted. The first 
and sixth percolations gave the most thoroughly exhausted residues, 
and yet the extract obtained, as shown by the table, was about two to 
one. This shows in a striking way that the extractive matter is not a 
measure of the exhaustion as judged by the bitterness of the residue, 
Therefore in using the quantity of extract as a guide to exhaustion, if 
the quality of the extract be not ascertained the condition of the residue 
must be used as a check upon the extract as a guide. 

The general result however, as shown by even a glance at the table, 
— a result that could be obtained in no other way, — though favorable 
to repercolation, is unexpectedly unfavorable to the menstruum used 
because of the overloading and masking effect of the excess of soluble 
extractive matter in this exceptionally rich, soft, soluble bark. There- 
fore another percolation, — the seventh of this series, — was made with 
another grade of Cinchona using the same weak percolates and men- 
struum. This Cinchona was the poorest in the writer's possession. It 
is from the C. officinalis cultivated in Ceylon, and contains between 4. 
and 5 per cent, of total alkaloids, of which about three-fourths is 
quinia. Therefore though still much richer than the U. S. P. Yellow 
Cinchona it is much nearer to it than the Java Cinchona is. This 8 
ounces =226*7 grams, of the new powder was as well exhausted as the 
other percolations with 1136*33 grams, of percolate in 5 portions of 

H 2 2 Fluid Extracts by Rep er eolation. { ^'dly^lyt™' 

about 8 ounces =226-8 grams, each. These portions, by the same 
calculations, yielded respectively 59*85, 37*26, 22*16, 7*15 and 277 
grams, =129/ 19 grams, of extract. Of this 102*45 grams, was carried 
forward to it in weak percolates from the sixth percolation of the table. 
The 8 ounces =226*8 grams, reserved contained 59*85 grams, of 
extract, leaving 4 portions of weak percolate to be carried forward con- 
taining (129*19 — 59*85 =) 69*34 grams, of extract. But the extract 
which appears to have been obtained by this percolation is only (129*19 
— 102*45=) 26*74 grams and yet. the powder was about as well 
exhausted as any of the previous percolations, and the weak percolates 
carried forward were much less loaded with extractive. 

This improvement of the process by the use of a less exceptional 
quality of Cinchona was however still evidently insufficient, and left it 
still short of the best results. The menstruum was next to be changed, 
as it plainly needed more alcohol to exclude some of the extract, and 
probably less glycerin. 

A new menstruum was made consistiug of 5 parts stronger alcohol, 
4 parts water and 1 part glycerin. The s. g. of this mixture was "9575 
at 15-6° C.=6o° F., or '9496 at 25 C. = 77° F. A cubic centi- 
metre of this menstruum carefully weighed and evaporated on a watch- 
glass left 7*75 per cent, of glycerin not evaporable at the temperature 
to which the fractions of percolate were submitted. A new series of 
percolations was started with this menstruum, and was conducted 
preciselv as with the former series. The first two percolations were 
made with the rich Java Cinchona so as to compare the results of the 
two menstrua upon the same powder ; and then a third percolation was 
made with the Ceylon powder for comparison with the other men- 
struum upon this powder as above given in the seventh percolation of 
the former series. There was not time to extend this series beyond the 
third percolation, but fortunately the indications from the three are 
pretty clear. In this series the percolate was divided into portions of 
8 ounces =226*8 grams, each except the first portion of the first perco- 
lation, which was 6 ounces =170*1 grams, and the powder in each 
was moistened with 8 ounces =226*7 grams, of menstruum or weak 
percolate. So moistened it could not have been passed through the sieve 
at once, but by standing for the prescribed 8 hours in a closely-covered 
vessel the liquid was absorbed by the powder, and then it was easily passed 
through the sieve. When moistened to this extent the powder must not 

Am Ma°y, r 'i8 P 7 h 8 arm } Fluid Extracts by Refer eolation. 


be firmly packed, and it is quite important to use the largest prac- 
ticable quantity of liquid to moisten the powder in repercolation. The 
results of these percolations are given in the following table, 

Repercolation of Cinchona, — Menstruum 5, 4 and I, s. g, '954 at 20° C. 

3 JZ 

.0 u 
rt « 

iS wo 

c c 

O 3 

1st portion. 
2d " 

3 i • 
4th " 

5th " . 


Reserved Ext.. 
Extract carried 


Actual extract; 



First Percolation. 


226 80 1 



8o 2 | 
2 96 

I 3"9 


1 "4 

91 21 


3 .» 



Second Percolation. 


o <u 

227 00 


226 78 

226 83 


o o 

74 77, 3 2 ' 

45"3 I j 20 

5*95 2- 

388; i- 

2 60 1" 



132 5i 
74 77 

57 74 ( 


Third Percolation. 


o o 

-d £; 1 § iJ 
'53 W £H 

226 84 5818 

22711] 28-00 

226 80 17 94 

227-00 15-35 
226-91! 8-84 
226 70 2 33 
226-82 1-29 


74' 19 

25 7 






It remains now to give a summary of the results obtained from these 
two series, as bearing upon the relation between the weight and 
measure of the reserved portion of each percolation. 


Reserved Portions. 

1st Percolation. 


3 i • 

4 th 

7th " 


171 10 

226 80 
2 2 6'8o 
226 80 

1-2 c 

3 D 




7- 6 

7 5 

8- 3 



Reserved Portions. 

1st Percolatioa 


4th " 









7 5 

226 80 






226 80 


Fluid Extracts by Reper eolation. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Mao, 1878. 

The deductions which the writer draws from the work here given as 
applicable to the present pharmacopoeial practice, and that which may 
be desired for the future are mainly as follows : 

First, that the present formulas and processes for percolation are so 
defective that the relation to the drug which they profess is not prac- 
tically accurate either as to quality or quantity, and therefore that a 
better process is greatly needed. 

Second, that the process by repercolation, though it has some grave 
disadvantages, and is liable to defects in practice, — yet gives far better 
results both in quality and quantity of product ; while it is not difficult 
in practice except by comparison with the delusive simplicity of the 
former processes ; and therefore that repercolation is better adapted to 
pharmacopoeial use as a model or standard process than any which has 
yet been tried. 

Third, that repercolation may be used on a scale as small as 4 or & 
ounces, by great care and skill, but is not very successful with less than 
an avoirdupois pound of material for each percolation. 

Fourth, that powders for percolation should not be finer than No. 60 
for hard compact substances, nor coarser than No. 40 for more loose 
and spongy substances, — with a few special exceptions. 

Fifth, that the menstruum should be so adjusted as to dissolve out 
the medicinal principles with the least practicable disturbance of their 
natural relations to each other and to the extractive matters whereby 
they are rendered soluble and permanent. Next that the menstruum 
should contain the smallest practicable proportion of alcohol ; and 
glycerin only when absolutely necessary, as in Cinchonas. And finally 
that the menstruum should be so adjusted that when the fluid extract 
represents the drug weight for weight it should also represent the drug 
by not less than 90 minims to the 100 grains, or more than 97 minims 
to the 100 grains, since by repercolation the exhaustion is never less 
than 90 per cent, and perhaps rarely more than 97 per cent, of the 
total soluble matter. 

Sixth, that the powder be moistened with as much liquid as it can 
be made to hold and yet pass through a No. 8 sieve ; that it be not 
tightly packed ; and that it be well macerated before starting the 

Seventh, that the rate of percolation be uniform and very slow. 
At first, for the reserved portion, the percolate in 24 hours should 

Am May^t" 11, } Fluid Extracts by Reper eolation. 22$ 

not exceed the weight of the powder ; nor need the rate be slower 
than to obtain the weight of the powder in 48 hours, although as a 
general rule the slower the rate the better the results. After the 
reserved portion the rate may be increased gradually so that the last 
portion be received in about 6 hours. The separate portions of weak 
percolate should not exceed the weight of the powder. 

Eighth, that a good practical exhaustion requires, — as a general rule, 
— for the first percolation, with fresh menstruum, that the total perco- 
lates should weigh 3*5 times the weight of the powder. That for the 
second percolation or first repercolation, the weight should be 4*5 times 
that of the powder. And for all subsequent repercolations the weight 
should be 5, 6 or 7 times that of the powder, according to the nature of 
the substance percolated, and the skill and care with which the process 
is managed. 

Ninth, that the relation of weight for weight, instead of minim for 
grain, should be established under proper controlling conditions. But 
that unless properly guarded in the quality and moisture of the drug 
used, the new relation is liable to be even more inaccuate than the old, 
because, the poorer the quality of the drug the less dense will be the 
percolates, and the greater will be the volume for the prescribed 
weight, and this involves the serious difficulty that when the fluid 
extract is made by weight but administered by measure, the poorer the 
drug from which it was made the smaller, as well as the weaker, the 
dose will be. 

Tenth, that some good practical method of comparing fluid extracts 
by a standard is very much needed ; and that for such drugs as 
Cinchona, a method of arithmetical dilution would be easy and prac- 
tical if well worked out. 

Whilst the above-mentioned work on Cinchona was in progress a 
paper by Mr. J. U. Lloyd of Cincinnati appeared in the "Am. Jour. 
Phar. ,, for 1878, p. 1, upon Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga. This paper 
contains so many valuable observations made without bias, and with 
such care and labor as at once to command attention. The results 
however were in many important respects so at variance with those of 
the previous experience of this writer as to force upon him the con- 
clusion that Mr. Lloyd might have misinterpreted some of his obser- 
vations ; and if so it was important that his work should be gone over 
in the light of the many useful suggestions it contains for those who* 

J 5 

226 Fluid Extracts by Reper eolation. \ Am M J a ° y u ) r ; 8 p 7 8 arm * 

might follow him. It is regretted that he did not refer to later papers 
on the subject of percolation and repercolation, — or at least did not 
adopt some important modifications that are published in later papers. 

His work upon Cimicifuga has been repeated by precisely the same 
method as given above for Cinchona, — that is in accordance with the 
.ater experience on percolation and repercolation, — and the results are 
given. Those who will compare these results with those of Mr. 
Lloyd will find important discrepancies which must belong to one set 
of observations or the other. On one important point Mr. Lloyd must 
reach a wrong conclusion, for it certainly can be demonstrated upon 
well known physical laws, that maceration to a proper extent is useful 
and necessary to other conditions of the problem. This point is so 
well established by general experience that this part of his work was 
riot gone over. The formula and process adopted here were as follows : 

Take of Cimicifuga, in powder No. 60, . . 32 parts. 

Stronger Alcohol, s. g. "819 at i5*6°C=6o°F, 

or s. g. *8n at 25°C.=77°F., a sufficient quantity. 

Moisten 8 parts of the Cimicifuga with 2 parts of the Alcohol, and 
pack it firmly in a percolator. Then pour Alcohol on top until the 
moist powder is thoroughly filled with liquid and the air is forced out, 
cover the percolator and macerate for 48 hours. Then arrange the 
percolator for an automatic supply of menstruum, and start the per- 
colation at such a rate as to give about one part of percolate every three 
hours. Reserve the first 6 parts of percolate, and continue the per- 
colation to practical exhaustion, receiving the weaker percolate on 
separate portions of about 4 parts each. 

Then moisten a second portion of 8 parts of the Cimicifuga with 2 
parts of the second percolate from the first portion of powder, pack it 
firmly in a percolator, and supply it on top, first with the remaining 
2 parts of the second percolate from the first portion, and then with 
the successive weak percolates in the order in which they were obtained, 
until the moist powder is entirely filled with liquid. Then macerate 
for 48 hours, and percolate to practical exhaustion at the same rate as 
in the first portion of the Cimicifuga, using first the weak percolates 
in their proper order, and then fresh menstruum. Reserve the first 8 
parts of percolate, and receive the weak percolate in separate portions 
of about 4 parts each. 

Am Ma°y U , r ^7 h 8 arm '} Fluid Extracts by Repercolation. 227 

Then moisten a third portion of 8 parts of the Cimicifuga with 2 
parts of the second percolate from the second portion of the Cimici- 
fuga, and conduct the percolation in exactly the same manner as in the 
second portion, reserving the first 8 parts of percolate. 

Then moisten the remaining 8 parts of the Cimicifuga for a fourth 
percolation, and conduct it in exactly the same manner as the second 
and third portions. 

Mix the four reserved percolates, weighing 30 parts, and set it by 
as finished Fluid Fxtract of Cimicifuga : and having properly labelled 
and numbered the separate portions of weak percolate, set these by 
until the process for making this preparation is to be resumed, and then 
use them exactly as in the second, third and fourth percolations, reserv- 
ing 8 parts of the first percolate from each 8 parts of powder as the 
finished fluid extract, ever after, and setting aside the weak percolates 
from each operation to be used in the next succeeding one. 

In applying this formula and process each part was represented by a 
troyounce, and therefore the percolations were made with 8 troyounces 
of powder each. For the purposes of this trial the percolate was sepa- 
rated in portions of about 2 troyounces or 62 grams, each instead of 4 
troyounces as indicated in the process, and each separate portion was 
carefully weighed. A cubic centimetre of each portion of percolate 
was carefully weighed on a flat watch-glass, and then dried and the dry 
extract weighed. Then a proportion was made by calculation from 
these data to find the total dry extract in each portion of the percolate, 
this proportion being as follows : As the weight of the cc. of percolate 
is to the weight of dry extract which it yielded, so is the whole por- 
tion of the percolate to the dry extract it contains. Having thus 
obtained the total dry extract contained in each portion of percolate, 
the sum of these would be the total extract of all the portions. But as 
these portions varied in weight the series would not represent the rate 
of exhaustion. Therefore another proportion was made to show the 
rate or progress of exhaustion by the percentage of dry extract con- 
tained in each portion of percolate. The formula for this proportion 
is as follows : As the weight of the portion of percolate is to the weight 
of extract which it contains, so is 100 to the percentage of the dry 
extract contained in the portion of percolate. The difference of specific 
gravity between the menstruum and the percolate, which also shows 
the rate of exhaustion was obtained by a small s. g. flask. 

228 Fluid Extracts by Rep er eolation. { Am -£y T , J 7 ^ rm ' 

The following table gives the detail of these observations in com- 
pact form, but, as it was found by examination of the residue that the 
strong alcohol did not fully exhaust the Cimicifuga, the percolations 
were only carried as far as the third, at which point it was determined 
to try a new menstruum, in another process. 

Cimicifuga, with Stronger Alcohol. 



First Percolation. 

Second Percolation. 

Third Percolation. 

Weight of Por- 
tion of Per- O 
colate 3 

Weight of Dry 3 
Extract. <" j 

Per cent, of Dry 





Weight of Por- 
tion of Per- O 
colate. p 

Weight of Dry 3 
Extract. ? 

Per cent, of Dry 




Weight of Por- 
tion of Per- O 
colate. p 

Weight of Dry g 
Extract. V 

Per cent, of Dry 







64 - 5i 

60 24 
60 02 

65 37 

1 30 



1 70 




63- 41 

64- 23 

61 65 

62 36 

63 33 


6 82 


2 90 
2 63 

1 16 

3 '49 
1 -8 3 

I 94 




62- 22 

63- 34 

62- 56 

63- 06 
64 02 

3 38 
1 98 










3i 27 



Reserved Extract- 

Extract carried for- 




Extract from each 

The first percolation of the table being simply a percolation with 
fresh menstruum to practical exhaustion, serves to compare and check 
the other percolations in their results. The 8 troyounces of Cimici- 
fuga =248*8 grams, required 845*33 g rams - °f percolate for practical 
exhaustion, though this was short of actual exhaustion. The total per- 
colate is therefore nearly three and a half times the weight of the 
powder, and is as little as will give a practical exhaustion of this drug 
with this menstruum. This is more than double the proportion of the 
officinal U. S. P. formula, and accounts for a part of the defects of the 
officinal preparation. The extract obtained for this first percolation 

Am Ma°y, r i8 P 7 8 arm '} Fluid Extracts by Rep er eolation, 229 

of the table is 33*19 grams, or (248*8 : 33*19 : : 100 :) 13*34 per 
cent, of the weight of the powder. Then as these percolations were 
made by repercolation, the total extract should be (33*19X3=) 99*57 
grams. But the total obtained (33*19+37*74+33' 19=) 104-12 grams, 
slightly exceeds this, showing that the total exhaustion was rather 
better than the first of the series. 

Now if the total extract to be expected from the 24 troy- 
ounces =746*4 grams, of powder be 99*57 grams., and as the finished 
fluid extract is to weigh only (6+8 + 8=) 22 troyounces=684*2 grams., 
then the extract which should be contained in the reserved portions 
which constitute the finished fluid extract should be (As 746*4 : 99*57 
: : 684*2 :) 91*27. But really the total extract in these reserves is only 
18*87+3 1 ' 2 7+3 I '27=) 81*41 grams, or 10*16 grams, less than it 
should be. This deficit is mainly due to the process having been 
stopped at the third percolation instead of being carried on to include 
the fourth. In order that the fluid extract should represent the drug 
grain for grain, or weight for weight, if the extract was all of equal 
medicinal value, the reserved percolates should weigh i86*+248*8+ 
248*8 grams., and should contain 24*9+33*i9+33'i9 grams. This 
fluid extract, to have represented the drug in the relation of minim for 
grain should have measured (i77*i2+236 , i6+236*i6=) 649*44 cc, 
but it really measured 676 cc, and therefore the minim did not repre- 
sent the grain (|4t) though the preparation is much stronger than the 
officinal one which purports to have this relation. 

To endeavor to remedy the apparent defects of this process and 
make a preparation which shall more nearly represent the entire drug, 
another set of repercolations was made with a new menstruum. As 
the officinal menstruum, namely stronger alcohol, did not fully exhaust 
the drug, and separated out the resinous portions from their natural 
associates and solvents in the drug, the attempt v\as made to go to the 
other extreme and try a solvent or menstruum which should contain 
perhaps too little alcohol, and if so, yield a preparation overloaded with 
extractive matter, so that by comparing the results of the extremes, a 
better menstruum than either extreme might be found. With this 
object the new menstruum was made of equal parts (by weight) of 
stronger alcohol s. g. -819 at 15*6° C.=6o° F., or *8n at 25 C.= 
77 F. andwater. This mixture required 26*5^ of water to 2 pints of 

23 o Fluid Extracts by Reper eolation. { Am 'J™\^ rm ' 

stronger alcohol. The s. g. of this mixture is '926 at I5 , 6°C.= 
6o°F. or '919 at 25°C.=77°F. or '9236 at the room temperature at 
which the weighings were made. 

The same formula and process were used as in the first repercola- 
tions of Cimicifuga, with the exception of the menstruum, and the 
powder was from the same stock, and used on the same scale of a troy- 
ounce=3n grams, for each part, and therefore 8 troyounces— 
248*8 grams, of powder for each percolation ; and in this case the 
whole four percolations were made. The following table gives the 
results of this repercolation, and contains the same elements obtained in 
the same way, but the first percolation attained a much more thorough- 
exhaustion, while the subsequent ones were not carried so far on 
account of the apparent inertness of the extractive matter obtained* 
The third percolation was much less successful than the others in- 
consequence of too short a maceration. This carried too much of the 
extract forward by the weak percolates into the fourth percolation, and 
overloaded it. But this serves as an excellent example of the way in 
which the errors of one percolation are corrected by those which 
follow when repercolation is used. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
May, 1878. j 

Fluid Extracts by Rep er eolation. 



fa<j jo -1U3D aaj 

-J3 d JO SUOI) 


'O "S J° 



Ajq jo ;u3d j 3< j 

£t a jo}uSp M 


i : ; 



•O "S J° 



III II I II fff If ft 1 



: ; i 



-joj jo }q§pA\ 



Ajq jo i4§j3 A V 








The first percolation of 8 troyounces=248'8 grams, required a total 
percolate of 958*57 grams, for exhaustion, or nearly four times the 
weight of the powder, and gave 84^96 grams, of extract, which is. 

232 Fluid Extracts by Reper eolation. { * m £y%s£ rm ' 

34-14 per cent, of the weight of the powder. The 32 troyounces= 
995*33 grams, of powder should therefore give (84*96 x 4=) 339*84 
grams, of extract. But when the extract actually obtained from the 
four percolations is summed up, it is found to be only (84*96-f-86*23+ 
71 *92-f-73'84— )3 1 6*95 grams, or 22*89 grams, less than the indicated 
quantity. This is therefore an apparent loss of (As 995*33 : 3 I 6*95 
: : 100 : 31*84, and 34*14 — 31*84=) 2*3 per cent., which considering 
the apparent quality of final extracts in repercolation, is quite unimpor- 
tant, at least in view of the far greater deficiencies of the officinal 
processes, or any modification of them hitherto used. 

Now if each troyounce of powder is to be represented by a troy- 
ounce of the fluid extract, and the fluid extract be adjusted to the solid 
extract obtained, then the reserved percolates should weigh, respec- 
tively, 186*6, 248*8, 248*8, and 248*8 grams, and should contain 
59*41, 79*22, 79*22, and 79*22 grams, of extract. But by the table 
the reserves weigh 206*78,266*60,261*73 and 249*24, and contain 
56*27, 67*43, 56*22 and 73*97, thus making a very imperfect exhibit 
though still far ahead of the present or past officinal processes. The 
conditions being new each percolation was varied in management in 
order to reach the best method, it was not reached until the fourth 
percolation, and one or two more percolations, using much more liquid 
to moisten the powder, would have been needed to obtain greater 
precision and uniformity. The total finished fluid extract which 
should represent 30 troyounces=933 grams, of the drug, when made 
to bear the relation of minim for grain weighed 984 grams, and was 
therefore considerably too heavy. This, and the tendency of the 
percolate to become overloaded with extractive, at the same time that 
it illustrates the value and appropriateness of the principle of reperco- 
lation, also shows that this new menstruum has too little alcohol, and 
leads to the inference that a menstruum of 2 parts stronger alcohol 
and 1 part water would be better adapted to Cimicifuga than either of 
the extremes here tried. Such a proportion would, by repercolation, 
probably yield a fluid extract which in the proportion of weight for 
weight, would also have the proportion of minim for grain, — or what 
would represent the drug better because more accurately than by any 
known method of percolation, — including repercolation, — namely 90 
to 95 minims for each 100 grains of the drug. In readjusting all fluid 
extracts therefore to bear the relation of weight for weight to the drug, 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1878. J 

Fluid Extracts by Repercolation. 


the weight should measure in minims from 90 to 95 minims for every 
100 grains to make the therapeutic value of the minim and grain, of 
the fluid extract and the drug practically equal. This can be readily 
done by variations in the menstrua used, but not without the expendi- 
ture of much time, skill and labor, — an amount which no individual or 
committee can afford to give, but which a Pharmacopoeia must have, 
in order to be respected as a standard. It may be mentioned in illus- 
tration of this point that all the time and labor that the writer could 
possibly spare, including at least three evenings of every week, for 
three and a half months, has been given to this paper which embraces 
only two fluid extracts, neither of which are yet in the condition they 
should be for the Pharmacopoeia for want of more time and labor. 

It now remains to give some account of the mechanical contrivances 
which, in the hands of the writer, seem best adapted to a uniform and 
practically good exhaustion of the soluble portions of drugs without 
the use of heat, so that the fluid extract of the drug shall bear a toler- 
ably definite and uniform relation to the drug of minim for grain and 
weight for weight, for the writer now believes that both these relations 
can be had ar once with a practical and sufficient degree of accuracy, 
— or with accuracy enough for the present relations of pharmacy to 
therapeutics. It can hardly be doubted that by a competent knowledge 
of known physical laws, and by a fair application of this knowledge to 
the problem, a fluid extract can be made by repercolation, without heat, 
bearing the proper relation, with great accuracy, but the success or 
want of success with which this is done will vary much more with the 
degree of knowledge and skill applied to it, than with any particular 
form of apparatus used. That is, the measure of success will always 
be in the application of well-known physical laws. The writer there- 
fore desires to guard against any misleading effect of a simplicity that 
is not intended to be ad captandum, for it would be very hurtful to con- 
tinue in the present to underrate a problem which has been so very 
much underrated in the past. If the principles involved, and the diffi- 
culties of carrying them out, be once fairly comprehended, the mechan- 
ical appliances may be easily varied, and yet must still leave some one 
contrivance as the best until a better be found. 

No better form of apparatus has been found by the writer than that 
which has now been used, upon various scales, during the past twelve 
years, an account of which was published in 1872, and which is repro- 

Fluid Extracts by Reper eolation. { A \ty%£ 7 \** m '- 

duced with improvement and amplification at the end of this paper. 
To simplify this apparatus with the slightest possible sacrifice of the 
principles involved, with the object of getting the principles to be 
better and more generally understood and applied where so much 
needed, is the object of introducing the modified apparatus shown in 
the following cut. 

Scale, one-sixth of the actual linear size. 

The cut presents three separate groups of apparatus in positions to 
illustrate three stages of repercolation, and it is to be understood that 

Am il™\w m '} Fluid Extracts by Repercolation. 235 

all intermediate positions are often useful and necessary even in the 
same percolation. The support is a common apparatus stand, the 
rings of which are reduced to the proper size by short sections of rub- 
ber-tubing cut open and placed on the wire of the ring when needed ; 
or, a section of larger tubing stretched over the percolator as in Fig. 3. 
The percolators are common lamp chimnies costing about 5 cents each, 
and are of the size and form known technically as "A" and " B " 
" Sun Chimneys." These are of very good form, though not the best, 
— for percolators, and should be selected with as small an opening for 
the stopper as possible, and with the smoothest, thickest and most reg- 
ular edge, since it is practically impossible to stop some of their irreg- 
ular edges tightly. The smaller size, Fig. 3, holds conveniently 4 
ounces of most powders, and the larger holds 8 ounces, — to the points 
shown in the cut. A good soft cork, bored in the centre for a short 
piece of glass tube of not more than Jth of an inch or 3mm. bore, 
serves to close the small end of the chimney. A rubber cork is best, 
and such may be made of concentric sections of rubber tubing of dif- 
ferent sizes ; or, the largest cork at hand may be increased to the 
proper size by stretching around it short sections of rubber tubing. 
The short piece of glass tubing should not go quite through the cork 
on the inside, and should project about an inch=25mm. outside. A 
piece of rubber tubing of not over |th inch=3mm. bore, and about 13. 
inches=*325m. long has one end slipped onto the glass tube. If this 
tubing be much larger than the dimensions given it fails to be filled 
with the liquid, and then when the percolator is in the position of Fig. 
3, it fails to perform the office of a Sprengel pump in exhausting the 
liquid and air bubbles from the lower part of the percolator. Two. 
disks of blanket or thick flannel, and one of filtering paper cut a little 
larger than the inner surface of the cork, and laid upon it, complete 
the arrangement of the percolator. The powder, moistened with great 
care and uniformity is packed loosely, firmly or very firmly, according 
to its nature or condition, with the square end of a stick, say -8 inch 
—•02m. diameter. As a rule the largest practicable proportion of 
liquid should be used in moistening the powder, because then the pow- 
der occupies the smallest space in the percolator, — requires the loosest 
packing, and is saturated for the maceration by the smallest additional 
quantity of liquid, and therefore gives the most concentrated first per- 
colate for the reserve, and secures the most rapid exhaustion by the 

236 Fluid Extracts by Reper eolation. { '^i^igt"* 

smallest quantity of liquid. A disk of filtering paper is placed on the 
surface of the powder, of such size that the edge is reflected up against 
the glass. A disk of board, card-board, or better of thick sheet rub- 
ber with a central hole 1*5 inches='037m. in diameter, is used for a 
cover. A stratum of liquid, maintained at a uniform thickness of '25 
inch= f oo6m. should cover the powder from first to last, so that it may 
not drain and contract, or admit air ; and this is best maintained by an 
inverted bottle of the supply liquid, as shown in the cut. The length 
of the neck and mouth of such bottle may be conveniently elongated 
when needed so as to regulate the depth of the stratum of liquid above 
the powder, by stretching over it a short section of rubber tubing in 
the manner shown in the first group of the cut, Fig. 1. When 
the percolator is charged and ready for maceration the small rubber 
tube is turned up and fastened with a piece of thread or rubber band so 
that the end is considerably above the level of the liquid in the perco- 
lator, and in so adjusting it care must be taken not to close the tube, 
because as the liquid decends through the powder to fill up all the inter- 
stices it is important that the interstitial air should have a free exit by 
the tube. 

The bottles for receiving the percolate are common round-shouldered 
prescription bottles, 40Z. for the small percolator, 8oz. for the larger. 
A strip of paper should be pasted lengthwise of the bottle, and at the 
lower end of this the tare should be marked. It should then be grad- 
uated to the quantities desired by weighing into it the proper quantity 
of water and marking at each level if more than one be desired. This 
graduation simply serves as a reminder to know when to try the bottle 
on the scale, for whether the finished fluid extract be adjusted weight 
for weight, or by an arbitrary weight in each case so as to get the 
relation of minim for grain, this must equally be done by weighing. 

It is convenient to have 6 to 10 of such bottles, and then as soon as 
4 are filled from one percolation another can be started, and thus relieve 
some of the bottles for use over again. The bottles should be num- 
bered from 1 to 10 to keep the proper order of using them, and if more 
than one series is in use at the same time the second should be desig- 
nated by the first letters of the alphabet instead of by numbers. The 
maceration should never be less than 48 hours ; and a longer time does 
mot seem to be of any use unless the powder be coarse and of hard 
particles. When the percolation is to be started the percolator is raised 

Am May"i^8 arm '} Fluid Extracts by Rep er eolation. 237 

to the position of Fig. 3, and the end of the exit tube placed in the 
bottle marked for the reserved percolate, for 10 or 15 minutes, in order 
that the bubbles of air may be driven out and the tube be filled with 
solid liquid. As soon as this condition is attained the percolator is 
lowered to the position of Fig. 1, and the receiving bottle is then to be 
adjusted higher or lower until a rate of dropping is established of not 
more than one drop per minute on this small scale, — and one drop every 
two minutes makes a better rate for such quantities. Indeed the rule 
for all percolations is, the slower the rate the more perfect the 
exhaustion, and with a smaller quantity of menstruum. 

This slow rate and the automatic supply by the inverted bottle admit 
the process to go on night and day, but if it be desired to go slower, 
that a mark may not be passed in the night, the bottle has only to be 
raised or the percolator lowered a little ; and by a still greater change 
of levels the dropping may be stopped altogether. On rare occasions 
when dropping at a uniform rate it will stop altogether, or become very 
slow. This is in consequence of a bubble of air getting over the ori- 
fice of the glass tube inside, and acting as an obstruction. If the tube 
be moved from side to side the air bubble will be started and pass down 
and the rate of dropping be resumed. If not thus dislodged it will 
most certainly be by raising the percolator for a short time into the 
position of Fig. 3. With some powders, and some degrees of moist- 
ening and packing the proper rate of dropping will require the position 
of Fig. 2, and in some stages of many percolations this position 
will be required. While if for want of skill and experience the pack- 
ing be too hard the position of Fig. 3 may be needed from the first. 
But the best percolations are those obtained by the position of Fig. 1, 
where the whole mass is in the equilibrium of maceration, and the fluid 
all moves downward together at a very slow rate. As the more con- 
centrated portions of percolate get through, the rate of dropping in- 
creases for any position, and occasionally, with loose packing, the posi- 
tion has to be altered to check it. But after the reserved portion has 
been received, and the quantity required to moisten the next powder, 
the rate of dropping may be doubled without much harm, and thus half 
the time be saved. The slow and uniform rate of dropping is the im- 
portant point to be attained, and the various positions are simply means 
of accomplishing this. It is easy to obtain complete exhaustion. That 
is, a percolate almost colorless and tasteless, and having the same s. g. 

23 8 Fluid Extracts by Rep er eolation. { Am M a ° u , r i8^8 arn 

as the menstruum, and how far short of this to stop the process cannot 
be indicated. But upon this small scale the percolate from the first 
portion should weigh from 3 to 4 times the weight of the powder ; and 
for the repercolations from 5 to 6 times the weight of the powder. And 
then with fair exhaustion each time the results must continually check 
each other and improve until after 10 or 12 repercolations, a nearly 
mathematical accuracy must be attained, and ever after be maintained, 
all the variation being in the quality of the drug used. The writer has 
many series of repercolation, on various scales of quantity, which were 
started five years ago and suspended from one season of the fresh drug 
to another, but never interrupted to begin anew, and such would go on 
indefinitely and with entire uniformity of result if the drugs could be 
obtained of a quality as uniform as is the process. 

Should this method by repercolation become officinal, or come into 
general use the apparatus makers would soon supply a flat-bottomed 
glass percolator and cover of better form than the lamp chimneys, and 
of all sizes at moderate prices. If so no better form could be 
adopted than that shown in the following cut, if the bottom be flat or 
very nearly so, and the exit tube be small enough to receive a rubber 
tube of not more than 3mm. in bore. 

The following cut is a modification of the apparatus adapted to a 
rather larger scale, when the principles are applied in a slightly different 
way. it fulfills the purposes somewhat better than the lamp chimneys, 
and perhaps nearly as well in most cases as the one represented in the 
cut which follows it. 

The chief object of presenting this illustration is to show a con- 
venient way of applying the principles involved in the syphon perco- 
lator to the glass percolator in common use, in order to try to tempt 
those who have such percolators to try the method in percolation and 
repercolation. The cut is so plain and so easily understood that it 
needs but little explanation. The percolator is shown in the position 
of having been stopped for the night lest the receiving bottle should be 
filled beyond the proper mark. The syphon here is made in two parts, 
one end of the upper part being telescoped within a larger piece of glass 
tubing, and thejunction made tight by a short section of rubber tubing 
through which the smaller tube is free to slide. During maceration, 
or when the percolation is arrested, the upper part of the syphon is 
•drawn up until the liquid will no longer flow over into the bottle, and 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
May, 1878. > 

Fluid Extracts by Repercolation. 

2 39 

Scale, one-sixth of the actual linear size. 

the height at which this column of liquid ceases to flow over is a 
measure of the comparative density of the liquid within and without. 
As seen in the cut the liquid will not flow over into the bottle although 

Fluid Extracts by Refer eolation. 

\ Am. Joar. Pharro. 
j May, i2 7 8. 

the column is several inches short of the height of the liquid in the 
percolator. But as exhaustion progresses, and the liquid in this column 
becomes less dense its counterbalancing height becomes greater, until 
finally when the powder is exhausted and the liquid within and without 
are of the same density the column rises to the level of the liquid within 
the percolator minus the friction and capillarity. When the percola- 
tion is to be started, the syphon is simply pushed down through the 

Scale, one-sixth of the actual linear size. 

rubber until the liquid flows over, and then the rate is established by 
carefully raising or lowering the syphon. This sliding joint for vary- 
ing the length of this column of liquid at will, being understood, the 
other details are plain enough, whilst the charging and the general 
management are the same as in the smaller and larger percolators. 

However attractive the simplicity of the lamp chimney arrangement 
may appear it does not yield so good results as the form of percolator 
reproduced here, with slight improvements, from the " Proceedings of 
the Amer. Pharm. Asso." for 1872, p. 182, for several reasons. First 
because the principles involved are not so well carried out, and secondly 

Am M J ° y u > r ;s P 78 an "-} Fluid Extracts by Repercolation. 


Scale, one-sixth of the actual linear size. 

because the quantity of substance operated upon is too small. Very 
good and uniform results need hardly be looked for when the quantity 
operated on for each percolation is less than an avoirdupois pound. 
That is when less than that quantity is used, great care and skill are 
necessary to get good results. Another percolator, applying the same 
principles by the same details, but having about five or six times the 
capacity of the first, was soon after made and put into use, and cuts 
of these two percolators are shown upon this and the opposite page, of 
their relative sizes, both upon a scale of one-sixth of the actual linear 
dimensions, the reference letters denoting the same parts in both. Of 

242 Fluid Extracts by Rep er eolation. \ An ^™-J 7 t rm ' 

course the principles involved when once understood can be applied to 
vessels of any kind and size by means of common glass tubing, and in 
order to have these principles tried by less prejudiced persons than the 
writer the mechanism will now be given as plainly as possible, as appli- 
cable to this best form of apparatus. 

The percolator, a, is of the form of the more modern glass or tin 
percolators somewhat funnel shaped to allow substances to swell with- 
out becoming impacted, but having no special angle. The smaller has 
a glass stem and foot like an ordinary celery glass, and the larger is an 
ordinary stone ware pot neither having an opening in bottom nor sides. 
The smaller is about 16 inches = 40 centimetres in height, of which 
height about 4 inches = 10 centimetres is stem and foot, and is of a 
proper capacity for 16 to 20 ounces = 500 to 600 gram, of material 
and a proper stratum of menstruum. The bottom, internally should 
be about 2 inches — 5 centimetres in diameter and should be flat, — 
not cup-shaped as the glass-blowers are apt to leave it. A rim of glass 
is made upon the upper edge or lip, to strengthen it, and this lip is 
ground off so that the cover may fit accurately to prevent loss by evap- 
oration. The height of the foot and stem is not a matter of indiffer- 
ence, since if too short it has to be set upon a stand in order that the 
receiving bottle may be conveniently changed. 

The larger percolator, is a stone ware pot of about 2 gallons = 
7557 cc - capacity, — 10 inches = 24 centimetres high and across the 
top, by about 6 inches = 14*4 centimetres across the bottom, inside, 
and it will conveniently hold 4*5 to 6*5 pounds == 2 to 3 kilos, and a 
proper stratum of menstruum. Both cuts are made one-sixth the 
actual linear size, and the same letters refer to the same parts of each, 
so that one description applies to both. 

A disk of blanket, b, is cut of such a size and shape as to lie flat 
upon the bottom, and cover it entirely. Another disk of the same 
material, but a little larger, c, is made with a crucial incision in the 
centre, so that it may be stretched over the end of the well-tube, e. 
The central or well tube, is a simple piece of glass tube about 12 
inches = 30 centimetres long, by '5 to '75 inch = 1*5 to 2 centime- 
tres internal diameter, irregularly notched, or knawed off obliquely at 
the lower end. One end of this well tube, ^, is pushed through the 
crucial cut in the centre of the upper disk of blanket, and the blan- 
ket is pushed to the other end of the tube so that the corners made by 


Am Ma°y, r i8 > 7 h 8 arm '} Fluid 'Extracts by Rep er eolation. 243 

the crucial cut are reflected up against the outside of the tube. These 
corners are then tied firmly to the tube by passing twine around them, 
or, are secured by a stout rubber band, g, made of a section of rubber 
tubing of proper size. A disk of filtering paper, d, larger than the 
upper blanket, c, with a crucial cut in the centre, and nicked round the 
edge so as to lie flat against the sides of the percolator where reflected 
up against them. This disk of paper is pushed down upon the upper 
blanket, the well-tube passing through the crucial cut in its centre. 

If now a piece of paper be twisted round the upper end of the well- 
tube, or a cork be temporarily stuck into it, to keep out the moistened 
powder, the percolator is ready to receive its charge which is packed 
around the well-tube and upon the disks of paper and blanket so as to 
occupy the main body of the percolator, h, up to about the position 

When the charge, having been properly moistened, rubbed, and 
sifted, so as to be entirely uniform and free from wet lumps, is packed 
around the well tube loosely or firmly according to the nature of the 
substance and the menstruum, — its surface is covered by a disk of 
muslin or paper, z, cut so as to lie flat and smoothly upon the surface. 
The object of this is to distribute the menstruum as it is poured on, 
and to prevent the stream from breaking up and deranging the surface. 
Should this disk show a tendency to float in the stratum of menstruum 
it may be weighted down by a few fragments of glass. The percola- 
tor is then ready to receive the menstruum or weak percolate, and a 
stratum of the liquid should be carefully kept covering the entire sur- 
face well until the whole mass of the substance to be percolated is 
entirely saturated. The cork is to be taken from the well- tube before 
the liquid is poured on, and then the liquid will pass down into the 
substance like a piston, pushing the interstitial air down before it to 
pass out through the blankets and the well tube ; and finally the liquid 
will rise in the well-tube until its surface is within an inch or so of the 
surface of the liquid outside. 

The whole substance is now in a perfect condition for maceration, 
and the surface should be left covered with the liquid to the depth of 
at least '\ inch = 1 centimetre. In the larger percolator a short sec- 
tion of rubber tubing, 0, is stretched over the upper end of the well- 
tube, and slipped down so as to support the centre of the cover. A 
tightly fitting cover, /, made of sheet rubber "25 inch = 6 millimetres 

*44 Fluid Extracts by Rep er eolation. {^^J^' 

thick, with a hole in the centre for the well-tube, is then put on. If 
made of sheet rubber this cover fits so closely that it will soon save its 
cost by preventing loss of alcohol by evaporation. Its size in the 
larger percolator permits one side to be bent up when liquid is to be 
poured in. But in the smaller percolator it is very convenient to have 
one side of the cover cut two-thirds through from below, as shown in 
the cut, the undivided portion forming a good spring hinge permitting 
this part of the cover to be easily raised to pour on liquid. If a self- 
feeding bottle be used, as is generally advisable in order to keep the 
level of the liquid constant and thus obtain a flow at a uniform rate, it 
may be easily applied by making a hole of suitable size in the cover. 
When thus supplied and covered the maceration should continue for 
48 hours at least. The whole arrangement now represents a well, dug 
in a wet soil of a substance to be percolated, and the proposition is, to 
pump out this well at so slow a rate that the liquid from outside the 
well coming in to supply that rate, through the disks of paper and 
blanket, which represent the gravel stratum of the soil, — may descend 
so very slowly as to be nearly frictionless. The object is, to give the 
whole liquid up as nearly as possible to gravitation, and to so diminish 
the rate of descent that the particles or portions of liquid which pass 
between and around the particles of solid matter may travel downward 
no faster than the portions of liquid which pass through the pores or 
interstices of the more solid substance whose soluble portions are to 
be washed out. Because, if the whole mass of liquid travelled down- 
ward at absolutely the same rate through a perfectly saturated mass of 
solid permeable substance partially soluble in the liquid, and if the 
molecules of liquid passed downward in absolutely straight lines, 
through some particles, but between others, and always at a uniform 
rate, it is easy to see that all the first portion of the liquid would come 
through saturated, and all the remainder would hold nothing in solution 
because the substance would be absolutely exhausted by just the quan- 
tity of liquid which it was capable of saturating. The writer has on 
one or two occasions made percolations so slowly as to somewhat 
approximate this theoretical result. The dropping in one case was not 
over 4 drops in each 24 hours, or about a cubic centimetre every 5 
days. To pump out this well at a uniform rate which can be easily 
controlled, is therefore the most important element in a successful per- 
colation, and the only one which has offered much difficulty in the 

Am May, r 'i8 > 7 h 8 arm "} Fluid Extracts by Reper eolation. 245 

past. And it can only be effectually done by means of maintaining a 
difference of levels in the liquid inside and outside of the well-tube. 
The moment a drop of liquid is taken from the well-tube, the liquid 
outside tends to supply its place, and will supply it in a certain definite 
time ; and if the entire mass of liquid be under the same tension, and 
equally free to move through the short distance required at the slow 
rate required, then as liquids are practically inelastic, every drop 
throughout the whole mass, whether in the interstices of the solid par- 
ticles or between those particles, will have moved downward through 
the distance and at the rate required to supply its share of the drop 
required to replace the one taken from the well. And if the volume 
of the drop be compared with the total volume of liquid set in motion, 
and the rate of its movement as taken out be multiplied into the mean 
horizontal area of the percolator, a good indication is obtained of the 
almost infinite slowness with which the vertical columns of molecules 
of the liquid descend through the mass, and the physical laws which 
govern percolation may be better understood. 

The proposition then is to keep the total mass under a uniform ten- 
sion throughout, and to do this by maintaining a difference in levels 
between the liquid inside and outside the well ; and this difference of 
levels, which varies with each substance, and with every stage of the 
percolation of the same substance, is to be maintained by drawing 
liquid from the well at so slow a rate as to disturb the uniformity of 
tension throughout the whole mass as little as possible, so as to have 
the whole liquid in motion at a uniform rate like a slowly descending 
piston. Of course the simplest way of taking the liquid from the bot- 
tom of the percolator is the old often-used stop-cock in an opening in 
the bottom ; but this proves objectionable for several reasons. First, 
it is difficult though not impossible, by means of a stop-cock at the 
bottom, to keep the whole mass of matter at a uniform tension, or in 
uniform maceration. Channels of liquid in more rapid motion are 
more apt to form, and the packing has to be much more carefully done 
in order to prevent this tendency to currents in the mass. Next, in 
actual practice it was found that no stopcock could be arranged to do 
its work automatically according to the natural requirements and vary- 
ing conditions of each case. It must be arbitrarily set to run at same 
rate of dropping that would be decided by the judgment of the operator 
rather than by the natural conditions and laws of the process. Then 

246 Fluid Extracts by Reper eolation. { Am £y%8^ 

no stopcock could be found which would continue to run at so slow a 
rate of dropping with any degree of uniformity through so long a time. 
The smallest particle of solid matter would diminish the rate, or stop 
it altogether, so that it required to be continually watched or readjusted,, 
and every change that was made disturbed the whole of the delicate 
balances and motions of the process. Again all the metals of which 
ordinary stopcocks are made are attacked by the liquids in so long a 
process, and have the same objection that metallic percolators have. 
Glass stopcocks were tried, but they were found equally liable to all 
the objections except the last. This experience led the writer directly 
to the well-tube, and to the use of a syphon, f\ as best fulfilling all the 
conditions required, since it can easily be set lower or higher, to adjust 
the levels to the desired rate of motion, and having a free flow it works 
automatically and with certainty. This syphon, f, is made of glass 
tubing of about '125 inch = 3 millimetres bore, bent twice at right 
angles, the two legs being about 12*5 inches = 31 centimetres long. 
The outer leg is a little longer than the inner one, and turned up upon 
itself for about '750 inch = 2 centimetres, as shown in the cuts. The 
legs should have only such a difference in length that the inner one 
should reach the bottom of the well-tube when required, and when 
measured upon the outer one, should reach to about midway of the 
turned up end of the outer leg. This construction prevents the syphon 
from emptying itself at any time, for, when the liquid is drawn over 
by the syphon until the surface of liquid in the well-tube falls to a level* 
with the end of the turned up portion, as shown by the lines in the cut 
of the larger percolator, the columns of liquid in the syphon will be of 
equal length, and will counterbalance each other, and therefore the 
flow will cease without emptying the syphon. But as soon as the 
level of liquid in the well is raised by fresh additions of menstruum 
on to the substance, the flow will recommence at a rate proportionate 
to the difference of levels, and may be readjusted to the required rate 
by slipping it up or down in the cork, i, in the upper end of the well- 
tube. This cork, ^, should be bored to fit the syphon so tightly as to 
hold it in any position and should have a groove filed longitudinally on 
its outer side so as to allow free entrance and exit of air to the well- 
tube. A receiving bottle, /, upon which a strip of paper is pasted to 
receive any graduation marks that may be desired, completes the appa- 
ratus. The strip of paper on the bottle should have the tare of the 

Am May%8 7 h 8 arm } Fluid Extracts by Rep er eolation. 247 

bottle in grammes and in grains marked in ink at its lower end, and 
should then be varnished. Then the graduation marks may be made 
with pencil, and be rubbed out and replaced as different graduations may 
be required for different substances, the graduations merely indicating 
when to try the weight of the accumulating percolate. A wooden 
stand, 7w, is necessary for the larger percolator to enable the receiving 
bottle to be conveniently removed and replaced without disturbing the 
syphon ; and wooden blocks, 72, are necessary to support the receiving 
bottles at various heights. As a general indication, the rate of drop- 
ping from the smaller percolator should be about 6 or 8 drops to the 
minute, and for the larger one about 10 to 12 to the minute. But it 
should always be borne in mind that the rate cannot be uniform with- 
out some self-feeding arrangement that will preserve a uniform stratum 
of liquid upon the surface of the substance, and that with such an 
arrangement, the slower the rate the more perfect, and the more econ- 
omical the exhaustion will be. With a rate of 2 or 3 drops a minute 
the results are practically perfect, when th j conditions of fineness of 
powder, and appropriate menstruum are properly fulfilled. 

The maceration for, at least, 48 hours is useful for many reasons, 
chiefly that the adjustment of temperatures and solubility may take 
place fully and naturally : — that the particles may be thoroughly per- 
meated by the liquid, and the liquid become saturated. And because 
if the maceration be omitted, the percolate, in many cases, will not be 
entirely bright or clear. Then as a rule, the longer the maceration 
within reasonable limits, the stronger will be the percolate that comes 
next after the maceration, — no matter at what stage of the repercola- 
tion the maceration be applied. 

When the maceration is completed and the percolation to be started 
the syphon is put in place with about 3 inches— 7*2 centimetres of the 
inner leg immersed in the liquid of the well-tube. Then the best way 
to start the syphon is by means of a piece of glass tubing of the same 
size as the syphon and any convenient length, armed at one end with 
a short section of rubber tubing of such size as to slip over the end of 
the turned up part of the syphon easily, but fitting tightly, — or being 
tied onto, — the end of the piece of glass tubing. The syphon and 
receiving bottle being now in position to start, the rubber end of the 
glass tube is passed into the neck of the receiving bottle and down till 
the rubber slips over the end of the turned up portion of the syphon. 


Fluid Extracts by Rep er eolation. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 

May, 1S78. 

Then by gentle slow suction with the mouth at the upper end of the 
glass tube the syphon is slowly rilled, and when filled the glass tube 
and rubber are removed. As soon as the dropping commences the 
syphon must be raised or lowered until the desired rate of dropping is 
attained. If the syphon has to be raised in order to attain the rate, it 
must be done little by little in order to avoid raising the inner end out 
of the liquid in the well. The rate of dropping can only be estab- 
lished with entire uniformity when the inverted automatic feeding 
bottle is used for supplying menstruum, because when the menstruum 
is poured on from time to time the dropping will be a little faster as 
the outside level is raised by each addition. 

When weak percolates of diminishing strength are successively used 
on top, the stratum of liquid should be kept thin, so that each stronger 
weak percolate may have nearly all sunk into the substance before the 
next weaker one is used. In receiving the percolate the blocks, «, 
are used to support the receiving bottle in any position, and when the 
percolation is to be stopped, or made to go very slowly, during the 
night for example, this may be effected either by raising the syphon 
higher, or by blocking up the receiving bottle so that the outer end of 
the syphon is immersed in the percolate received to the necessary 
depth. Of course when the receiving bottle is blocked up so that the 
mouth, or any desired mark upon the bottle is near the level of the 
liquid in the percolator, the bottle can never run over nor the mark so 
raised be surpassed. The dropping end of the syphon should always 
be inside of the receiving bottle, because thus all loss by evaporation 
is avoided, the air inside the bottle being still, and being saturated. If 
the same rate of slow dropping was carried on outside in the moving 
air of a room, and the drops fell into a funnel, for example, about one- 
fourth of the menstruum would be lost by evaporation, — the more 
volatile portions in greater proportion, and the percolate would be 
turbid and unfit for use. 

The last weak portions of percolate may almost always be pushed 
through by the careful use of water on top, and in proportion as the 
operator acquires skill in the management, little menstruum will be 
lost. When exhaustion is practically complete the syphon is pushed 
down to the bottom of the well, and the last weak percolate drawn off 

Then if another portion of the same substance is to be put into the 

Am May''X h 8 arm '} Fluid Extracts by Reper eolation. 249 

percolator, the exhausted residue should be so removed as not to 
disturb the disks of paper and blanket at the bottom. 

The principles of this process once well understood, modifications 
of apparatus will occur to many. The simplest of those that has been 
tried on a scale larger than the one above shown with lamp chimneys, 
is to dispense with well tube and syphon, and replace them with a 
piece of rubber tubing of small bore. One end of this is placed 
between the two disks of flannel near the centre of the percolator, 
and then the tubing is led up through any part of the packed substance, 
- — say near, but not against the side of the percolator, as this would 
leave channels for liquid, — and then out over the edge of the perco- 
lator. Then a small bent portion of glass tubing is slipped into the 
end of the rubber so as to represent the end of the glass syphon. 
This end can then, by the flexibility and length of the rubber tube, be 
kept at any desired position. This however does not answer as well in 
practice as the well and syphon, nor does any other yet tried, including 
the simplification adopted with the lamp chimneys, — answer as well, 
when judged by the results obtained. 

The writer made a conditional promise at the request of the Com- 
mittee that he would give a table showing his own practice with fluid 
extracts in regard to the menstruum now used for each, — the weight 
of a pint of the menstruum and the weight of a pint of the finished 
fluid extract in each case, as bearing upon the proposed new relation 
of making them weight for weight instead of minim for grain, and the 
work for constructing such a table has been done. But this paper has 
grown to such an unreasonable length that it will hardly be read, and 
the calculations and construction of the table would require so much 
additional time that the writer must beg the Committee to excuse him 
for not presenting it. 

The writer was rather opposed to the new relation of weight for 
weight when this point was discussed by the Committee, but now 
considers it practicable if the labor be given to make it fairly accurate ; 
and believes that it might be made far more accurate than the present 
relation of minim for grain, this latter having proved to be rather an 
ideal than a practically true relation. 

Brooklyn^ April 16th, 1878. 




f Am. Jour Phann~ 
\ May, 1878. 


By Francis V. Greene, M. D., U.S.N. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, April 16, 1878. 
In the Unofficinal List of the U. S. Dispensatory the Chamaelirium 
luteum is briefly described under its old name of Helonias dioica, and 
mention made of its having been found useful in colic, and likewise, 
efficacious in the treatment of leucorrhcea and atony of the generative 
organs. The American Dispensatory, the standard text- book of the 
"Eclectics," edited by John King, M. D., in addition to giving a more 
detailed description of the Helonias dioica and pointing out the differ- 
ence between it and the Aletris farinosa, which is often mistaken for* it,, 
and used in its stead, states that its root possesses the properties of a 
tonic, diuretic and anthelmintic; that in large doses it produces ernesis, 
and that, when fresh, it acts as a sialogogue. The most interesting 
point, however, in connection with this root is its reputed action as a 
uterine tonic, and in consequence of this supposed property of removing 
abnormal conditions and imparting tone to the reproductive organs, it 
has been somewhat extensively used, with reported success, not only 
in the treatment of leucorrhoea, amenorrhoea and dysmenorrhoea, but 
also to correct the tendency to repeated abortion. That the chamae- 
lirium does really act as a uterine tonic is corroborated by the testimony 
of Dr. Braman ("Boston Med. and Surg. Journ.," xi, 416) and still 
more recently by that of E. H. Woodbury, M.D. ("Southern Medical 
Record"), who makes a very favorable report of its value in the treat- 
ment of leucorrhoea, amenorrhoea and dysmenorrhoea. With the 
exception of a short notice in Tilden's Supplement to the "Journal of 
Materia Medica," the above references embody everything of import- 
ance that is known in regard to the therapeutic action of this plant. No 
chemical investigation appears to have been made, and, as we are 
entirely ignorant of the nature of the principle or principles which 
produce the observed effects on the economy, an inquiry in this respect 
seemed desirable, not only in consequence of its therapeutic action, but 
likewise on account of the plant being so closely allied botanically to 
the veratrums, with which it was originally classed by Linnaeus, under 
the name of the V. luteum. I have therefore lately examined the 
the root of Chamaelirium lutuem,and have succeeded in extracting from it 
in a pure state quite a large amount of a very bitter substance, ot a. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
May, 1878. j 



light buff color, which proves to be a glucoside, and which I propose to 
call cham&lirin, to distinguish it from helonin, the so-called neutral 
substance of the " Eclectics," which, according to King, is merely a 
" hydro-alcoholic extract " of the Helonias dioica. 

In making this examination, in the first instance four troyounces of 
the powdered chamaelirium root were exhausted with cold distilled 
water, the filtered solution placed on a water bath, evaporated to one half 
its bulk, calcined magnesia added, and the evaporation continued until 
the mass was dry, when it was powdered, and extracted with several 
portions of ether. On evaporating the ethereal solution, there remained 
a small quantity of a white substance, which was amorphorus, and 
insoluble in water, acids and ammonia, but readily soluble in alcohol. 
The mass which had been ex'hausted with ether, was then extracted 
with absolute alcohol, and the solution, which was of a light yellow 
color, filtered. After the evaporation of the alcohol, there remained a 
light yellow, transparent, resinous matter, having an intensely bitter 
taste, and which dissolved completely in water. The aqueous solution 
was found to be quite neutral, and did not give any reactions with the 
ordinary tests for the alkaloids, with the exception of phosphomolybdic 
acid, with which it gave a flocculent yellowish-white precipitate. 
Boiled with Fehling's solution, it however quickly reduced the copper. 
A small quantity of an aqueous infusion of the root was then added to 
the test solution, and boiled, when the copper was converted into the 
red oxide, showing conclusively that glucose existed in the root. 

Believing that with care in drying the magnesia mass thoroughly, the 
bitter principle could be extracted free from glucose, or if not, with the 
intention of removing it from the alcoholic solution by the addition of 
the proper amount of ether, eight troyounces of the finely powdered 
root were exhausted with water, the filtered solution treated as before 
with magnesia, evaporated to dryness, the mass powdered, again heated 
on the water-bath, and then placed in a warm closet for some hours. 
The bitter principle was then extracted with hot absolute alcohol ; the 
filtered solution was evaporated, and yielded 20 grams of the bitter prin- 
ciple which, tested with Fehling's solution, proved to be entirely free from 
glucose. The magnesia mass was then treated with hot distilled water, 
and the filtered solution evaporated to dryness with a little magnesia, 
and this mass again extracted with absolute alcohol. On evaporating 
the alcohol, 2*65 grams more of the bitter substance were obtained* 

n^i Chamaelirin, 

The sum of the two extractions amounting to 350 grains, it follows that 
•9*1 per cent, of chamaelirin had been extracted, so that, making allow- 
ance for the root not having been probably thoroughly exhausted, and 
for unavoidable loss, it is safe to conclude that the root contains fully 
10 per cent, of the bitter principle. The mass remaining after the 
extraction by absolute alcohol, was then exhausted with hot alcohol of 
70 per cent. To this solution, after cooling and filtering, an equal 
volume of ether was added, which caused the precipitation of a molasses- 
like liquid which, treated with Fehling's solution, gave the appropriate 
reaction for glucose. 

Distilled water was then added to the whole of the bitter substance, 
tut as it agglutinated after the manner of gum arabic, heat was applied, 
which caused it to dissolve rapidly, although the quantity was so small 
as to give the clear solution a svrupy consistence. On diluting the 
solution with water, it was noticed that as the liquid cooled it became 
slightly turbid. It was therefore still further diluted, and set aside for 
twelve hours, when it was found to have deposited a small quantity of 
a white substance, which, separated by filtration, dissolved in hot water, 
alcohol and ether, but not in acids or alkaline solutions. A small 
quantity of this substance dissolved in ether, gave upon evaporation the 
same white, opaque film that was observed in the case of the substance 
dissolved out of the magnesia mass by ether in the first experiment. 

As the filtrate from this white substance was still slightly cloudy, 
animal charcoal was added to it, and after agitation, it was filtered, 
yielding a perfectly clear solution. The use of the charcoal proved in 
the first place that the white substance is retained by it, and secondly 
that it does not remove any of the color from the chamaelirin. Subse- 
quent experiment showed that the use of the charcoal was not essential, 
as by proper dilution, and allowing sufficient time for subsidence, the 
solution can be filtered off perfectly free from the white substance, 
provided that the washings are not added to it as the insoluble matter 
passes through the pores of the filter when pure water is added. 
Another and still better plan of overcoming the difficulty, occasioned by 
the presence of this substance, is to take advantage of its solubility in 
ether, and by using this menstruum to remove it from the magnesia 
mass before exhausting with absolute alcohol. 

The clear solution of chamaelirin was then evaporated to dryness 
on a water-bath, yielding an opaque, amorphous mass of a light buff 

{Am. Jour. Phann. 
May, 1878. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

May, 1878. J 


2 5J 

color. It is very readily reduced to a powder, which is very much 
lighter in color than the substance in mass. This powder adheres to 
the fingers after the manner of a resin. As may be gathered from the 
method of extraction, chamaelirin is freely soluble in hot and cold water 
and alcohol. It is insoluble, or only very sparingly so, in ether, and 
quite insoluble in chloroform, petroleum benzin, benzol and bisul- 
phide of carbon. The solid substance gives no play of colors when 
brought in contact with sulphuric, nitric or hydrochloric acids. When,, 
however, sulphuric acid is added to a small quantity, in a test tube, at 
the moment of contact a ruby-red color is produced, which soon 
disappears, as the substance is quickly charred by the acid. Treated 
similarly with nitric acid, it dissolves in it, giving a clear canary-yellow 
solution, which does not change by standing. Hydrochloric acid 
dissolves it, the solution gradually assuming a beautiful wine or peach- 
red color ; the liquid, however, becomes turbid after a short time. Its 
solution in acetic acid is colorless. It does not afford any play of 
colors with Fiohde's reagent, but dissolves in it with a yellowish brown 
color. It is freely soluble in ammonia ; but strong solutions of the 
fixed alkalies precipitate it from its solution. It is also precipitated by 
an excess of a solution of caustic baryta. It has no effect whatever 
on test papers. It is not precipitated from its solution by either tannic 
acid or acetate of lead, and affords no precipitates with potassio- 
mercuric iodide, iodine in iodide of potassium solution, potassio-cadmic 
iodide or metatungstic acid; it does, however, give a yellowish white 
precipitate with phosphomolybdic acid, which dissolves in ammonia 
with a blue color, that disappears on heating. It does not reduce the 
cupric to the cuprous hydrate, even after prolonged boiling with the 
test solution. A small portion of the substance, boiled with dilute 
hydrochloric acid, neutralized with bicarbonate of soda, and then added 
to Fehling's solution and boiled, quickly reduced the copper, showing 
that it is a glucoside. The dilute acid splits it up into glucose and an 
insoluble body, the examination of which has not been completed. 

The aqueous and alcoholic solutions of chamaelirin froth in the 
same manner as those of saponin, which renders it probable that it is 
very similar to the last-named substance and the other glucosides that 
have the same property. Its free solubility in cold water, and its 
behavior with the mineral acids prove, however, that it is not identical 
with any of these bodies. 

a 5 4 Gleanings from the Foreign Journals. {* m £y%w* Tm ' 


By the Editor. 

The Free Acids of the Gastric Juice. — By repeated treatment of gastric juice 
with ether, Ch. Richet has separated an acid which was recognized as identical with 
sarcolactic acid, prepared from horse-flesh ; its zinc salt resembles the corresponding 
salt with the ordinary lactic acid (obtained by fermentation), but the calcium salts 
of the two acids differ in cyrstalline form ; however, the sarcolactate, when kept 
for some time, assumes the aspect of the ordinary lactate of calcium, probably by a 
change in hydration. The ether also took up small quantities of fatty acid j the 
nature of the acid insoluble in ether will be investigated by the author. — 
Phar. et de Cbim., Feb., 1878, p. 109. 

Iodide of starch, according to Bondonneau, is always a definite compound, 
having the formula (C 12 H 10 O 10 ) 5 I (0=8). To obtain it pure, soluble starch is 
prepared by acting with caustic soda upon starch diffused in 15 to 20 times its weight 
of water; after slightly acidulating the solution, a solution of iodine is added in 
slight excess and the precipitate well washed with water, acidulated with HC1, and 
dried at the ordinary temperature. 

It is in hard pieces, of a violet-black color and coppery lustre It swells in water, 
and when diffused in it appears blue. At ioo°C. it loses 16 to 18 per cent. 
(H 2 and HI), becomes carbonized and is not decolorized by sulphite of sodium ; 
the loss is increased to 46 per cent, by heating to i9o°C. (374^.), and the black 
residue then contains 2 to 3 per cent, of iodine. When heated with water, in a 
sealed tube, it is gradually, almost completely converted into glucose and hydriodic 
acid. A similar conversion, including dextrin and an iodated organic compound, 
is produced by diastase and by saliva. The iodine is dissolved by alcohol, but not 
by potassium iodide, benzin, sulphide of carbon or other solvents. Iodide of starch 
contains 13 per cent, of iodine, a portion of which is slowly eliminated by drying 
over sulphuric acid — Ibid., p. 121. 

Oil of tansy consists, according to Bruylants, of a small quantity, (about 1 per 
cent ) of hydrocarbon C 10 H 16 , four-fifths of an aldehyd, tanacetyl hydrid, C 10 H 16 O and 
of an alcohol C 10 H 18 O. The aldehyd is best separated by sodium bisulphite Two 
resins were also found, one of which had the behavior of an acid. — Jour, de Phar. 
et de Chim., Nov., 1877, p. 393. 

Proximate Principles of Lobelia Inflata. — Wm. H. D. Lewis obtained the 
alkaloid in a pure state by exhausting the herb with very dilute acetic acid, concen- 
trating the infusion, treating with magnesia and agitating with amylic alcohol, on 
the spontaneous evaporation of which lobelina remains behind. It may be further 
purified by dissolving in water, passing through animal charcoal, which retains it, 
and dissolving it by ether or amylic alcohol. It is light-yellow, of the consistence 
of honey, has a somewhat aromatic odor and a sharp acrid taste, and is soluble in 
all simple solvents, sparingly in petroleum naphtha. It is decomposed by caustic 
alkalies and cannot be distilled. Exposed to the air, it slowly resinifies. H 2 S0 4 
colors it red-brown, the color being intensified by potassium bichromate. Fronde's 

Am M J a °y, r i8 > 7 h 8 arm '} Gleanings from the Foreign Journals. 255 

reagent has the same behavior. Continued boiling with dilute H 2 S0 4 liberates 
glucose ; dilute potassa has the same result. 

Lobelic acid is obtained by precipitating the decoction with sulphate of copper, 
decomposing by H 2 S, evaporating and exhausting with hot ether ; on evaporation a 
yellow crystalline mass is left, which is purified by dissolving in cold ether. The 
acid is not volatile and dissolves in ether, alcohol and water, the aqueous solution 
being precipitated green by copper sulphate, brown by ferric chloride, yellow by 
lead acetate, dirty- white by mercuric nitrate, and white, becoming red-brown, by 
silver nitrate. The lobelacrin of Enders (" Pharmacographia,"" p. 357) is regarded 
by the author to be lobelate of lobelina. 

The aqueous distillate of the plant possesses the odor, but not the acrid taste of 
'lobelia. Reinsch's lobeliin is evidently a very indefinite compound, and possibly 
contains traces of lobel na. — Phar. Jour, and Trans. , Jan. 19, p. 561. 

Solubility of Sugar in Water. — H. Courtonne confirms the results, previously 
obtained by Berthelot and Scheibler, that 100 grms of water dissolve at i2-5°C. 
(54'5°F.) 198*647, and at 45°C (ii3°F.) 245 grms. of sugar. A solution, there- 
fore, saturated at 12 5°C. contains 66 5, and when saturated at 45°C, 71 per cent, 
of sugar. — Compt. Rend., lxxxv, p 959. 

Ointment of thymol has been used by Balmanno Squire for ringworm; it was 
prepared by melting thymol 3> at trie temperature of a water-bath and mixing it 
with lard ^i. When of this strength, the ointment did not produce irritation of the 
skin or any other evil effect. — Phar. Jour, and Trans , Feb. 2, p. 602. 

Thymol and its Pharmacy. — Thymol is produced from several labiatas, princi- 
pally from Thymus vulgaris, Monarda punctata and Ptychotis ajowan. It is in 
nearly transparent and colorless irregular crystals, sp. gr 1028, of a burning and 
aromatic taste. It fuses at about 44°C. and often remains liquid for several days or 
until brought in contact with a crystal. It is freely soluble in alcohol, ether, chlo- 
roform, benzol, carbon bisulphide, oils and in potassa and soda ; it dissolves spar- 
ingly in water, glycerin and ammonia. Ether, shaken with the alkaline solutions, 
removes the thymol entirely. 

A. W. Gerrard found that the strongest aqueous solution of thymol available is 1 
in 1,000. 4 grains of it dissolved in a fluidounce of rectified spirit will yield an 
alcoholic solution miscible with water without becoming turbid. 1 grain dissolved 
in 2 fluid drachms of heated glycerin remains clear on cooling, the solution becom- 
ing turbid on the addition of water until four volumes of the latter have been 
added, when it is clear again. 1 grain of caustic soda dissolves 3 grains of thy- 
mol and 1 grain of potassa 25 grains of it ; the solutions remain clear when diluted 
with water. Fats and oils are excellent solvents of thymol, but require to be heated 
to insure perfect solution. Vaseline is not an eligible basis for it, the thymol crys- 
tallizing upon the surface of the mixture. — Ibid., Feb. 16, p 645. 

Commercial Oil of Thyme.— A. W. Gerrard attempted to prepare thymol from 
the oil by agitating it with soda solution, but obtained variable quantities of an oily 
liquid differing from thymol. When placed in ice the oils did not separate any 

256 Gleanings from the Foreign Journals. { Am d™%! 7 t rm ' 

crystalline matter. This leads to the inference that the thymol must be extracted 
in the countries where the oil is produced, and that the residual cymene and thymene 
is sold as oil of thyme. — Ibid., p. 646 

Garcinia indica, known in India as Kokum, flowers about Christmas and ripens 
its fruit in April and May. Dymock states that the fruit is largely used as an acid 
ingredient in curries as is an article of commerce in the dry state. It is generally- 
prepared by removing the seeds, drying the pulp in the sun and slightly salting it. 
The seeds are pounded and boiled to extract the fat, which is roughly moulded by- 
hand into egg-shaped balls or concavo-convex cakes, and is known as kokum-butter. 
The apothecaries ot Goa prepare a very fine purple syrup from the fruit, which is 
worthy of attention — Phar. Jour, and Trans., Jan. 19, p. 565. 

Elemic Acid. — In addition to bryoidin and amyrin, Eugene Buri has separated a 
third crystalline principle from elemi. It is obtained from the mother liquors of 
amyrin ("Araer. Jour. Phar.," 1876, p. 355), by evaporating them. The amorphous 
resin is dissolved in petroleum spirit (6o°C. boiling point), the solution becomes turbid 
with more petroleum spirit. The mixture is shaken with potassa solution, and after 
separation the jelly is emulsionized by the addition of some water, and then dissolved 
in ether. Instead of petroleum spirit, ether may be used for dissolving the resin. On 
supersaturating thealkalinesolution with HC1, elimic acid is precipitated and freed from 
an amorphous acid resin by repeated crystallization from alcohol. Its composition 
is C 35 H 56 4 =(C 5 H 8 ) 7 4 . The potassium salt crystallizes from its strong alkaline 
solution in needles. — Ibid., Feb. 2, p. 601. 

Spurious balsam of tolu has been observed by W. A. H. Naylor. It is yellow- 
ish-brown, very viscid, in thin layers of golden yellow and transparent 5 has a some- 
what glue-like odor, and when tasted produces in a few seconds a sensation of 
warmth and acridity. It is completely soluble in carbon bisulphide, benzol, chloro- 
foim, ether and hot alcohol, the latter solution depositing on cooling. Glacial 
acetic acid and potassa solution dissolve it partly. It contains no constituent vola- 
tile at i6o°C, and when distilled with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid, no 
oily liquid passes over, and the odor of bitter almonds is not evolved. Agitated with 
ammonia and the filtrate acidified with dilute sulphuric acid, a pink color is quickly 
developed. It was free from fixed and volatile oils, and found to consist of an 
indifferent and two acid resins The author suggests the probability that this sub- 
stance is a natural product of new importation, and not a tampered or manufactured 
article. — Ibid , Feb 9, p. 624.. 

Artificial Vanillin. — Tiemann has patented a process in England which depends 
upon the conversion of eugenic acid into aceto eugenol by boiling with acetic 
anhydrid. The newly formed compound is treated with a very weak warm solution 
of potassium permanganate, the solution filtered, rendered slightly alkaline, concen- 
trated, acidulated and the vanillin extracted with ether. — Ber. Deutsch. Chem. Ges. t 
1877, p. 1907- 

Distillation of Resins with Zinc Dust — This was effected by G. Ciamician in 
a current ot hydrogen, and the products separated by fractional distillation. Abietinic 
acid yielded under these circumstances toluol, C 7 H 8 , meta-ethylmethylbenzol C 9 H 12> 


Am Ma y U , r i8 P 7 8 arm } Gleanings from the Foreign Journals. -257 

naphthilin, C 10 H g , methylnaphthalin, C 10 H U and methylanthracen, C 15 H lr Colophony 
yields the same products, but toluol in much smaller proportion. Resin of benzoin, 
freed from extraneous matter and benzoic acid, similarly treated, yielded toluol, 
xylol, naphthalin and methyl naphthalin. — Ibid., 1878, 269. 

Cubebin, C 10 H 10 O 3 , according to H. Weidel, is by nitric acid converted into 
oxalic and picric acids, while it yields, with nitrous acid, small yellow crystals of 
C 10 H 9 (N0 2 ) 3 , which are soluble in ether, alcohol, ammonia and potassa ; the 
latter solution having a purple color. If cubebin is dissolved in chloroform, and 
bromine addedj drop by drop, C 10 H 7 Br 3 O 2 separates, which is insoluble in the 
common solvents, and obtained in white crystals from boiling xylene. When fused 
with HKO, carbonic, acetic and protocatechuic acids are obtained ; the same 
products were yielded, under similar circumstances, by ferulic acid and eugenol, into 
which compounds, however, cubebin could not be converted — Wien. Akad. Ber. t 
lxxiv, p. 377. 

Medicinal Plants of Liberia. — E. M. Holmes describes the following : Ocymum 
<viride, Willd., nat. ord. Labiate, fever plant, is a shrub, three feet high, with ovate, 
lanceolate acuminate leaves, 1 to 2 inches long, crenate at the margin and abun- 
dantly dotted underneath with oil glands. It has a strong odor like lemon thyme, 
and possibly contains thymol. Dr. Roberts states that in Liberia it is the common 
remedy for fever of any kind, and that he has entirely substituted it for quinia in his 
practice, since it is much cheaper and equally as effectual. It is given in the form 
- of infusion in wineglassful doses until perspiration is freely induced, the patient being 
kept warm in bed. 

Aspilia latifolia, O. & H., nat ord. Composite, haemorrhage plant, is an herb i^to 
4 feet high, with the leaves opposite, very rough, ovate, acuminate, minutely serrate 
and very hard to the touch, being covered with short rigid hairs ; the flowers are 
yellow, with neuter ray florets and almost obsolete pappus. The fresh leaves and 
flowers are pounded together and applied to the wound, the haemorrhage stopping 
in a few minutes and the wound healing rapidly without other application. The 
decoction, in doses of ^ss 3 times a day, is used in haemorrhage from the lungs. 

Cassia occidentalis, Lin., nat. ord. Leguarinosoe, small senna. 1 The leaves are 
used in Liberia as a purgative. Larger leaves, probably of a Croton, are known 
there as large senna. 

Scopariadulcis, Lin., nat. ord. Scrophulariacea, pipybras. The plant is used for 
gravel and kidney complaints, in the form of infusion. 

Erythrophlceum guineense, Don. Sassybark is used only as a poison. (See "Amer. 
Jour. Phar.," 1877, p. 32.) — Pharm. Jour, and 'Trans., Jan. 19, p. 563. 

Detection of Adulterations of Butter.— All animal fats, with the exception of 
butter, consist of tristearin, tripalmitin and triolein, and therefore yield between 
95*23 and 95*73 per cent, fatty acids, while pure butter yields between 85*4 and 
86 2, occasionally 87*5 per cent. O. Hehner regards butter as adulterated if it yields 

iThe plant has been naturalized in the Southern United States. — Editor. 

258 Gleanings from the Foreign Journals. { Am M J a y u > r - l8 p 7 h 8 " m - 

over 88 per cent of fatty acids. The determination is made by fusing the butter 
and freeing it completely from water, salt and casein 5 about 4 grms. of it are then 
completely saponified by alkali in the presence of alcohol, the solution of soap is 
concentrated, the residue taken up in about 150 grms. of water, decomposed by 
muriatic acid and the fatty acid washed, dried and weighed. — Zeitschr. Anal. Chem., 
xvi, 145. 

Husson dissolves the butter in 10 times its weight of a mixture of equal parts of 
90 per cent, alcohol and ether at a temperature of 35 to 4o°C. (95 to io4°F.). The 
solution is set aside for 24 hours at a temperature of about i8 Q C. (64'4 Q F.) and the 
separated solid fat, of which pure butter yields not over 40 and not less than 35 per 
cent , is collected and weighed. If more than 40 per cent., the butter is adulterated 
with tallow or suet; if less than 35 per cent., lard, goose grease or similar fats are 
present. — Jour, de Phar. et de Chim., Sept., 1877, p. 100. 

Preparation of Indigo Carmine. — V. Joclet gives the following process : 1 kilo 
of powdered good Bengal indigo is gradually added to 5 kilos of strong sulphuric 
acid, heated in a water-bath to 45 to 5o°C. (113 or i22°F.) When dissolved, 
the liquid is poured into a suitable vessel, and for every kilo there is slowly 
added a solution of 3k. of clear crystallized sal soda? dissolved in 30k. of watpr. 
The mixture is occasionally stirred during 12 hours to facilitate the extrication of 
the carbonic acid gas, set aside for some time, and then passed through a woolen 
filter, the filtrate being collected. The contents of the filter are transferred to a 
vessel with an inner perforated bottom, upon which a woolen strainer is placed, and 
more indigo carmine solution obtained and withdrawn by means of a stopcock. 
Finally indigo purple remains upon the filter. — Chem. Cent. BL, No. 10, D. Fdrber- 
Z, 1877. 

Preparation of Phosphorous Acid. — I. Corne recommends to partly immerse 
phosphorus in distilled water, and after several days' exposure precipitate the phos- 
phoric acid from the liquid by the addition of ammonia, ammonium chloride and 
magnesium sulphate. The filtrate is heated to expel excess of ammonia, and then 
mixed with acetate of lead, whereby sulphate, chloride and phosphite of lead are 
precipitated. The precipitate is well washed and, at a moderate heat, digested with 
ammonium acetate, whereby the two former salts are dissolved, while the lead 
phosphite remains behind, and after washing is decomposed by sulphuretted hydro- 
gen. The solution is filtered, heated to expel H 2 S, and now contains pure phos- 
phorous acid. — Jour, de Phar. et de Chim., Feb., 1878, p. 100. 

Persulphuric acid, S 2 7 , is a new acid, which has been obtained under the influ- 
ence of electricity upon a mixture of dry sulphurous acid gas and oxygen 5 it crys- 
tallizes at a low temperature in transparent needles. It may also be obtained in the 
form of solution by carefully mixing chlorine water with concentrated sulphuric 
acid, but is not formed if the latter contains more than 2 equiv. of water. Under 
various conditions the new acid may be obtained from concentrated sulphuric acid, 
perhaps also by acting with the latter upon alkaline or metallic peroxides in the 
cold. — Ibid., March, 168. 

Am Ma y, r i8 P 78 arm '} Gleanings from the Foreign Journals. 259 

Santonin. — The fusing point of santonin is given by the French Codex at i36°C, 
by the German Pharmacopoeia at iyo^C. H. Leroy has examined commercial 
santonin and such prepared by himself, and found both kinds to have the fusing 
point i7o°.5C. (339°F.) — Rep. de Phar., March, 104. 

Hydrobromate of quinia has been used with success in whooping cough, the 
paroxysms diminishing in frequency and severity in about a week. Dr. Steinitz 
ordered o 3 to o 5 grms. of the salt to 100 grms. of syrup to be given in teaspoonful 
doses every two hours. — Mlg. Med. Cent. Zeitung. 

Tasteless tannate of quinia is obtained by A. Bernick by mixing 20 parts of 
sulphate of quinia with 600 parts of distilled water, having a temperature of 60 to 
70°C. (140 to i58°F.), and carefully adding dilute sulphuric acid, with the 
precaution to leave a few floccules of the quinia undissolved. To this is slowly 
added, and with continued stirring, a cold prepared solution of 60 parts of tannin 
in 600 parts of distilled water. The precipitate is collected upon a filter, washed with 
100 parts of distilled water, and dried upon bibulous paper at the ordinary temper- 
ature. The yield is 70 parts. The filtrate contains a little tannin, but not a trace of 
quinia. The process is a modification of the one adopted by the German Pharma- 
copoeia. — Phar. Zeitung, No. 30. 

Curarina, the poisonous alkaloid of curare, according to Sachs, has the compo- 
sition NC 36 H 35 , and is present in the form of sulphate. — Liebigs Annalen, vol. 191, 
p. 254, Feb., 1878. 

Apomorphia, of English manufacture, was found by Patrouillard to be a volumi- 
nous powder of grey color, intermixed with blackish granules. Under the magni- 
fying glass it appeared as glossy scales. It has a slightly bitter taste, is soluble in 
water, alcohol and ether, and is colored dark-red to violet by nitric acid, the color 
becoming gradually lighter and the mixture sticky, but thin again and brown on the 
addition of ammonia. Ferric chloride colored it rose-red, the color changing to 
violet and finally black. The aqueous solution yields with solution of iodine a red 
precipitate which dissolves on heating and colors the solution red, afterwards brown. 
The aqueous and alcoholic solutions of the alkaloid are at first colorless with a 
greyish tint, but on exposure to the air become greenish and finally emerald-green. 
— Zeitschr. Oester. Apoth. Ver., No. 9, from Jour de Phar. et de Chim., 1877. 

Adulterated lard has been met in the German market by E. Heintz, and was 
found to contain 22 per cent, of water. The lard was imported from two firms in 
Amsterdam and was branded " E. Milnor & Co., New York." The author believes 
that the adulteration was made in Holland. — Phar. Zeitung, No. 30. 

Application for Sore Nipples.— Dr. Haussmann, of Berlin, recommends a 5 
per cent, solution of carbolic acid, which is applied lukewarm by means of linen. — 

Administration of Creasote. — Tournier recommends cod liver oil for masking 
the caustic taste of creasote and facilitating its digestion. He gives it in capsules 
containing -02 grm. ( J grain) mixed with -50 grm. (7.] grains) of cod liver oil. To 
be given by the spoonful, this solution should be more dilute, so as to contain 1 

260 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. { Am ^-J 7 t rm ' 

grm. of creasote to 150 grms. of cod liver oil. He also recommends a wine of 
creasote made by dissolving 6 grms. of creasote in 125 grms. of alcohol, and adding 
400 grms. of simple syrup and sufficient Malaga wine to make 1 liter. This is 
weaker, but preferable to that made by Bouchard's formula, which contains in the 
same measure 135 grms. of creasote and 30 grms. of tincture of gentian, but no 
syrup. — Rep. de Phar., 1878, p. 98. 

Oil of rose geranium, Pelargonium rosatum, according to Jaillard, is freely solu- 
uble in 70 per cent, alcohol. Since the fixed and most volatile oils which may be used 
for adulteration are sparingly soluble in that liquid, they may be readily detected by 
mixing in a test tube 6 drops of the suspected oil with 5 cubic centimeters of 70 
per cent, alcohol. After agitation the solution must be complete. — Jour, de Phar. et 
de Chim.y March, 206. 

To Detect Cotton Fibre in Linen. — The fabric is well washed, dipped into an 
alcoholic solution of rosolic acid, known in commerce as aurin or yellow corallin, 
afterwards immersed in a concentrated aqueous solution of sodium carbonate and 
finally washed ; the linen fibre is dyed rose-red by this treatment, while cotton 
remains white. — Phar. Zeitung, No. 18 — Polyt. Notizbl. 

Impressions from Plants. — A piece of paper is saturated with oil, folded to 4. 
thicknesses and subjected to great pressure to facilitate the uniform absorption of 
the oil. The plant or leaf is now placed between the oiled paper, moderately 
pressed, then removed to clean paper and again pressed. This last paper is after- 
wards dusted over with finely powdered plumbago or, better still, with a mixture of 
rosin and plumbago 5 on warming the paper with the adhering latter admixture a 
permanent impression is obtained. — Apotheker. Zeit., No. 9 — Industriebl. 


Philadelphia, April 16, 1878. 
In the absence of the President, Mr. Wm. Mclntyre was called to the chair $ 
the minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. Prof. Maisch corrected a 
statement he had made at the last meeting in regard to the tincture of protochloride 
of iron, and said that it was made officinal in the German Pharmacopoeia of 1872* 
and prepared by dissolving 25 parts of the recently prepared protochloride of iron 
in 225 parts of diluted alcohol (sp. gr. 0-892), adding 1 part of pure hydrochloric 
acid, and filtering. 

Prof. Maisch presented from Dr. F. V. Greene, U. S. N., a specimen of oil of 
Tucuma (from the Astrocavyum tucuma), also a specimen of the oil of Batiputa 
(Gomphia parviflora, Mart.), both from Brazil. The former appears not to be 
employed medicinally, but the fruit is eaten by the Indians, and the fibres of the 
plant possess great tenacity. The latter is used in place of olive oil and medicinally 
as an embrocation in rheumatism and erysipelas. 

Ara M J a°y U , r i8 P 78r rm '} Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting, 261 

A paper by Mr. Alonzo Robbins upon Mate, the Ilex Paraguayensis, 1 was read 
and samples of the different commercial varieties of the drug were exhibited 
Remarks were made upon the uses of mate and of the North American yaupon tea 
(Ilex cassine, Lin.) The patient labor bestowed by Mr. Robbins upon his researches 
was commented upon, and on motion the thanks of the meeting were directed to be 
returned to the author. 

A member reminded the meeting that various committees of the College were 
now engaged in the preliminary revision of the Pharmacopoeia, and a typical formula 
was exhibited, showing the manner in which the formulas were proposed to be 
reported. The formula shown was for Confectio Opii. 

Take of Opium in very fine powder, . . .3 parts 

Aromatic Powder, . . . 37 " 

Clarified Honey, . . . 60 " 

100 parts 

Parts by weight in all cases are designated. 

The advantage of this manner of representing the formulas was evident, as the 
ratio of the active ingredient to the entire amount is seen at a glance, the quantity 
resulting being exactly 100 parts. 

A paper by Dr. F. V. Greene, U. S. N., was read on chamalirln, a bitter, neutral 
glucoside, isolated by the author from Chamazlirium luteum, Gray. Samples of the 
rhizome of this plant and of Aletris farinosa ,Lin., were exhibited, both of which are 
sometimes called blading star, a name more generally applied to Liatris squarrosa 
Willd. The extremely bitter new glucoside was likewise exhibited, and its beha- 
vior to various solvents and reagents illustrated. On motion, a vote of thanks was 
tendered to Dr. Greene for the interesting communication. 

A paper upon Emulsions, by Mr. L. von Cotzhausen, was then read ; the various 
processes described were illustrated by samples of the results of the different for- 
mulas, some of the emulsions being two months old. This paper elicited a great 
deal of comment, several members detailing their experience with the different 

An inquiry was made regarding the preparation of pills of salicylic acid by compres- 
sion, the inquirer relating the difficulty he experienced in freeing perfect pills from the 
press. Prof. Remington ascribed the difficulty to the dryness and non-adhesiveness of 
the material, and mentioned that the addition of a small quantity of powdered soap, 
exposure to a damp atmosphere by placing in a tight box which has been filled with 
steam from boiling water, rubbing the end of the plunger and lower die with paraf- 
fin, oftentimes would remedy the difficulty. 

Prof. R. called attention to a plan for preserving prescriptions which he had used 
with great satisfaction, and referred to a contrivance for the same purpose, designed 
by W. H. Naulty, Little Rock, Ark , which, however, he had not yet seen. He 
uses Mann's Binder j the prescriptions maybe either temporarily or permanently 

J The papers by Mr. Robbins and Mr. Cotzhausen will be published in the June number.— Editor. 

262 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { Am M°y^i878 arm 

bound, and the facility with which reference may be had in case of renewals amply 
repays the small expense and the use of the long brass-wire file, which always muti- 
lates and affords no protection from dirt, dust and flies. When permanently bound 
the prescriptions have the appearance of regularly bound volumes. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited a number of seeds, which when polished and mounted 
have been quite popular as " charms " ; they are known as " sea-beans," because 
they are washed ashore on the coast of Florida and other States on the Gulf of 
Mexico 5 they are yielded by a tree which is indigenous to the West Indian islands-. 
The seeds are known in Cuba as Ojo de buey, or bull's eye, but the "ox eyes" 
noticed by Grisebach are very different. A recent writer in the " Scientific Amer- 
ican " said that the sea-beans were the product of Cytisus arboreus, of Sloane ; but 
the plant noticed by De Candolle under this name is a native of Algeria. 1 

There being no further business, a motion to adjourn was carried. 

T. S. Wiegand, Registrar. 


Alumni Association of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. — At the 
monthly meeting, held March 7, Prof. Babcock gave an account of his recent visit 
to the Bahama Islands, and exhibited a large number of seeds and other vegetable 
products, among them the so-called sea-bean, or black-eyed Susan (see above). He 
showed a letter written two months previous with the red juice of the prickly pear y 
the fruit of the cochineal cactus, and said that it would be interesting to ascertain 
what relation, if any, existed between the coloring matter of the juice and that of 
the insect which feeds upon the branches of the cactus. He described the banyan, 
or wild Jig, with its numerous aerial roots growing from the branches and having 
the appearance of trunks ; also the vegetable sponge 1 , so-called from the entangled 
fibres of the fruit, which is shaped like a cucumber, the fibres being a poor substi- 
tute for the sponge 5 also the sand-box, being the fruit of a large tree 3 shaped like a 
tomato, and when ripe bursting with a loud report and throwing the seeds to quite 
a distance. He exhibited specimens and described the products of the arnatto 
shrub'', the convage bush' and many useful fruits growing there, among the latter one 
called archee, or arkee, containing a pulpy substance, eaten by the negroes, black 
kidney-shaped seeds and a peculiar juice, which is used as an indelible ink; it is 
yellow when first applied, but rapidly becomes darker and is very permanent. 

A vote of thanks was tendered to Prof. Babcock for his very interesting and 
instructing discourse. 

1 The so-called sea-bean undoubtedly comes from Mucuna altissima, D. C, the fruit and seed of 
which are described in Grisebach's " Flora of the West Indian Islands " as follows : " Legume 6 inches 
long, i*^ inch broad below its pointed top, callous on the margins, rusty, hirsute. Seeds orbicular com- 
pressed, 8 to 10 lines dlam., almost wholly surrounded by the rhaphe. Hab. Jamaica ! Wils. rare, in- 
mountain woods, Manchioneel (French islands ; Panama! Brazil.) — Editor. 

2 Luna. spec. 3 Hura crepitans, Lin. 4 Bixa orellana, Lin. 5 Mucuna pruriens : Lin. — Editor. 

Am M J ry, r 'i8^8 arm '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 263 

At the meeting held April 4, Mr. Sheppard introduced the subject of the growing 
habits of physicians to prescribe non-officinal and proprietary articles ; in the 
discussion it was urged that efficient and equally elegant preparations should be 
made officinal, or prepared by the pharmacists for their use. 

Mr. Sheppard gave a brief history of the patented articles cosmoline and vasaline, 
and similar preparations of the so-called neutral oils of the petroleum products. He 
stated that Mr. Chas. Toppan, of Wakefield, Mass , had at last succeeded in 
obtaining a similar article without infringing on any patent. It is made by throwing 
the heavy residue left in the still, the same material from which the articles men- 
tioned are made, in the form of spray, into a current of live steam ; the resulting 
product, which has but a very slight petroleum odor, is made by the Binghampton 
Oil Refining Co., of Binghampton, N. Y., and can be furnished for about 25 cents 
a pound. 

Mr. Sheppard also exhibited some specimens of pure <wax, one made by direct 
heat, the other by the aid of a water-bath, the latter being much lighter and hand- 
somer; 75 lbs. of comb honey had yielded only 1 lb. 9 oz. 

The subject of coating pills extemporaneously was introduced by Mr. Kelley ; the 
meeting did not favor a coating of tolu, as being insoluble in the fluids of the 

In some remarks on making dialyzed iron it was stated that Mr. Lowd uses as a 
dialyser a glass lamp shade, and Mr. Kelley an inverted glass funnel. 

National College of Pharmacy, Washington, D. C— At the annual meeting, 
held in April, the usual routine business was transacted and the following officers 
were elected for the ensuing year, viz.: 

President/John A. Milburn ; Vice-Presidents,J. S.Jones and J. R. Major ; Secre- 
tary, Chas. Becker (Georget'n); Treasurer, W. G. Duckett ; Additional Trustees, 
Messrs. Cromwell, CTDonnell, DeMoll, Scala, Thompson, Fill and Lewis. Messrs. 
Oscar Oldberg, W. S. Thompson and R. B. Ferguson were elected delegates to the 
Pharmaceutical Convention of 1880. 

The Georgia Pharmaceutical Association held its third annual meeting in 
Augusta on the 9th of April, President R. H. Land in the chair, and W. A. Taylor 
Secretary. Mr. H. P. Tarrant, on behalf of the druggists of Augusta, extended a 
hearty and cordial welcome, which was responded to by Mr. Th. Schumann, of 
Atlanta. A large number of members were elected, after which the reports of the 
officers and committees were read and disposed of, and the following officers elected 
for the ensuing year: 

President, O Butler, Savannah. Vice-Presidents — H. P. Tarrant, Augusta ; J. 
M. Madden, Brunswick; J. W. Jaynes, Rome. Treasurer, John Ingalls, Macon. 
Secretary, Walter A. Taylor, Atlanta. 

Resolutions of regret were passed relating to the death of Dr. J. A. Taylor, the 
first that has occurred since the organization of the society amongst its members. 

264 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. {^j^S/P** 

The afternoon session was taken up by the address of Mr. J. A. Polhill and by 
discussions on a pharmacy law, a draft of which had been submitted at the morning 
session. At the evening session, nominations were made for the proposed State 
Pharmaceutical Board, a number of papers were read, and a committee appointed 
to perfect arrangements for the twenty-sixth annual meeting of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association to be held at Atlanta in September next. Mr. Isidore 
Zacharias was chosen as the next orator, and Savannah as the next place of meet- 
ing, and after various resolutions of thanks the meeting adjourned. 

On the next day the members enjoyed an excursion up the great canal, and upon 
their return were made the recipients of an elegantly prepared dinner. 

Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. — The commencement exercises were held at 
College Hall on Thursday evening, March 21st, when the President, Mr. George 
Eger, conferred degrees on the following gentlemen : 

Henry Bertrams, Cincinnati ; Alex. Colvard, Illinois ; L. Dressel, Cincinnati 5 
M. Gleick, Cincinnati; Frederick A. Grossman, Ohio; Henry Heister, Cincinnati; 
N. G. Hildreth, Ohio; Aug. J. Honing, Cincinnati; Jno. H. Koenig, Kentucky; 
Jno. F. Kutchbauch, Ohio; Chas. A. Mohr, Alabama; Leo S. Schreck, Mexico. 

Addresses were delivered by Prof. John A. Murphy, M.D , of the Miami Medi- 
cal College, and by Prof. E. S. Wayne. 

The prizes were then awarded as follows : for pharmacy, by Prof. Fennel, a pre- 
scription desk balance, to N. G. Hildreth ; the Alumni medal for general profi- 
ciency, and Prof. Wayne's gold medal for proficiency in botany and materia medica, 
to Chas. A. Mohr; the chemistry prize, a complete set of blow-pipe apparatus, by 
Prof. Judge, to Leo S. Schreck. 

A life-size portrait, in oil, of Prof. Wayne was presented to the College by Mr. 
Hofling, on behalf of the graduating class. Mr. F. A. Grossman then read the 
valedictory, which concluded the exercises. 

The Alumni Association of the Cincinnati College of Pharmacy held their 
annual meeting on Wednesday, March 20th, 1878. After the new members from 
the graduating class had been received into the association, the following officers 
were elected for the ensuing year: 

President, Louis Heister. Vice-Presidents — August Hofling, Herman Wilfert. 
Recording Secretary, Theodore Bange. Corresponding Secretary, Albert Wetter- 
stroem. Treasurer, Robert M. Kuerze. Executive Board, for one year — G. A. 
Fieber, M. Gleick, Theo. Pellens, C. M. Greve ; for two years — E. A. Schmidt) 
E. T. Harley. Delegates to Pharmaceutical Association — Jos. H. Feemster, C. P. 
Rendigs, Louis Schwab, R. M. Kuerze, C. M. Greve. 

The association will hereafter meet on the first Tuesday of every third month, 
for the discussion of scientific subjects relating to pharmacy and its collateral 
branches. On Thursday evening, March 21st, after commencement exercises, the 
Alumni gave a reception at the Highland House in honor of the graduating class, 
in which dancing and other amusements were indulged in. 

Am M?y^f 7 8 arm '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 265 

St. Louis College of Pharmacy. — The Twelfth Annual Commencement of the 
St. Louis College of Pharmacy, and the Third Annual Reception of the Alumni 
Association, took place on Monday evening, March 18, at Germania Club Hall. 
The President, Charles Bang, conferred the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy on the 
following gentlemen : John F. Barker, California ; Chas. £. Smith, Indiana ,• David 
J. Holfbauer, Missouri ; A. G. Behrens, G. E. Bcehlan, Chas. T. Gasewisch, David 
S. Green, Wm. P. Gulick, Peter Hoffmann, G. Kern, G. R. Mullhal, J. I. Mur- 
ray, A. R. Mynders and Wm. S. Ondyn, all of St. Louis. 

The Valedictory Address on the part of the Faculty was delivered by Professor 
Otto A. Wall and on the part of the class by Chas. E. Smith. At the Alumni 
Reception, President Francis Hemm delivered the address of welcome and awarded 
the Certificates of Membership. The Alumni Prize, a silver medal, was awarded 
to Mr. D. F. Gasewisch, the most proficient in all the branches taught. An 
address by Wm. C. Balm closed this part of the exercises and was followed by a 
grand hop, which concluded the entertainment. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — At the Pharmaceutical Meeting of 
March 6, Mr. Harold Senier read a paper on croton oil. Referring to the observa- 
tions of Pereira, Redwood and Warington (see "Am. Jour. Phar.," 1850, p. 218, 
and 1865, p. 191), the author confirms the statement that croton oil becomes more 
soluble in alcohol by age j absolute alcohol and spirit of sp. gr. '838 dissolved 20 
per cent, of freshly-expressed oil, 40 per cent, when three months old, 55 per cent, 
when three years, and 60 per cent, when over three years old. The portion insolu- 
ble in alcohol, when applied to the skin, produced no effect whatever, but the solu- 
ble portion, after the evaporation of the alcohol, was exceedingly active. The 
iatter, at 32°F., has the consistence of butter, at 50 is too viscid to flow, at 6o° 
has the sp. gr. '987, is reddish-brown with a slight fluorescence, the characteristic 
odor and of turbid appearance from suspended acicular crystals, which are soluble 
on slightly warming the oil. Heated to 46o°F. by itself, and to 36o°F. with hydro- 
chloric acid, or strong potassa solution, the oil does not appear to lose any of its 

Prof. Redwood referred to his experiments, made about 30 years ago, when he 
found all English-pressed croton oils to be perfectly soluble in an equal bulk of 
absolute alcohol, the solution separating, however, when cooled to between 30 and 
4o°F. At that time Dr. Paul, while engaged in the process of grinding the seeds, 
suddenly became insensible, the effects upon ,him being narcotic in character, and 
not accompanied by purging and irritation. 

Prof. Bentley alluded to the possibility that both a vesicating and a purgative prin- 
ciple would be found in croton oil ; the former was called crotonol by Schlippe, but 
has not been obtained by any other chemist 5 the latter has never been isolated, and 
is in some degree connected with the purgative principle of castor oil, which is said 
to be an acrid resinous substance, but has likewise not been isolated. 

Mr. Umney stated that at present all the croton oil of Great Britain was pressed 
by one firm only. 

266 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, { Am M°y*\w* rm ' 

Mr. Gerrard said that the croton oil now in use at the University College Hospital 
had been there five years, and, from the fact that physicians continued to prescribe 
the minim dose, he thought it might be inferred that age did not increase the activity 
of the oil. Mr. Holmes, however, thought that if the increase of the soluble portion 
was due to the production of resinified oil, it would necessarily follow that the oil 
would be more purgative. 

Mr. E. M. Holmes read a paper on Duboisia Myoporoides, R. Br., a shrub or small 
tree, which is a native of Eastern Australia, New Caledonia and New Guinea. Its 
leaves are alternate, shortly stalked, quite smooth and entire, lanceolate, 3 to 4 inches 
long and about an inch broad in the middle. It has very small pale lilac or white 
flowers, arranged in terminal panicled cymes, and produces a small succulent berry- 
like fruit. Its didynamous stamens make it related to the scrophulariaceae, but on 
account of its regular coralla it is now placed in the solanaceae. The extract of the 
leaves closely resembles atropia in its action ; the active principle has not been isolated, 
but the aqueous extract has been used in Sydney and Brisbane, and found to be more 
prompt and energetic than atropia, and certainly very much more so than the strongest 
extract of belladonna. 

At the pharmaceutical meeting held April 3, Mr. John Williams read a paper on 
salicylic acid. The author had prepared this acid from oil of wintergreen, and 
exhibited samples of it, the neutral portion of the oil and the methylic alcohol 
separated from the acid. In compaiing this natural salicylic acid with that arti- 
ficially made, considerable differences were observed; one drachm of the former was 
found to require three ounces of boiling water to effect complete solution, the latter 
two or even only one and a half ounces. On adding to these concentrated solutions 
one-fifth alcohol and allowing to cool, the natural acid will crystallize in separate, 
distinct crystals, while the artificial will form a network of fine needles, or the lower 
grades a woolly-looking mass. The artificial salicylic acid was dissolved in boiling 
water, and neutralized by carbonate of calcium ; on cooling, salicylate of calcium is 
deposited, and after several recrystallizations, when decomposed by hydrochloric 
acid and recrystallized from weak alcohol, yields salicylic acid absolutely identical 
with the natural acid. The uncrystallizable mother-liquor from the calcium salicy- 
late, on being decomposed by hydrochloric acid, yields silvery plates of an acid quite 
distinct from salicylic acid, and more soluble in hot and cold water than the latter, 
also more than paraoxybenzoic acid. Its solution with perchloride of iron does 
not give a yellow precipitate, characteristic of the last-named, but gives the so-called 
characteristic reaction of salicylic acid, probably due to not being entirely free from 
it. The quantity of this new acid, for which the name of cresyl-salicylic acid is for 
the present proposed, is estimated at from 15 to 25 per cent, of the artificial acid. 
The author will continue his investigations. 

Mr. Plowman stated that the artificial salicylic acid given in doses of 20 grains 
every two or three hours had frequently caused delirium, but although it sometimes 
appeared to derange the system, at the same time it had the required effect of low- 
ering the general temperature. 

Mr. E. M. Holmes read a paper on Grindelia robusta. Referring to the observa- 

Am May"'i8 7 h 8 arm "} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 267 

tion of Prof. Maisch (February number, p. 87), and after examining the drug as 
imported into Great Britain, he concludes that it is not G. robusta, Nutt., but G* 
squarrosa, Dunal. The following characters are given for roughly distinguishing 
the species for pharmaceutical purposes : G. squarrosa — leaves narrowly lanceolate, 
tapering downwards to a small cordate base so that the upper portion of the leaf is 
broadest; scales of the involucre subulate and strongly curled backwards. G. robusta 
— leaves oblong, broadest at base, obtuse, and nearly twice the width of the preced- 
ing; scales of the involucre similar but less squarrose. G. integrifolia — leaves entire 
but very sparingly serrated, more tapering at apex and longer than the preceding. 
G. inuloides — leaves nearly as broad as those of robusta, oblong, wider at the base, 
and furnished with short closely set more obtuse teeth ; the flower heads almost 
immersed in large leafy bracts. G. glutinosa — leaves lanceolate, tapering to the base 
broader than the first ; scales of the involucre linear, short-pointed and erect. G. 
rubricaulis (G. hirsutula) — stem purplish, involucre hairy, upper leaves larger at the 
base, lower leaves tapering towards the stem. 

Mr. A. W. Gerrard read a paper on the alkaloid and active principle of Duboisia 
myoporoides. It was prepared by diffusing the aqueous extract in water, precipitat- 
ing with alcohol, evaporating the filtrate, diluting with water, adding ammonia and 
agitating with chloroform. The alkaloid is a yellow viscous mass, freely soluble in 
alcohol, chloroform, ether, benzol and carbon bisulphide, fairly soluble in water and 
imparting to it a decided alkaline reaction. It was not obtained crystalline, and of 
its salts only the sulphate and hyrobromate crystallized in needles. It is very sim- 
ilar in its reactions to atropia, but differs from it in being more soluble in water, to 
require more acid for neutralizing, and to yield, when boiled with baryta, an unplea* 
sant odor, while atropia by the same treatment gives off a pleasant odor reminding 
of gaultheria. With strong sulphuric acid in the cold, atropia remains unaffected, 
but on heating the mixture it darkens, evolving a pleasant aromatic odor, which the 
addition of potassium bichromate intensifies and at the same time yields a green 
precipitate of chromium oxide and vapors of an acid reaction, Duboisia alkaloid 
gives with sulphuric acid in the cold a reddish-brown color and when heated an 
odor unpleasant and suggestive of butyric acid ; upon the addition of potassium 
bichromate, no reduction to the oxide was apparent, but the evolved vapor was of 
acid reaction. In its physiological action, the alkaloid was found to entirely agree 
with atropia. 

Dr. Paul confirmed the statements as to the amorphous condition of most of the 
compounds. A note had been received from Mr. A. Petit, of Paris, giving similar 
results and stating that the aqueous solutions of the alkaloid were fluorescent and 
dichroic, being yellow by transmitted and blueish green by reflected light 

Dr. Bancroft, of Brisbane, who discovered the properties of duboisia, stated that 
the watery extract was equal, weight for weight, to atropia, and the physiological 
action of the two alkaloids would probably not be found identical. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Paris.— At the meeting of February 6, a note by 
Mr. Carles was read, communicating the analysis of citron juice, which resulted as 
follows : free citric (and malic) acid 577, supercitrates of potassium -96, of calcium, 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( May, 1878. 

'88 and of iron "ii, glucose 2-45, gummy and albuminoid matters '68, phosphates 
and other salts "06 and water 89 09. 

Mr. Stan. Martin presented a branch of Satia tabernamontana, nat. ord. 
apocynaceae, a shrub growing in rocky places, near the Senegal, where its root is 
used in elephantiasis. 

Mr. Plauchud communicated the results of his observations in relation to the 
decolori'z.ation of solution of litmus ; it is caused by the presence of organized and 
living germs, which, while developing, do not seem to act alike energetically. 

Mr. Yvon reported on the application of glycerin in the preparation of certain 
oleo-stearates (like mercury), which are decomposed by contact with water. 

At the March meeting a note by Mr. Ch. Tanret was read, in which he recom- 
mends, when testing for small quantities of glucose in urine y to precipitate the latter 
first with nitrate of mercury, and, without filtering, to add an excess of caustic soda 
before testing with Fehling , s solution 5 if inosite be present a slight green precipitate 
takes place, but a decided precipitate of cuprous oxyde in the presence of but little 
glucose. Some albuminous matter in the urine interferes with the prompt action of 
Fehling's test liquid. 

Mr. Yvon described the preparation of iodide of ethyl [hydriodic ether). He 
recommends the process of Personne and uses a tubulated retort, which is placed in 
a sand bath and has the neck connected with a receiver, which is plunged in cold 
water. 5 grams of phosphorus and 60 grams of alcohol are introduced into the 
retort, 20 grams of iodine are now added, and after a few minutes 20 grams more. 
Heat is carefully applied, care being taken that the whole of the liquid is uniformly 
heated, which is facilitated by the introduction of some pieces of platinum. With 
this precaution the liquid boils slowly, without concussions, and distils completely. 
The distillate may be colorless or colored by iodine ; it is agitated with an aqueous 
solution of an alkaline carbonate, decanted, rectified and dried by a second distilla- 
tion over calcium chloride. This last operation is indispensable for the preservation 
of the ether. To prevent the presence of free iodine, some silver foil is placed into 
the ether. 


The present number of the "Journal" opens with an exhaustive article by Dr. 
Squibb on a subject of great importance to the pharmacist. Notwithstanding its 
length, it was deemed but just to the author, as well as to the readers, that it should 
appear undivided. Although this number has, like the preceding one, been 
increased from 48 to 64 pages, we have been compelled to reserve for the June 
number several original essays, letters and translations, and would embrace this 
occasion to thank our contributors and ask their indulgence at the delay of 

Naval Apothecaries.— The following letter explains itself: 

To the Editor of the fournal of Pharmacy : — I desire to call the attention of pharmacists to a bill 
row before Congress, giving the rank of " Warrant Officers " to the apothecaries of the navy. Should 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ") 
May, 1878, f 

Reviews, etc. 


it become a law, the office of a naval apothecary will become very desirable, both in pay and position 
and the office should be filled by thoroughly competent men. The duties involve clerical as well as 
pharmaceautical work, and some knowledge of dentistry and minor surgery. 

This would be a splendid field for " Graduates in Pharmacy," and no one who is not a graduate, or 
who cannot pass as thorough a pharmaceutical examination, should be admitted to the corps. Now is 
the time for the Colleges of Pharmacy and the American Pharmaceutical Association to take action in 
this matter; memorialize the Secretary and Surgeon-General of the Navy in favor of the Graduate of 
Pharmacy, request a rigid pharmaceutical examination for apothecaries, etc., etc The present 
incumbents, as a rule, are very badly educated, poor pharmacists, having only " shop knowledge," and 
many are intemperate and ignorant of pharmacy. Let all have a fair chance before an examining 
board, and there is little doubt the " graduates " would fill the 60 or 80 appointments that will have to be 
made under the law. 

I trust, Mr. Editor, you will keep this subject before the pharmacists of the country until some 
decided action is taken thereon. As the appointments will be for life, with retiring pay and pensions in 
case of disability, it is all-important that no time be lost in looking after this matter. Medicus. 


Chemical Experimentation , being a hand-book of lecture experiments in Inorganic 
Chemistry, systematically arranged for the use of lecturers and teachers in chem- 
istry, as well as for students in Normal Schools and Colleges and for private study, 
By Samuel P. Sadtler, A.M., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Chemistry in the 
University of Pennsylvania. Louisville: John P. Morton & Co. 8vo, pp.225. 

The work before us supplies a want which, we think, has been felt by most 
teachers of chemistry; it contains descriptions of a very large number of experi- 
ments, suited for the lecture room, and illustrating chemical reactions and the phy- 
sical properties of the elements and their inorganic compounds. The descriptions 
are accurate and full, but free from prolixity, and can readily be followed by those 
having a general knowledge of chemical manipulations, even if not experienced in 
chemical experimentation; and this use is greatly facilitated by 139 excellent cuts, 
illustrating with exactness and precision the arrangement of the requisite apparatus, 
Moreover, the number of experiments described is so large that the teacher will 
find the book a useful aid for selecting such as may require either simple or more 
complicated apparatus. The author may therefore very properly express the hope 
that by its use "the teaching of chemistry might be sufficiently facilitated as to 
allow its introduction as a branch of study in many schools, where as yet it has been 
excluded or very greatly slighted." For the same reasons it will also be welcomed 
by those students who desire to repeat the experiments seen in the lecture room or 
to vary them with the aid of simpler apparatus. 

The author has carefully abstained from the discussion of theoretical questions, 
the experiments being regarded as practical demonstration of facts; the work may 
therefore be used as a supplement to any good text-book on chemistry. 

In recommending the book to teachers and to students in chemistry, we do so 
from the belief in its intrinsic worth, and when we state that its typographical exe- 
cution is excellent, we regard this fact as a very acceptable addition to the other 

270 Reviews, etc. { Am dZ**^ 

Fourteenth Annual Report of the Alumni Association, with the exercises of the fifty- 
seventh commencement of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. Philadelphia, 
1878. 8vo, pp. 63. 

The title-page of this pamphlet makes the erroneous statement that the com- 
mencement of March last was the yor^-seventh of this College, while in point of 
fact lectures have been delivered annually without interruption since 1821, so that 
the course last closed was the ^/f/^-seventh held in that institution. The introduc- 
tory lecture at the opening and the valedictory delivered at the close of that course, 
the annual address to the alumni by Dr. A. W. Miller, an account of the transac- 
tions at the reception tendered to the last graduating class, minutes of the annual 
meeting and of the executive board, together with office]•s , reports and a list of the 
graduating class, comprise the contents of this pamphlet, which the alumni of the 
college may obtain by addressing Wallace Procter, 900 Lombard street, vice presi- 
dent of the association. 

Proceedings of the Western Wholesale Drug Association, in convention at Louisville, 
Ky., Feb. 13 and 14, 1878. Cincinnati: Printed at the Aldine Printing Works. 
Pp. 45. 

This association was organized at Indianapolis in 1876 (see "Am. Jour. Phar.," 
1876, p. 233). Its objects, as expressed in the preamble to the constitution, are — 
"to create a permanent social feeling between the wholesale druggists of the West 
— to obliterate the feeling of distrust and jealousy that seems to exist — to correct 
excessive and unmercantile competition — to remove, by concert of action, all evils 
and customs that are against good policy and sound business principles — to establish 
rules and regulations that all differences and grievances may be fairly and equitably 
adjusted." The objects, it must be admitted, if faithfully carried out, would 
redound likewise to the benefit of the retail trade ; and after carefully reading the 
proceedings we must say that the decided stand taken in the reports presented 
against inferior quality of goods, and in favor of honorable dealing, merits the support 
of the intelligent pharmacist, as it concerns likewise the wholesale trade. We need 
not leave the large cities to notice the ruinous competition in the sale of well- 
known articles, aiming, like the higgler on the street, at catching customers by exces- 
sively low prices for such articles, and charging extortionate rates for others 
the value of which cannot be judged by the purchaser. Credit in business, adulter- 
ation of drugs, some of the follies of the Wood tariff bill now before Congress, 
received due attention, and the convention finally adjourned to meet at Chicago next 
year on the second Wednesday of November. 

The officers for the present year are : President, A. Peter, Louisville ; Vice Presi- 
dents, C. F. G. Meyer, St. Louis; Jas. S. Burdsal, Cincinnati; Geo. A. Kelly, 
Pittsburg; D. R. Noyes, St. Paul, and Wm. Letterer, Nashville; Treasurer, S. M. 
Strong, Cleveland; Secretary, J. W. Plummer, Chicago. There was also appointed 
a board of control, and committees on price lists and circulars, on credits, on com- 
mercial travelers, on legislation, drug market, membership, fire insurance, proprie- 
tary goods and on adulteration of drugs. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
M*y, 1878 

Reviews, etc. 


The Multum in Par<vo Reference and Dose Book. By C. H Leonard, M.A., M.D. 
Third edition. Detroit, 1878. i6mo, pp. 100. Price, bound, 75 cts. 

The little book may be conveniently carried in the vest pocket and contains a 
good deal of information of value to the physician. We were rather surprised to 
find it contain a list of nearly a hundred elixirs and ever so many pills, evidently 
copied from the price lists of manufacturers. Such space, in our opinion, might 
have been occupied with more useful and more important information. 

Sur la Composition des Cloportes. Par Dr. C. Mehu. Paris, 1878. 
On the composition of hoglice (woodlice). 

Two species, Oniscus asellus and O. armadilla y Lin., are still recognized in the 
French Pharmacopoeia, and to some extent employed by the people mainly on 
account of their diuretic properties. The second species is found in commerce 5 
after drying completely it was found to contain 44*46 per cent, of organic com- 
pounds, and of the remaining inorganic constituents 2-26 per cent, were soluble and 
33*28 insoluble in water. The first species, dried, left 34*1 per cent, mineral residue 
on incineration. The author very properly argues in favor of dismissing these little 
crustaceae from the Pharmacopoeia. 

Chemische Beitrdge zur Pomologie, mit Berucksichtigung der liulandischen Obstcultur. 

Von Dr. G. Dragendorff. Dorpat, 1878. 8vo, pp. 102. 
Chemical contributions to pomology, with reference to the fruit culture of Livland. 

This is a very creditable work, undertaken with the view of promoting the 
culture of apples in the western part of Russia. 

Botanischer Congress (Abtheilung Chinarinden) und Ausstellung pharmaceutisch 
wichtiger Pflanzenproducte zu Amsterdam, im April, 1877. Von Prof. Ed. 
Schaer in Zurich. Pp. 21. 

Botanical Congress (section cinchonabarks) and exhibition of pharmaceutically 
important vegetable products at Amsterdam, April, 1877. 

We regret that we cannot make room for a translation of this interesting essay. 
A portion of the exhibit of cinchonas, we judge, was the same that had been at the 
Centennial Exposition and of which we have given an account before ("Am. Jour. 
Phar.," 1876, p. 323). 

Die Deutsch-Amerikanische Geuuerbe- und Industrie-Zeitung : Fortschritt der Zeit. 
The German-American Industrial Gazette : Progress of the Age. R. A. Koss, 

editor. W. W. Coleman, publisher. New York and Milwaukee. Monthly. 

Price, 75 cents per year. 

About a year ago the two German periodicals, the Gazette and Progress of the 
Age, were consolidated, and since that time have appeared under the united title 
given above. We believe that this is the only paper covering the field of industrial 
sciences, inventions and discoveries, which is published in the United States in the 
German language ; and we notice that preparations are being made to issue it 
semi-monthly after a few months. 

272 Reviews, etc. — Obituary. { Am 'A^ m 

We acknowledge the receipt of the following investigations from the laboratory 
of the Pharmaceutical Institute at Dorpat : 

Werthbeslimmung des Wismuths und des kauflichen Magisterium Bismuthi. Von Jul. 

Valuation of bismuth and its commercial subnitrate. 

Beitrdge zur Ermittelung einiger Hopfensurrogate im Biere. Von Wilh. Meyke. 
On the recognition of some substitutes for hops in beer. 

Khabarber Analysen. Von Dragendorff. 
Analysis of rhubarb. 

Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Mutterkorn-Alkaloide. Von Theod. Blumberg. 
On the alkaloids of ergot. 

We likewise acknowledge the receipt of the following pamphlets : 
Descriptive and Statistical History of Tobacco. By E. H Gilmore. Washington, 
D. C, 1878. Price, 25 cts. 

Annual Review of the Drug Trade of Neiv York for the year 1877. Prepared by 
D. C. Robbins. New York, 1878. 

Bathing, Cupping, Electricity, Massage, etc. By David Prince, M.D. Reprint from 
the "American Practitioner," Feb., 1878. 

Proceedings of the Louisiana State Medical Association, etc. New Orleans, 1878. 
This State Association was organized at New Orleans in January last. 

Medicinal Plants indigenous in Michigan. By A. B. Lyons, M.D. Pp. 25. 
The paper was read before the Detroit Academy of Medicine. 


Daniel Henchman, probably the oldest apothecary in the United States, died in 
his native city, Boston, April 13, at the advanced age of 88 years. Born in 1790, 
he purchased the lot where he carried on business in 18 14, and erected a store and 
dwelling house, which is still standing. The lower floor was originally divided into 
two stores, one of which was occupied by Mr. Henchman, and enlarged by the 
addition of the other store when this was vacated by its first tenant. In this place 
the deceased carried on the drug and apothecary business for 63 years, and the store 
even to this day presents an ancient appearance. In it may be seen long rows of 
old-fashioned plain-blown glass jars, capped with tin covers, painted green and 
ornamented with quaint and elaborate labels, consisting of grotesque figures, scroll- 
work and letters in gilt and yellow. Several shelves are filled with earthen jars of 
various shapes, and decorated after the style known to pottery dealers as " flowing 
blue." The only modern embellishment was a small Tuft's soda fountain. 

The deceased was one of the early presidents of the Massachusetts College of 
Pharmacy, and during his life-time held many offices of honor and trust, the duties 
of which he discharged with that faithfulness and strict integrity which marked all 
his acts, public and private. We well remember the meeting of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association of 1865, when we met the deceased for the first time, 
and the peculiar fascination of listening to his vivid descriptions of customs and 
occurrences of half a century ago. Requiescat ! 



JUNE, 1878. 


By Alonzo Robbins, Ph.G. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, April 16, 1878. 

Ilex Paraguayensis, Yerba Mate, or Paraguay Tea, is a small tree 
belonging to the family of the Celastrineae. Under the name of mate 
the prepared leaves of this tree have been employed as a beverage in 
South America from the earliest period, and in some portions of that 
country even now, to the almost entire exclusion of China tea. Mate 
having attracted considerable attention in Europe within the last few 
years, the writer embraced the opportunity afforded by the Centennial 
Exhibition to obtain authentic specimens, which were exhibited by the 
government of the Argentine Republic, and furnished by the provin- 
cial commission and private individuals of the province of Corrientes 
and the adjoining territory of the Missions in that republic. Although 
mate is but little known and of comparatively small importance in this 
country, its immense production and use in South America renders it 
deserving of greater attention than has been hitherto given to it. As 
several papers more particularly referring to its general use and com- 
mercial importance have been recently published, the direction of this 
paper will be principally confined to its proximate composition and the 
difference therein which the several samples may show. 

According to Dr. Mantegazza, mate is prepared as follows : The 
entire trees are cut down, and the small branches and shoots are taken 
with the leaves and placed in the tatacua, a plot of earth about six feet 
square, surrounded by a fire, where the plant undergoes its first roast- 
ing. From thence it is taken to the barbacua, which is a grating sup- 
ported by a strong arch, underneath which burns a large fire ; here it 
is submitted to a particular torrefaction, determined by experience, 
which develops the aromatic principle. Then it is reduced to a coarse 
powder in mortars formed of pits dug in the earth and well rammed. 



Mate, or Paraguay Tea. 

Am. Jour Pharm. 
June, 1878. 

It is next put into fresh bullock skins, well pressed, and placed in the 
sun to dry. Other writers have given accounts of its preparation differ- 
ing in the minor points, but all agreeing in the main. 

Flowering branch and gourd infusion pot. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1878. 

Mate, or Paraguay Tea. 


The following is a description of the samples and their history so 
far as it was possible to ascertain it : 

No. 1. Exhibited by M. Vera; packed in bag made of wolf skin, 
weight about 4 kilos, color bright greenish-yellow, odor not as aromatic 
as some of the other samples, almost entirely free of twigs, and appears 
to have been prepared from very young leaves dried with little if any 
artificial heat. 

No. 2. Exhibited by T. B. Appleyard ; size of package and general 
appearance and character of this sample very much like No. 1. 

No. 3. Exhibited by I. Arrillaga ; weight about 8 kilos, packed in 
the entire skin of a tapir ; this mate was rather coarse, containing many 
twigs, some of which were charred slightly ; color a dull brownish- 
green, odor very aromatic and balsamic. This sample is believed to 
have been prepared by the Guarani Indians of the northern part of the 

No. 4. Exhibited by the Provincial Commission ; weight 15 kilos, 
packed in the entire skin of a tapir, general appearance and character 
of this sample like No. 3. 

No. 5. Exhibited by the Provincial Commission ; weight 10 kilos, 
packed in the entire skin of an animal. This sample was very unevenly 
powdered, and much of it quite coarse ; it also contained a large pro- 
portion of twigs somewhat charred, and much sand ; in color it resem- 
bled No. 4 ; the odor was also similar to that sample, but much weaker ; 
its general appearance indicated the most primitive mode of prepara- 
tion. This sample was from the department of Itaty on the Parana. 

No. 6. Exhibited by the Provincial Commission ; packed in small 
skin bag, weighing 3 kilos. This mate was coarsely powdered, very 
dark in color, odor quite aromatic and balsamic, and contained many 
fruits and twigs. It was also from Itatv. 

No. 7. Exhibited by the Provincial Commission ; packed in skin 
bag, weighing 65 kilos. This mate was finely powdered, of a bright 
color, aromatic odor, and contained only a small proportion of twigs. 
This sample was from the northern part of the territory of the Mis- 
sions, which furnishes the most celebrated mate. This territory is 
formed by that part of the extinct empire of the Jesuits, which was 
inherited by the Argentine Republic. Among the forest trees which 
grow admirably in the Missions that which produces the Yerba Mate' 
merits a special mention. Near the river Uruguay it forms extensive 


Mate, or Paraguay Tea. 

Am. Jour. Pharm, 
June, 1878. 

forests, which are the source of a most important industry, whose prin- 
cipal centre is in the Villa de San Xavier. 

The appearance and character of the samples indicate that there are 
at least three sorts of powdered mate. First, that made from the 
young leaves 3 samples Nos. 1 and 2 appear to be of this sort. Second, 
that prepared by the original primitive method of the natives, and which 
exceeds both of the other kinds in aromatic properties ; of this sort 
Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6 appear to be samples. Third, that prepared with 
more care and with the aid of modern furnaces for its torrefaction, and 
mills for its pulverization ; of this sort No. 7 appears to be a sample. 

The following experiments were all performed with the utmost care, 
the method of examination adopted was uniformly applied to all the 
samples, the air-dried mate was in each case powdered and kept in a 
well stoppered bottle, to be drawn from as required. The results 
shown by the first table were obtained by subjecting 10 grams of mate 
to the separate action of each of the different solvents and processes 
as there shown. The results shown by the second and third tables 
were obtained by treating 10 grams of mate successively with the sol- 
vents in the order there given, the difference being that in the second 
table the mate is last treated with boiling water, and in the third table 
that solvent is the first to which it is subjected. 



10 grams of Mate treated separately 


No. 1. 

No. 2. 

No. 3. 

No. 4. 

No. 5 

No. 6. 

No. 7. 

Boiling water, 








Petroleum benzin, 





o* 36 



Chloroform, .... 








Alcohol, sp. gr. '822, . 

3 °5 




3 01 



Alcohol, sp. gr. "941, 




3- 2 3 


3*3 3 


Tannin, .... 

i - 55 


i - 6o 


1 28 


1 30 

Caffeina, .... 



o - o6 



01 6 


Total ash, .... 








Ash soluble in water, 





o - i 2 


o- l 8 

Ash insoluble in water, 








Ash soluble in HC1, 








Sand, ..... 

O'l 1 







Moisture in air-dry Mate, 








Am. Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1878 

Mate, or Paraguay Tea. 


10 grams of Mate successively 
treated, with. 


No. 1. 

No. 2. 

No. 3. 

No. 4. 

No. 5. 

No. 6. 

No. 7. 

Petroleum benzin, . 
















Alcohol, sp. gr/-822, 

r '57 





I '90 


Alcohol, sp. gr. '941, . 








Boiling water, 

















to grams of Mate successively 


treated with 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 

No, 3. 

No. 4. 

No. 5. 

No. 6. 

No. 7. 

Boiling water, 






3 31 


Petroleum Benzin, 





o - 4o 



Chloroform, .... 








Alcohol, sp. gr. -822, . 







o # 4i 

Alcohol, sp. gr. '941, 
















Treatment with Boiling Water, Table No. I. — 10 grams of pow- 
dered mate' were boiled half an hour with 100 cc. of water, the decoc- 
tion poured off", and the process repeated four times with the same 
quantity of water ; the decoctions were mixed, filtered, and evaporated 
on a water-bath to dryness. The extract obtained was of a brown 
color in mass, yellow in powder, of slight odor and mild bitter taste. 
It contained caffeina, tannin, gum, starch and pectin. 

The extract yielded to boiling water by 10 grams of mate after treat- 
ment as in Table No. II, was, when powdered, of the color of unburnt 
umber, inodorous and tasteless ; it consisted principally of starch and 

Treatment with Petroleum Benzin, Table No. I. — 10 grams of pow- 


Mate, or Paraguay Tea. 

f A.m. Jour. Pharm 
I June, 1878. 

dered mate were exhausted by percolation with petroleum benzin, and 
the benzin allowed to evaporate spontaneously ; the result was a thick 
greenish black oily extract; the exhausted mate after drying was free 
of the benzin odor, and retained but little of its own natural odor ; 
the extract after a long time was not entirely free of the odor of the 
benzin. This extract was found to contain chlorophyl, resin, wax and 
fatty matter, and probably a small quantity of volatile oil, though none 
could be separated ; it contained no tannin or caffeina. 

After the preparation of a fluid extract of mate by percolation with, 
alcohol, sp. grav. '941, the residue was dried and 1,000 grams of it 
exhausted by percolation with petroleum benzin ; upon spontaneous 
evaporation of the percolate 43 grams of dark green extract remained ; 
a portion of this having the consistence of castor oil was separated, 
and a thicker portion, which adhered to the bottom of the dish, was 
washed with aqua ammonias as long as it removed anything, and then 
washed with dilute hydrochloric acid. There now remained 370 
grams of a black mass, very adhesive and elastic, and burning with the 
well-known odor of caoutchouc. This experiment proves that the 
substances soluble in petroleum benzin are not removed from mate by 
alcohol of the specific gravity '941, and a comparison of the figures in 
the petroleum benzin line in the tables also shows that boiling water 
fails to remove the same substances. 

Treatment with Chloroform, Table No. I. — 10 grams of powdered 
mate were percolated with chloroform until exhausted, and the chloro- 
form evaporated spontaneously ; the extract obtained was of a soft 
waxy consistence, fragrant odor and dark green color ; it contained 
wax and fatty matter, chlorophyl, resin and caffeina, but no tannin. 

The extract obtained by chloroform from 10 grams of mate' after 
treatment as in Table No. II, was pulverulent, of a dark green color 
and slight fragrant odor ; it contained resin and caffeina, but no tannin. 

The extract yielded to chloroform by 10 grams of mate after treat- 
ment as in Table No. Ill, was pulverulent, of a grayish olive color, and 
almost odorless ; it contained resin and chlorophyl, but no tannin or 

Treatment with Alcohol, sp. grav. "822, Table No. I. — 10 grams of 
powdered mate were exhausted by percolation with alcohol, and the 
alcohol driven off on a water-bath. The extract obtained was of a 
soft consistence, heavy narcotic odor, and deep green color ; it con- 

Am. Jour. Pharm 

June, 1878. 

Mate, or Paraguay Tea. 

tained fatty matter, chlorophyl, resin, tannin and caffeina. A portion 
of the residue of the mate, after percolation with alcohol, was dried 
and percolated with petroleum benzin ; the percolate was colorless, 
and upon evaporation no extract whatever was obtained, proving that 
alcohol of sp. grav. '822 dissolves all the constituents of mate which 
are soluble in petroleum benzin. Another portion of the residue from 
percolation with alcohol was percolated with chloroform ; a brownish- 
green percolate was obtained, which upon evaporation yielded a small 
quantity of hard, green, wax-like matter, readily fusible, and when 
burnt giving off the odor of caoutchouc. 

The extract yielded to alcohol by 10 grams of mate after treatment 
with petroleum benzin and chloroform as in Table No. II, was of a 
soft consistence, greenish brown color in mass, and transparent bright 
yellow color in thin layers, the odor fragrant and very agreeable, the 
taste bitter and acrid ; it contains resin and tannin, but no caffeina. 

The extract obtained by alcohol from 10 grams of mate after treat- 
ment with boiling water, petroleum benzin and chloroform, as in Table 
No. Ill, was of a dark green, almost black, color, easily powdered, 
yielding a pale greyish-green powder, nearly inodorous, and of a slight 
bitter taste ; it contained tannin, but was entirely free from caffeina. 

Treatment with Dilute Alcohol, sp. grav. '941, Table No. I. — 10 grams 
of powdered mate were exhausted by percolation with dilute alcohol and 
the resulting tincture evaporated to dryness on a water-bath. The extract 
obtained was of a brown color, readily powdered, yielding a light yel- 
low powder, of slight odor, and bitter, astringent taste ; it contained 
resin, caffeina and tannin. 

The extract yielded to dilute alcohol by 10 grams of mate after 
treatment as in Table No. II, was of a dark brown color, readily pow- 
dered, yielding a brownish-yellow inodorous powder, of slight bitter, 
astringent taste ; it contained tannin and gum, but no caffeina. 

The extract obtained by dilute alcohol from 10 grams of mate after 
treatment as in Table No. Ill, was of a light brown color in mass, dull 
yellow when powdered, inodorous and almost tasteless, the presence of 
tannin shown, but it was entirely free of caffeina and resin. 

Tannin. — For the estimation of the tannin the following process was 
employed (for additional details of similar process, see Proceedings of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1876, page 513, and 

280 Mate, or Paraguay Tea. { Am jine, r x8 7 h 8 arm ' 

"American Journal of Pharmacy," 1877, page 388.) Of each sample 
of mate, finely powdered, 10 grams were taken and separately treated ; 
first by percolation with petroleum benzin ; this removed most of the 
green coloring matter and none of the tannin, as the percolate upon 
evaporation and treatment with water failed to give to the proper 
reagents any indication of the presence of tannic acid. The mate was 
removed from the percolator, and, after drying, repacked and treated 
with alcohol of seventy-five per cent, until the percolate passed free of 
color; then the residue was removed to a flask and boiled with several 
successive portions of alcohol of the same strength, the several tinc- 
tures mixed, when cold filtered and the filter washed with alcohol. 
The alcohol was then driven off on a water-bath, and the solution 
made up to the previous measure with distilled water, and a slight 
excess of basic acetate of lead added, which threw down an abundant 
bright yellow precipitate. This was well washed with distilled water, 
decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen, and after heating on a water- 
bath to remove excess of the sulphuretted hydrogen, the sulphide of 
lead was removed by filtration and the filter well washed with distilled 
water. The filtrate was a clear solution of an intense yellow color, 
and upon being evaporated on a water-bath to dryness yielded a light- 
brown amorphous mass, fusible by heat, and which, when powdered, 
was of a buff color ; its solution strongly reddens litmus paper. The 
quantity obtained from each sample is shown in table No. I. It will 
also be observed that those samples containing the most tannin con- 
tained the least caffeina. The following is a description of the beha- 
vior of this peculiar tannic acid with different reagents : 

With ferric salt it gives a bright green at first, turning to brown on 
standing and a brown precipitate ; with ferrous salts no change at first, 
becomes green on standing and deposits very dark olive precipitate ; 
Wiith fixed alkalies transparent dark yellow color, unchanged by heat, 
no precipitate •, lime water gives a transparent pure yellow, and on 
standing a grayish brown precipitate ; aqua ammoniae gives a transparent 
intense yellow, almost brown, no precipitate ; acetate of copper gives 
a light-green precipitate, not soluble in excess of precipitant 5 sulphate 
of copper gives no precipitate in the cold, but when heated a brown 
precipitate is given ; ammonio-sulphate of copper slowly precipitates 
in the cold, and at once if heated ; nitrate of silver is reduced by the 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1878. 

Mate^ or Paraguay Tea. 


aid of heat to the specular form ; auric chloride is decomposed in the 
cold ; barium nitrate gives a faint but immediate yellowish-white pre- 
cipitate ; stannous chloride gives a white precipitate ; tartrate of anti- 
mony and potassium produces no precipitate; sulphate of quinia and sul- 
phate of cinchonia both produce white precipitates ; gelatin gives no 
precipitate ; acetate of lead gives a yellowish-white precipitate ; per- 
manganate of potassium in solution is immediately decolorized ; 
molybdate of ammonium produces a brownish-red, which is changed to 
yellow by oxalic acid ; morphia gives a slight precipitate on standing ; 
strychnia gives a white precipitate ; aconitia gives no precipitate ; vera- 
tria with hydrochloric acid gives a white precipitate \ salicin and 
santonin give no precipitate ; piperina with hydrochloric acid, color 
lightened but no precipitate ; sulphuric acid, aided by heat, changes a 
concentrated solution to a deep red. 

Caffeina. — The following process was employed for the determination 
of the quantity of caffeina : 10 grams of powdered mate* and 4 grams 
calcined magnesia were boiled for half an hour with 500 cc. distilled 
water, and filtered while hot, the residue and the filter returned to the 
flask, 500 cc. water added, and again boiled for twenty minutes ; then 
filtered and boiling water poured on the filter until the filtrate passed 
colorless and tasteless. The filtrate was then evaporated at a moderate 
heat over a naked fire until reduced to 200 cc, and then 10 grams of 
powdered glass and 1 gram calcined magnesia were added, and the 
evaporation continued on a water-bath to dryness. The dry residue 
was then finely powdered and placed in a small flask with 30 grams 
chloroform, and boiled for a few minutes, and then filtered through a 
funnel, the neck of which was closed with cotton, and over this was 
placed a layer of powdered glass. The residue in the flask was 
treated with fresh portions of chloroform until the caffeina was all dis- 
solved out. The chloroform was then allowed to evaporate sponta- 
neously in a weighed capsule, yielding the caffeina in fine silky form 
on the bottom and sides of the capsule — perfectly white if the chlo- 
roform solution had been allowed to cool before filtration, but if 
filtered hot the caffeina was very slightly tinted of a greenish color. 
The amount of caffeina obtained from each sample will be found in 
table No. I. 

The Ash. — The determination of the total, the soluble and the 


Matt, or Paraguay Tea. 

A.m Jour Pharm. 

June, 1878 

insoluble ash was made as follows : 10 grams of mate was burned and 
the resulting ash weighed, then boiled in a little distilled water, and 
filtered while hot through a weighed filter, and the filter washed with 
boiling distilled water. The filtrate, upon evaporation and ignition, 
gave the weight of the soluble ash, which was verified by drying the 
the filter and its contents, and subtracting the weight of the filter from 
the total weight. The insoluble ash was then treated with hydro- 
chloric acid, and after washing by decantation, the insoluble portion was 
dried, ignited and then weighed, the loss in the weight being taken as 
the quantity soluble in the acid. The portion insoluble in the hydro- 
chloric acid was principally sand. 

Owing to the usual mode of preparing mate, it is rendered certain 
that the ash is not all from the constituents of the leaves themselves, 
but partly from earthy matter introduced during the process of prep- 

Pharmaceutical Preparations. — The following preparations of mate 
are suggested : The simple infusion which is the form in which it is 
always used in South America ; a solid extract prepared with alcohol 
of sp. grav. "822, and a fluid extract prepared with alcohol of sp. grav. 
•941, in such proportion that when finished its weight will be equal to 
the weight of mate used in its preparation. A considerable quantity of 
fluid extract prepared by this formula has been used in debility and in 
various derangements of the nervous system, generally with satis- 
factory results. 

The reputed therapeutical properties of mate have been fully stated 
in a number of heretofore published papers, some attributing the most 
deleterious effects to its continued use, and others lauding it to the 
utmost limit of credibility, almost equaling the marvelous statements 
made of the action of the somewhat similar substance, Coca. In 
regard to mate, however, the writer is fully convinced that it does 
really possess properties which render it worthy of careful therapeutical 

The thorough desiccation it undergoes in its preparation, and the 
compact and hermetical character of the packages in which it is con- 
tained, tend greatly to the preservation of whatever virtues it may have 
originally possessed. 

The Alkaloid Sophoria. 283 


By H. C. Wood, M.D. 

Some months since I gave notice 1 of the finding of an alkaloid having 
toxic properties in the bean of Sophora speciosa of Texas. During the 
past winter I have made some further study of the bean, which, 
although it does not exhaust the subject, has led to results worthy of 
publication. Other pressing engagements will prevent my giving more 
time to the matter, and it affords me pleasure to turn it over to the far 
abler hands of Professor Wormley, who hopes to make a thorough 
investigation. This much of apology. In the present state in which 
it was obtained sophoria is a transparent liquid, having a highly alkaline 
reaction, freely soluble in water, somewhat so in ether and very freely 
so in chloroform. When quite pure it is probably colorless, but, like 
other liquid alkaloids, it is very prone to undergo change, and I have 
never seen it free from a brownish tint. Its chloride crystallizes very 
readily, and appears to be a stable salt. With chloride of platinum it 
gives beautiful and peculiar crystals. When an acid is added to its 
watery solution drop by drop, very marked turbidity is produced, clear- 
ing up as more of the acid is put in. Crystallization is favored by not 
allowing the reaction of the solution to become distinctly acid ; and 
there is reason for believing that the crystalline salt is basic, although I 
cannot speak positively upon this point. The most characteristic test 
is that, with the tincture of the chloride of iron, a deep blood- red color 
being produced. 

I have tried various processes for preparing this alkaloid, but the 
only one which has yielded me any results is as follows : The powdered 
beans are first well moistened with strong alcohol and allowed to stand 
for two hours, the object being to coagulate the albuminous and gummy 
principles of the bean as much as possible. In order to avoid the 
extraction of the very abundant coloring matter of the shell, water not 
too strongly acidulated with muriatic acid is added in considerable 
quantity after the second hour, and maceration allowed to continue for 
a week. The expressed liquid is concentrated on a water-bath, and 
when cold rendered decidedly alkaline with carbonate of sodium, and 
agitated with an equal bulk of chloroform. On standing, the mixture 
separates into two layers, the lower being an emulsion of chloroform. 

1 See "Amer. Jour. Phar.," Jan., p. 33. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1878. 


Emulsiones Oleosa. 

A.m. Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1878. 

This, after twenty-four hours, is removed by decantation, or with a 
pipette, and the supernatant liquid treated with chloroform, as before. 

The two emulsions of chloroform having been mixed, are thoroughly 
agitated with a half bulk of water acidulated with muriatic acid. By 
this procedure the alkaloid is more or less perfectly reconverted into 
the stable chloride. The chloroform is then by distillation recovered, 
and the mixture evaporated at a low temperature to the consistency of 
a thick syrup, care being exercised that the reaction be at all times 
decidedly acid. To the syrupy liquid strong alcohol is added, and the 
precipitated gum separated by filtration. The clear liquid is then 
evaporated upon a water-bath until all the alcohol is driven off and an 
impure solution of the chloride obtained. This is rendered strongly 
alkaline with carbonate of sodium, and extracted twice with an equal 
bulk of chloroform. The chloroform now separates readily, or by 
means of some of the manoeuvres known to every worker in alkaloids, 
can readily be coaxed into doing so. It is then allowed to evaporate 
spontaneously. The impure alkaloid left behind is to be purified by 
solution in a small quantity of water acidulated with muriatic acid, 
filtering, rendering strongly alkaline with carbonate of sodium and 
extracting with chloroform. It is probable that this process would be 
not only simplified, but also improved by extracting th'e first concen- 
trated infusion with strong alcohol, and thereby avoiding the first use 
of chloroform. The process is, however, here given as it was practised. 

When given to frogs this alkaloid produced the symptoms which I 
detailed in my previous note. I found it to act much less powerfully 
upon mammals than I expected. Three grains of it hypodermcially 
failed to very seriously affect a dog, but killed a cat in a short time. 


By Louis von Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 
[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, April 16, 1878.) 

In oil emulsions oil and water are mixed uniformly by means of gum, 
a mixture of gum and sugar, the yolk of eggs or alkalies. If properly 
made, there is neither any uncombined oil nor a separation into layers 
perceptible. They are universally considered more palatable, more 
acceptable to the stomach and of a nicer appearance than shake-mix- 
tures, and thus combine the virtues of efficacy and elegance. There 

Am june, r 'if 7 h 8 arm I Emulsiones Oleosa. 285 

are few preparations to which as little attention is devoted by the 
average druggist, in which he is less particular and skilled, and which 
he considers of minor importance, not considering that a poorly-made 
emulsion will certainly injure his reputation considerably, showing 
either his incompetency or his carelessness, or a little of both ; while, 
on the other hand, if properly made, an oil emulsion will prove a 
splendid card for the pharmaceutist who dispenses it. We should 
always endeavor to give our preparations an elegant appearance, as long 
as it will not interfere with their therapeutical effects, but never follow 
the example of those who (f. by filtering cloudy solutions contain- 
ing insoluble ingredients) sacrifice the medicinal virtues rather than 
dispense an unsightly preparation. Physicians quite frequently, object- 
ing to the presence of acids in solutions, or of gum or any other emul- 
sionizer in mixtures containing oil and water, prescribe shake mixtures. 
In such cases, of course, we are not authorized under any considera- 
tion to endeavor to improve upon their recipe by additions of our own ; 
while, on the other hand, when the practitioner desires an elegant and 
effective medicine it is our duty to try our best to furnish a perfect pre- 
paration. Looking over a prescription file we often notice that the 
doctor leaves it for us to decide how much of some ingredients is 
necessary to obtain a certain result, and particularly how much gum or 
other emulsionizer is required to prevent a separation of oil in a mixture. 
I happened to be present during a discussion between two druggists, 
one of whom claimed that an emulsion could be made by triturating 
the whole amount of oil prescribed, gum arabic and a certain portion of 
water, thrown together into a mortar at once, while the other con- 
sidered this ridiculous, stating that every apprentice knew that it was 
necessary to form a mucilage first with gum arabic, sugar and some 
water, and then add the oil and balance of the water gradually. The 
particular oil they had reference to was Oleum Morrhuae. This 
induced me to make the following experiments, emulsionizing codliver 
oil, copaiva, castor oil and oil of turpentine, respectively. 

1. In making 5 ozs. of emulsion of codliver oil, let us follow the 
directions of the " Pharmacopoea Germanica," which orders emulsiones 
oleosae to be made with 2 paits of oil, 1 of pulverized gum arabic and 
17 (seventeen) parts of water, unless otherwise directed by the phy- 
sician. I took ol. morrhuae, f^iv ; pulv. gum acaciae, 3 ii ; aqu. dest. T 
f,3iv, poured the oil and water on the gum in a mortar, triturated them 


Emulsiones Oleosa. 

Am Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1878, 

well for a few minutes, when a good emulsion was formed, and then 
added sufficient water to make f$v. This emulsion remains unchanged 
after keeping it six weeks at a constant temperature of jo°F. 

2. I then reduced the quantity of water one-fourth, mixing at once 
ol. morrhuae, f^iv ; powd. gum arabic, 3ii ; aqu. dest., f^iii, and then 
diluted with the balance of water ; the result was the same. This is 
the favorite method of most German apothecaries, and is considered by 
them better and surer to bring success than the first. • I have made 
very many emulsions by it with various oils during a number of years, 
and never failed. There are now on hand four emulsions containing 
50 per cent, of codliver oil, castor oil, turpentine and copaiva, respec- 
tively, made by the second method about four weeks ago. So far they 
are still, as in the beginning, elegant in appearance, and show no incli- 
nation of spoiling or separating, although kept at a constant tempera- 
ture of 70°F. Emulsions containing 50 per cent, of oil, made by the 
first method about two weeks ago, likewise appear unchanged so far. 

3. A large proportion of gum is not objectionable in most emulsions, 
as f. i. copaiva emulsions, preventing the latter from having a too 
strong purgative effect j in others, however [f. i. castor oil emulsion), 
care must be taken, as a large proportion of gum would counteract the 
effect of the oil to a certain extent. I therefore reduced the quantity of 
gum arabic to one-half of its former quantity, thus makingthe proportions 
oil 4 parts, gum arabic 1 part, water 3 parts. Emulsions of codliver 
oil, castor oil, copaiva and oil of turpentine, made in this proportion, at 
first presented as elegant an appearance as those containing double the 
quantity of gum, and remained unchanged for three days, then the 
emulsion of copaiva began to separate into two layers, the lower one 
being only about one-fifth of the whole mixture ; on being shaken they 
readily .reunited, again forming, apparently, a perfect emulsion, which, 
however, began to separate again in the course of 24 hours. The 
emulsion of codliver oil oegan to separate a little at the end of four 
days, that of castor oil after six weeks, while the turpentine emulsion is 
still unchanged. 

4. An attempt to reduce the amount of gum to one-fourth the origi- 
nal quantity, so as to bring the proportions — oil 8 parts, water 6 parts 
and powd. gum arabic 1 part, proved successful with codliver oil, tur- 
pentine and castor oil, but gave an unsatisfactory result with copaiva, 
even after considerable constant trituration. The emulsions of cod- 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1878. 

Emulsiones Oleosa. 

28 7 

liver oil, turpentine and castor oil separated on standing for twelve 
hours, not showing any separated oil globules floating on top, but two 
distinct layers, the upper one of which still retained the appearance of 
a perfect emulsion, while the lower one was thinner and lighter in 
color ; shaking slightly again mixed them perfectly. This proves that 
31 of gum arabic to the ounce of oil will only answer satisfactorily when 
the emulsion is to be used in a short space of time. 

5. An emulsion made by shaking together in a bottle equal parts of 
codliver oil and of the officinal mucilage of gum arabic was a perfect 
success, not separating in the least. After standing for three weeks 
and two days, a separation into layers slowly commenced. 

6. Cod-liver oil, f^i, the yolk of one egg and f^vi of aq. dest., 
mixed intimately by trituration, yielded a yellowish-white perfect emul- 
sion, which could be diluted without separation, and remained unchanged 
for seven hours. It then separated into two layers, which reunited on 
shaking. Oil emulsions made by any of the mentioned processes will 
bear dilution with water, and the addition of syrups or tinctures after 
being perfectly combined. 

7. Parrish's formula for codliver oil mixture reads as follows : Take 
of codliver oil f^vi, lime-water gix. To the lime-water in a pint 
bottle add the oil, and shake, etc. I mixed fgvi. of cod-liver oil and 
f^ix of lime-water, and, after considerable incessant shaking, obtained 
a very satisfactory emulsion, containing 40 per cent, of codliver oil, 
which remained unaltered for five days. It then commenced to sepa- 
rate into two layers, the upper one in this case consisting of a small 
amount of oil, while the lower one, which was at least j-J- of the whole 
mixture, still appeared to be a perfect emulsion. But very little shaking 
was required to reunite them. 

8. Experiments made with different formulas for " Emulsion of 
codliver oil and lacto-phosphate of lime," gave me the following 
results : By following the directions of the formula published by Mr. 
Shinn ("Amer. Jour, of Pharm.," March, 1873, P- x 35) ^ obtained a 
nicely flavored emulsion. An attempt to mix the oil, water and gum in 
his proportions by throwing them together into a mortar and triturating 
them well, proved equally successful ; the emulsion in this case, how- 
ever, separated after standing for 24 hours, there being a narrow layer 
of oil visible floating on top of the emulsion. Shaking in'this case also 
reunited them. 


Emu/stones Oleosa. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1878. 

Mr. Chiles' formula ("Amer. Jour, of Pharm.," March, 1873, P* 
104) also deserves mention, furnishing, if properly adhered to, a very 
satisfactory result. There is another formula for this preparation, 
usually used by me, which seems to be preferred by many physicians. 
It is pleasant, acceptable to the most delicate stomach, and will not 
separate, if properly made. 

The recipe is as follows : 

B Ol. Morrhuse, .... fgiv. 
Pulv. Sacchari albi, .... 

" Gum. Acaciae, . . .ad Jss. 

01. Gaultheria?, .... gttxxvi. 

" Menth. Pip., . . . gttvi. 

Aqu. dest., .... f^iv. 
Misce, fiat emuJsio, cui adde. 

Syr. Lactophosphatis Calcii, . . f^ii- 

Mix the ethereal oils with the codliver oil ; make a thick mucilage 
with the gum, sugar and a small quantity of distilled water ; gradually 
and carefully, with constant trituration, add the oil and the balance of 
the water alternately. 

The syrup of lacto-phosphate of lime is kept by me in a separate bottle, 
and added in the proper proportion before dispensing. I have never 
found any trouble in keeping it on hand during the warm season, except 
in one case, when the emulsion separated, which was, however, due to 
imperfect manipulation and too great haste when preparing it, as was 
proved by later experiments. This emulsion can be flavored differently, 
of course, by substituting oil of bitter almonds or any other desirable 
flavor for the oils of wintergreen and peppermint. The syrup of lacto- 
phosphate of lime used by me was made according to the formula 
published by Mr. Chiles ("Amer Jour, of Pharm.," 1873, P* 10 5)> anc * 
seems very satisfactory. 

9. A preparation prescribed much lately is " Emulsion of codliver 
oil with hypophosphites." It can be easily made by substituting the 
proper syrup in the formula given above. 

Am june U , r i8 F 7 8 arm *} Quinia P ills .—P ill Excipient. 289 


Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : — As an addition to the note 
of Mr. Brett, in the April number of the " Amer. Jour, of Pharmacy, " 
I send you a precise formula, which has been well known in our 
country for several years : 

R Chinini sulfurici, . . . . 30 00 grams. 

Gum. arab. pulv., .... 5"oo 

Glycerin ...... io"oo 

To the gum and glycerin, well triturated in a mortar, add gradually 
the quinia salt. The result is an excellent and unalterable mass. 

Adr. Nicklcs. 

Benfeld (Alsace), April 17, 1878. 

Editor of American Journal of Pharmacy : — In the April number of 
your valuable journal I have read with pleasure a communication from 
Mr. James E. Brett, regarding the make-up of quinia pills. And 
while I think the substances he proposed (powdered acacia and 
glycerin) will accomplish satisfactory results, still I think if powdered 
tragacanth be substituted for the acacia, with the use of glycerin, less 
difficulty will be experienced in making up the pills ; they will be of 
whiter appearance, and retain their properties unaltered for almost an 
indefinite period of time. In fact, I have found an excipient of this 
kind : 

Powdered tragacanth, . . gii 

" Glycerin, . . . q. s. to make a thick paste," 

to answer for making up a larger number of substances, in pill form, 
better than any other I have ever known. Any of the dry iron salts, 
such as phosphate, ferrocyanide, sulphate and citrate, can, with ease, 
be made into pills by using this excipient and a little " s elbow ( grease." 

T. A. Cheatham, Ph.G. 

Macon, Ga., April izth, 1878. 


By J. J. Brown, Ph.G. 
[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, May 21, 1878.) 
What is the best pill excipient for general purposes ? seems to be 
almost an unanswerable question. We have found that glycerin lacks 
sufficient adhesiveness ; vegetable extracts are inadmissible on account 
of their individual medicinal properties ; syrups and solutions of acacia 


Aspidium Margin ale. 

{A.m Jour. Pharm: 
June, 1878. 

or tragacanth render a pill in time hard and insoluble ; honey or 
molasses are inconvenient, besides attracting swarms of flies to the 
prescription counter, and crumbs of bread and confections of rose are 
too bulky. 

The Glyceritum amyli of the B. P. is a step nearei perfection, but 
is wanting in adhesiveness, and decidedly hygroscopic. As the result 
of quite a number of experiments on this subject, the writer has found 
the following modified formula of the latter to serve a most excellent 
purpose : 

R Powdered Starch, .... ^ss. 

Sugar, . . . . . &u 

" Tragacanth, . . . ^ii. 

Water, ..... 
Glycerin, .... ^iv. 

Triturate the powders with the water and glycerin until a homo- 
genous mixture is obtained ; transfer to a porcelain capsule and apply 
heat untii all the starch granules are ruptured, stirring constantly of 
course, to prevent burning. 

This forms a jelly-like substance of such consistence as to be readily 
taken up on the point of a spatula. It undergoes no change on expo- 
sure (at least not in our equitable California climate) is possessed of 
enough stickiness to subjugate the most refractory pill mass, and con- 
tains sufficient glycerin to prevent the pill from ever becoming hard or 

Oakland Cal., May, 1878. 


By Chas. H. Cressler, Ph.G. 
(Read at the Phar?naceutical Meetitzg, May 21, 1878 ) 
In September, 1874, Dr. J. L. Suesserott, of Chambersburg, requested 
me to prepare for him an emulsion of oleoresin of male fern, which he 
administered with the result of the expulsion of but a small portion of 
taenia. The oleoresin furnished the doctor was bought from a whole- 
sale druggist of good repute, and had the appearance of a pure article, 
but his failing to get a satisfactory result caused me to think that, if 
our indigenous fern had any comparative virtues, we could furnish a 
reliable preparation which would be one advantage ; and even if it were 
not so active as the European plant, that this might be more than 

Am junc!'J 7 t rm '} Aspdium Marginale. 29 1 

counterbalanced by having the control of its preparation. I at once 
collected what I had thought to be Filix mas, selected the greenish 
colored remains of the leaf stalks, with an adhering portion of the 
rhizome, dried them by means of a gentle, artificial heat, and made 
an oleoresin according to the British formula. Dr. Suesserott admin- 
istered the same quantity of this oleoresin that he had of the other to 
the same patient, the result of which was the expulsion of nine feet of 
taenia, including the head. For an expression of the doctor's satisfac- 
tion with the result see " Report of Franklin County Society," in the 
published " Transactions of Pennsylvania State Medical Society," 

1875, page 637. 1 

Believing this result sufficient for further trial, I gathered in October 
of the same year, 1874, more of the fern and made four ounces of oleo- 
resin. I did not dispense this on prescriptions, however, but in August, 

1876, a friend of mine stated to me that he was passing sections of tape 
worm. My anxiety to test still further the virtues of our indigenous fern 
led me to violate my usual custom of not prescribing. Two drachms of 
the oleoresin were put into nine gelatin capsules, of which three were 
taken at 10 P. M., and two at 12 P. M. Unpleasant eructations fol- 
lowed, so. that no more of the preparation could be taken. A bottle 
of citrate of magnesium was taken at 6 A. M. next morning, and 
after an hour and a half, the subject passed over 24 feet of taenia, 
tapering down apparently close to the head, which, however, was not 
found. In the latter part of October, about two months after the 
expulsion of the 24 feet, the same person began to void fully developed 
sections of taenia. Two drachms more of the oleoresin were put into 
nine gelatin capsules. The subject, after fasting from 12 M., took 
three of these at 10 P. M., and one more at 12 P. M., and followed 
them in six hours with emulsion of castor oil, and in two-and-a-half 
hours he discharged 8 feet of the worm, tapering down apparently to 
the head, which, however, was not found in this instance either. To 
this date careful observation has failed to discover any further evidence 
of the presence of the parasite. 

The fern used is an evergreen, and, according to Wood's Botany, 
seems to be the Aspidium marginale described by James Lemon Pat- 

*In reading the paragraph referred to, in first line read alcohol instead of tinct. 

Aspidium Marginale. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm, 

\ June, 1878. 

terson in vol. 47, page 292, "Amer. Jour, of Pharm. 1875. It 
grows along the banks of the Conococheague creek and other streams 
that wind through the fertile region of the Cumberland valley, but only 
on the rocky ledges that face northward. I never found it on those 
facing directly southward, and never on the mountain ranges that bor- 
der our valley except a few stocks at springs along the foot of the 

An interesting fact in support of this statement was noticed this 
morning on a visit to the yard of Dr. Suesserott. In a shaded portion 
of the ground on an elevated bed, having an evergreen honeysuckle as 
its principal occupant, a circular and marginal belt of these ferns had 
been planted in October, 1874. At this date they are still flourishing 
luxuriantly on only about two-fifths of the circle facing northward, 
while none whatever remain on the three fifths of the circle facing 
southward, notwithstanding the fact that the north, east and south sides 
of this mound are surrounded at about equal distances with buildings of 
similar height. 

Cbambersburg, Pa., May 4, 1878. 


By J. M. Maisch. 

Mr. Cressler has very kindly accompanied the preceding communi- 
cation with various specimens comprising the tape worm expelled in. 
August and October, 1876; specimens of the rhizome and stipes as 
used by him in preparing the oleoresin, and living plants and herbarium 
specimens of the same. As indicated by Mr. Cressler, the plant is 
Aspidium marginale, Sw., which, according to Gray, is very common 
on the northern section of this continent is of frequent occurrence in 
the rocky woodlands of Pennsylvania, and is met with farther south to 
the mountains of North Carolina (Chapman's Flora of the Southern 
United States). Our native species of Aspidium, as arranged in Gray's 
Manual, belong to two subgenera, viz. : Polystichum, which has the 
indusium or shield-like covering of the sori (fruif patches) orbicular, 
entire and attached by the depressed centre, while in the subgenus 
Dryopteris, the indusium is more or less kidney-shaped and notched at 
one side. The latter comprises the larger number (8) of species, which 
include both Aspid. marginale and Asp. Filix-mas. The true male fern 
occurs in rocky woods of the Keweenaw peninsula of Lake Superior 
and westward, and according to Porter and Coulter's Flora of Colorado, 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1878. J 

Acetic Acid) Pure. 


also in the Grand Canon of the Arkansas, and along the foot-hills 
west of Denver. It agrees with Asp. marginale in having the stipes 
or leaf stalks covered at the base with a copious chaff of brown glossy 
scales, the fronds or leaves twice pinnate with the upper pinnules con- 
fluent, and the lower ones more or less pinnatifid-toothed and with 
some of the veins repeatedly forked. But the two species differ in the 
frond of Asp. marginale being evergreen and having the fruit dots close 
to the margin, while in Asp. Filix-mas the fruit dots are near the mid- 
vein, and the fronds do not survive the winter. The rhizome of the 
latter attains a thickness of one inch, and shows upon the cross section, 
about 10 larger, besides several smaller, and in the stipes about 8 irreg- 
ular wood bundles, the former being arranged in a loose circle. The 
rhizome of Asp. marginale is thinner, about f inch in diameter, and 
contains a loose circle of about six larger and smaller, and the stipes 
six very small wood bundles ; otherwise in appearance and sensible 
properties the subterraneous portions of the two plants resemble each 
other very closely. 

Since the constituents of the latter species have been proved by Mr. 
Patterson to be identical with those of the male fern, and since the 
efficiency of the American species has been shown through Mr. 
Cressler to be equal to that of Asp. Filix-mas, it is to be hoped that the 
next Pharmacopoeia will place the two species on an equality, and 
authorize the indiscriminate use of the one which may be most conve- 
nient to collect. In the meantime, it is suggested that, if occasion 
offers, pharmacists will submit preparations of Asp. marginale for the 
use of physicians, and that the results obtained be duly recorded. In 
preparing the oleoresin, it must not be overlooked that only the green 
portion of the subterraneous parts be used, and that all the brown and 
decayed portions be rigidly excluded. 


By Edward Gaillard, Ph.G. 
{Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, May 21, 1878.) 
This acid, which, owing to alphabetical precedence, stands first on 
the many chemical lists of the day, also heads the list in point of 
antiquity, of the hundreds of manufactured acids now known. 
Under the name of vinegar, dilute acetic acid was known ages before 


294 Acetic Acid, Pure. { An, j&8^ rnu 

the discovery of any acid except those which exist ready formed in the 
vegetable kingdom. Having an organic origin, that is, being a resultant 
from changes produced in organic substances, by heat or otherwise, it 
is naturally rather troublesome to deprive it of some of the other 
simultaneously-produced compounds, such as empyreumatic oils, etc., 
without effecting a partial decomposition of the acid itself. 

One method is to combine it with a base, such as soda or lime, and 
to maintain the resulting salt at a temperature sufficiently elevated 
partially to carbonize the empyreumatic substance. Even by this 
method, however, the desired result is not realized with economy, for 
if heated until complete carbonization of foreign matter is effected, the 
acetate also is partially sacrificed, and proves a loss. 

In some parts of France and Germany the carbonate of baryta is 
used, instead of the corresponding soda salt, to produce the acetate, as 
acetate of baryta is more stable under the influence of high tempera- 
tures than acetate of soda. 

Some of the acetic acid manufactured in this country is derived from 
the distillation of acetate of lime with a stronger acid, or is produced 
from pyroligneous acid of home manufacture. The former is generally 
of a better quality, and has a more acceptable odor. 

As a perfect carbonization of empyreumatic oils cannot be effected 
without endangering, to some extent, the acetate, an acid perfectly free 
from them is rarely met with. 

I have examined various samples of this acid and have found that 
all of them, after being neutralized and then mixed with a dilute solu- 
tion of permanganate of potassa, would discolor this reagent from the 
presence of these oils. A very delicate test is the odor of the acid, 
which, if fragrant and pungent, without a smoky or empyreumatic 
smell, generally indicates that the acid is free from any large quantity 
of these substances. 

However, when used in delicate operations, as in photography, it 
should be tested by adding to it an equal bulk of pure sulphuric acid, 
and if this does not color within a few hours the acetic acid may be 
considered pure. 

The Dispensatory and the U. S. Pharmacopoeia give, as a 
test for the presence of nitric acid, to digest the acid with silver, and 
then add chloro-hydric acid, when, if any be present, a precipitate of 
chloride of silver will be formed. I have, on several occasions, 

Am jSe, r , 8 P ,8 arm '} Gleanings from the German Journals. 


digested acetic acid, to which one or two per cent, of nitric acid had 
been added, for half an hour on a warm sand-bath, without allowing 
the acid to boil, and, after the addition of chloro-hydric acid, failed to 
perceive any precipitation of the silver salt. I generally test it by 
first neutralizing the acid with carbonate of soda, and, after the addi- 
tion of an equal volume of sulphuric acid, pure, free from nitric acid 
or selenium, allow the mixture to cool, and add a concentrated aqueous 
solution of. sulphate of the protoxide of iron, without allowing its 
admixture. If the least trace of nitric acid is present a dark ring will 
be formed where the fluids are in contact. 

The remaining impurities most common in acetic acids, and the 
means of detecting them, are alluded to in the table following : 


1 Water 

2 Empyreumatic oils 

3 Nitric acid 

4 Muriatic acid , 

5 Sulphuric acid , 

6 Sulphurous 

7 Lead , 

8 Copper , 

9 Lime.. 

10 Formic acid 


1 Hydrometer 

2 Odor 

2 Boiled with an equal volume of sul- 

phuric acid. 

3 Neutralized with carb. of potassa, 

with the addition of pure sulph. 
acid, and then concentrated solu- 
tion sulphate iron. 

4 Addition of nitrate of silver 

5 Chloride of barium 

6 Sulphuretted hydrogen 

7 Sulphide of ammonium 

8 Sulphide of ammonium. 

9 Oxalate of ammonia.. 

10 Boiled with an equal volume of sol- 

ution nitrate silver or proto-nitrate 


1 Sp. gr. 1-047...... 

2 Agreeable smell 

2 The acid is not 


3 No dark ring at 

point of con- 
tact of the iron 

4 No precipitate.. 

5 No precipitate.. 

6 No precipitate.. 

7 No precipitate.. 

8 No precipitate.. 

9 No precipitate.. 

10 No precipitate. 


1 Lighter. 

2 Empyreumatic odor. 

2 The acid is colored. 

3 A dark ring. 

4 Precipitate. 

5 Precipitate. 

6 Milkiness. , 

7 Black precipitate. 

8 Black precipitate. 

9 White precipitate. 

10 Separates the nitrates 

by reducing them to 
the metallic state. 


By L. von Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 
Elastic Gelatin Capsules. — DetenhofF recommended to prepare 
them from 1 part of gelatin, 2 of water and 2 of glycerin, which, how- 
ever, does not give a satisfactory mass, the capsules becoming opaque 
as the water gradually evaporates. The following formula is prefer- 
able, capsules made by it remaining transparent and elastic for years. 
Take 1 part of gelatin, 2 parts of water and 4 parts of glycerin ; soak 
the gelatin in the water, and dissolve with a gentle heat ; add the 
glycerin, and evaporate on a water-bath until 5 parts remain, that is 
until all the water is evaporated ; into this warm melted mass dip the 
moulds, and proceed as usual. — Pharm. Ztg. f. Russl.^ March 15, p. 164. 

296 Gleanings from the German Journals. { Am j u J ^% P 7 8 arm * 

Pyrogallic acid stains are removed from linen by a solution of 
oxalic acid in 50 or 60 per cent, alcohol, and then exposing to the 
direct sunlight. — Pharm. Gentralh., April 11, p. 135. 

Presence of Large Amount of Lime in Magnesia Usta. — 

Calcined magnesia nearly always contains a trace of lime, the subcar- 
bonate of magnesia being rarely free from it. Marquardt states that a 
larger proportion of lime, when present, is easily recognized by its 
characteristic caustic taste. — Pharm. Centralh., April 11, p. 137. 

Condensed Milk. — A writer in a Cologne paper makes the follow- 
ing comparison : 

Cond. milk of Cham contains for 100 albuminates 63 fat and 375 sugar. 

" " Kempfen " 100 " 66 " 221 " 

Woman's milk. " 100 " 62 " 147 " 

The amount of sugar in condensed milk is thus shown to be double 
and even nearly three times as large as in woman's milk. For this 
reason Prof. Kehrer, Dr. Daly and other physicians consider the former 
as not only not beneficial, but even injurious to infants, the sugar being 
transformed into lactic acid in the intestines, causing summer-com- 
plaint and other diseases. In their experience, fat and apparently 
healthy children may be raised on condensed milk who, however,* will 
never equal in strength and resistance to disease those who were raised 
on woman's- or fresh cow-milk. — Pharm. Post, Feb. 16, p. 60. 

Ethylic Alcohol in Coal-Tar. — At the fiftieth meeting of Ger- 
man naturalists and physicians, held at Munich, O. Witl stated that a 
series of experiments with 150,000 kilos of common benzol had con- 
vinced him of the uniform presence in it of ethylic alcohol, the average 
amount being *2 per cent. — Ztschr. cest. Apoth. Ver., April 10, p. 166. 

Determination of Santonin in Levant Wormseed. — DragendorfF 
recommends to digest for 2 hours 15 or 20 grms. of the wormseed 
with 15 or 20 cc. of a 10 per cent, soda-lye and 200 cc. of water. The 
liquid is filtered, the residue washed with distilled water, the filtrates 
united and concentrated in a water-bath to about 30 or 40 cc. After 
cooling, the liquid is neutralized with hydrochloric acid, immediately 
filtered and the filter washed with 15 or 20 cc. of water. The pre- 
cipitate may be washed with an 8 per cent, soda solution. If santonin 
crystals are formed on the filter these are collected, and afterwards 
united with the remainder of the santonin. The filtrate, after the 

Am jine" i?; 1 ?" 11, } Gleanings from the German Journals , 297 

addition of more hydrochloric acid, is shaken three times with 15 or 
20 cc. of chloroform ; the chloroform extractions are washed with 
water and distilled to dryness ; the residue is dissolved in very little 
soda-lye, filtered if necessary, and the filter washed with a little water. 
The solution is then strongly acidulated with hydrochloric acid and set 
aside in a cool place. Two or three days later the santonin may be 
collected on a filter, washed with 10 or 15 cc. of 8 per cent, soda solu- 
tion, and after drying at uo°C, weighed. For every 10 cc. of aque- 
ous liquid, from which the santonin was precipitated (not counting the 
wash water), there may be added to the weight of the santonin *002 
grm., and for every 10 cc. of soda solution used for washing '003 grm. 
— Archiv d. Pharm., April, p. 306. 

Salicylate of Sodium. — A. Bernick prepares a solution containing 
one-third of its weight of this salt by mixing 84 parts of bicarbonate of 
sodium with 200 p. of distilled water, and neutralizing without heat by 
138 p. of purified salicylic acid The resulting solution is nearly color- 
less, and remains unchanged if kept in black bottles. — Pharm. Ztg., 
April 10. 

Antidote to Carbolic Acid. — On the recommendation by Prof. 
Baumann, Dr. Sanftleben used sulphuric acid in several cases of poison- 
ing by carbolic acid with the best success, the phenol combining with 
the acid to phenyl-sulphuric acid, which is not poisonous. He admin- 
istered it in a mixture composed of dilute sulphuric acid iO'O, mucilage 
of gum 200*0, and simple syrup 30*0 grams, in doses of a tablespoonful 
every hour. — Pharm. Ztg. f. RussL, Feb. 15, p. 119, from Milk. 

The Dose of Caffeina. — According to Nothnagel's "Arzneimit- 
tellehre," citrate and lactate of caffeina are usually given in Germany 
in doses of '05 to *i gram, but French physicians commence with doses 
of -5 and increase the dose to 2*0 and even 4*0. Dr. Kelp repeatedlv 
gave doses of *I2 gram four times daily without apparent injurious 
effects, and Dr. Wolff states the dose in migrana to be *2 to '\ gram 
several times a day. — Pharm. Ztg., April 6. 

Test for Impurities in Tannate of Q uinia. — After numerous 
experiments, Julius Jobst recommends to proceed as follows: 1 gram 
of quinia tannate is powdered, well mixed with freshly-slaked lime 
and the mixture dried in a water-bath. The resulting powder is 

298 Gleanings from the German Journals. { Am j^J* Jft™' 

extracted with chloroform, and this solution evaporated in a tared 
beaker. The residue, dried at 120 , represents the total amount of 
alkaloids present in the tannate. The residue in the beaker is dissolved 
in a little water, acidulated with a few drops of diluted sulphuric acid, 
filtered if necessary, mixed with 3 or 4 cc. of ether and shaken with an 
excess of ammonia. If quinia alone is present the liquid will separate 
into two clear layers, while in the presence of other alkaloids a pre- 
cipitate will appear, either at once or after a while ; such a precipitate 
may then be further examined in the usual manner. An analysis of a 
so-called tasteless tannate of quinia gave 4^46 per cent, of quinia, 7*33 
per cent, of cinchonidia and 1 1 9 7 per cent, of conchinin (quinidia). — 
Archlv der Pharm., April, p. 331. 

Test for Codiia. — Some years ago O. Hesse confirmed the observa- 
tion of Riegel and others, that codeia dissolves colorless in concentrated 
sulphuric acid at 20°, and observed that in the presence of impurities 
colored solutions are obtained ; if the impurity consists of oxide of iron 
the solution will be blue. This has led to the adoption for certain 
opium bases of a test liquid, consisting of pure sulphuric acid, to which 
a very small quantity of ferric chloride is added. To succeed with the 
test, Hesse states that the codeia should be finely powdered and well 
dried ; 2 or 3 milligr. of this are mixed in a clean test-tube with 1 to 
1*5 cc. of pure H 2 S0 4 , when a colorless solution will be at once pro- 
duced. The acid containing iron is used in a like manner. — Arch. d. 
Phar., April, p. 330. 

Glycerin in Contact with Bicarbonate of Sodium and Borax. 

— On adding water to a mixture of equal parts of bicarbonate of sodium 
and borax no reaction takes place ; on the addition of glycerin carbonic 
acid is generated. After warming until the effervescence ceases, the 
solution contains borax and monocarbonate of sodium. Experiments 
have proven that exactly one-half of the carbonic acid existing in the 
bicarbonate is liberated — Pharm. Gentralh., April 4. 

Ferrum Albuminatum Siccum. — E. Merck states that dry 
albuminate of iron, which only requires solution in water to make 
Triese's (or, according to Merck, Friese's) solution (see "Am. Jour. 
Phar.," March, p. 126), has been manufactured at his laboratory for 
several years past, and consists of small brownish-red luminous crystals, 
is not hygroscopic, slowly dissolves in 50 parts of cold water, and more 

Am j£e^8 P 7 h 8 arl^ •} The Cinchona Alkaloids. 299 

readily in the same solvent at 30 to 35°C. Its solution is translucent 
and opalescent, neutral to test paper, but will precipitate oxide of iron 
in flakes after standing for some time. On gradually adding 10 to 12 
drops of pure muriatic acid, spec. grav. I'I2, the solution becomes 
clear ; in case a slight turbidness remains, it can be removed by filtra- 
tion. After mentioning that Schlickum was unsuccessful in all his 
experiments with dry albuminate of iron, there being always an insolu- 
ble residue amounting to 20 per cent, on redissolving the coagulum of 
chloride of iron and albumen obtained by evaporating to dryness ; Dr. 
Hoffmann suggests to mix the chloride of iron and albumen in a certain 
proportion, each previously reduced to a fine powder ; thus the insolu- 
ble residue'will be avoided. He operates as follows : 15 parts of crys- 
tallized chloride of iron (Fe 2 Cl 6 +i 2H 2 0, containing 20 per cent, ot 
metallic iron), or 20 parts of liquor ferri sesquichlorati are dried with 
10 parts of dextrin at 40 to 50°C, and pulverized ; then 80 parts of 
pulverized albumen are mixed with it. The latter is obtained by mix- 
ing fresh albumen with half its weight of water, setting aside for several 
hours, then removing the membrane by straining, and finally evaporat- 
ing on flat plates at a temperature of 30 to 40°C, which is easily 
accomplished, albumen being not in the least hygroscopic ; when dry- 
it is easily removed from the plates. The author considers this dry 
albuminate of iron by far preferable for making Triese's solution, claim- 
ing that in this manner the solution will always have a uniform taste* 
composition and strength. — Phar. Zeitung, March 23 and 30. 


By O. Hesse. 

Translated and condensed from " Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft," 1877, p. 2152 — 2162,. 

by L. v. Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 

§)uinia, C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 . Precipitated by ammonia or soda, it is amor- 
phous and anhydrous, but soon combines with 3H 2 0, forming small 
crystals. Both the anhydrid and trihydrate are readily soluble in ether, 
which on slow evaporation yields some fine white needles ; the balance, 
at first amorphous, becomes crystalline after some time. The etherial 
solution sometimes gelatinizes suddenly from the separation of quinia, 
which is then less freely soluble in ether, requiring at I5°C. for I part of 
quinia (anhydrous) 16 to 25*5 parts of ether to effect solution. The 
anhydrid fuses at ijj°C, the trihydrate at 57°C. ; the former dissolves 

300 The Cinchona Alkaloids. { * m )lT; ilX™' 

in hot water without fusing, and on cooling separates in needles ; the 
latter fuses in boiling water, and on cooling does not crystallize. A 
solution of quinia in an excess of diluted H 2 S0 4 has a blue fluores- 
cence, while with a solution in diluted HC1 this is not the case. The 
fluorescence disappears also upon the addition of other substances, nota- 
bly of chlorides. Quinia solution turns polarized light to the left. Chlo- 
rine and ammonia in excess cause a green coloration (thalleiochin). 
The neutral sulphate 2C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 .SO 4 H 2 -|-8H 2 O is very efflorescent ; 
the medicinal salt should contain 15*3 per cent, water of crystalliza- 
tion = 7! H 2 0. 

Quinidia (conchinin), isomeric with quinia, but rotating to the right, 
was discovered by van Heijningen ; it crystallizes from alcohol with 
l\ H 2 in efflorescing prisms ; from ether in rhombohedrons with 
2H 2 ; from boiling water in delicate plates with \\ H 2 ; in the two 
latter forms it does not effloresce at the ordinary temperature. The 
salt mostly met with in commerce has the formula 2C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 .SO 4 H 2 
+ 2H 2 0. 

^uinicia^ C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 . By heating the sulphate or other salt of 
quinia or conchinia until melted it is transformed into sulphate of quin- 
icia without losing in weight. Quinicia is amorphous, rotates the plane 
of polarization to the right, and is never present in cinchona bark. 

Diconchinia, C 40 H 46 N 4 O 3 , the principal constituent of chinoidin, is 
amorphous, fluoresces in a sulphuric acid solution, like quinia and quin- 
idia ; gives a green coloration with chlorine and ammonia in excess, 
and rotates the plane of polarization to the right. It does not yield 
quinicia, and has not yet been converted into quinidia. 

Cinchonidia^- C 20 H 24 N 2 O, first observed by Henry and Delondre 
(1833), again discovered by Winckler (1844) as quinidia, and subse- 
quently called x quinidia by Kerner, crystallizes from alcohol in shin- 
ing prisms, rarely in delicate white needles or plates, the crystals being 
anhydrous. Its solutions rotate the plane of polarization to the left, 
are not fluorescent and not colored green by chlorine and ammonia. 
The sulphate has the formula 2C 20 H 24 N 2 O.SO 4 H 2 +6H 2 O, and is nearly 
insoluble in chloroform, but swells with it to a jelly-like mass. 

Cinchonia, C 20 H 24 N 2 O (isomeric with cinchonidia), crystallizes from 
hot stronger alcohol in shining anhydrous prisms. Its solutions are 

1 The author states that Pasteur's quinidia consisted of nearly 2 parts of Wack- 
ier' s quinidia and 1 part of Koch's cinchonidia. 

Am june, r, ^7 h 8 arm "} The Cinchona Alkaloids. 301 

dextrogyre, and show no fluorescence. The sulphate 2C 20 H 24 N 2 O, 
S0 4 H 2 -f-2H 2 crystallizes from water in compact prisms. 

Cinchonicia, C 20 H 24 N 2 O, anhydrous monobasic sulphate of cincho- 
nidia or cinchonia, heated to I30°C, or until they melt, are transformed 
into sulphate of cinchonicia. The alkaloid rotates the plane of polar- 
ized light to the right, is amorphous and never present in cinchona 
barks. Some salts are crystallizable. 

Dicinchonia, C 40 H 48 N 4 O 2 , may be expected in the chinoidin of such 
barks which contain a large percentage of cinchonidia or cinchonia. 
As yet it has not been obtained entirely free from diconchinia. 

Homocinchonidia, C 19 H 22 N 2 (Koch's cinchonidia, 1877), crystal- 
lizes from strong alcohol in large prisms and from diluted alcohol in 
scales, and deviates the plane of polarized light to the left. The 
sulphate, — 2C 19 H 22 N 2 0,S0 4 H 2 -|-6H 2 0, crystallizes in very delicate 
needles, which have a gelatinous aspect, and while still moist melt at 
about 30°C.j when carefully dried it resembles magnesia in appearance, 
is usually anhydrous, and in this condition swells with chloroform to a 
jelly-like mass. The cinchovatina (aricind) of Winckler, from Cinch, 
ovata, is mainly this alkaloid. 

Homocinchonia, C 19 H 22 N 2 0, is probably identical with Skraup's 
(1877) cinchonia^ and appears to be present in the bark of Cinch. rosu~ 

Homocinchonicia, C 19 H 22 N 2 0, an amorphous alkaloid, is formed 
when the anhydrous monobasic sulphate of homocinchonidia is melted* 
Its oxalate, = 2C 19 H 22 N 2 0,C 2 H 2 4 +4H 2 0, greatly resembles the 
corresponding salt of cinchonicia. 

Dihomocinchonia, C 38 H 44 N 4 2 , is amorphous, rotates the plane of 
polarization strongly to the right, yields amorphous salts and is also 
present in the bark of Cinch, rosulenta. 

ghiinamina (chinamin), C 19 H 24 N 2 2 , discovered by the author (1872) 
in the bark of C. succirubra grown at Darjeeling, and subsequently in 
all barks of the same species from British India and Java, in Mutis' 
Quinquina rouge, and in the barks of C. nitida, C. erythrantha, C. 
erythroderma, C. rosulenta, C. calisaya var. Schuhkrafft and C. cali- 
saya, known in English commerce as Para-bark. It is separated from 
the amorphous alkaloids by precipitating the dilute acetic acid solution 
with potassium sulphocyanide until the liquid is pale yellow ; when 
clear it is supersaturated with ammonia, agitated with ether, the etherial 

3 02 

The Cinchona Alkaloids. 

1 Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ June, 1878. 

solution evaporated and the residue crystallized from hot dilute alcohol ; 
the mother-liquor retains the balance of the amorphous bases. The 
author now regards his first formula, C 20 H 26 N 2 O 2 , as incorrect. 

Conquinamina, C 19 H 24 N 2 2 , is present with the preceding in C. suc- 
cirubra and C. rosulenta, and perhaps in all barks mentioned above. 
It crystallizes in long shining prisms, which melt at i23°C, while 
quinamina melts at 172°C. It is more powerfully dextrogyre than 
quinamina, and, like it, is precipitated by chloride of platinum onlv 
from concentrated solutions, and yields with chloride of gold a yellow 
precipitate, changing to purple, and with hydriodic acid a salt crystal- 
lizing in handsome prisms. 

®)uinamidia, C ]9 H 24 N 2 2 , an amorphous alkaloid, is formed when 
quinamina is boiled for some time with diluted H 2 S0 4 ; it is precipi- 
tated from an acid solution with difficulty by ammonia, more easily by 
soda, and is easily soluble in .ether. With HC1 it forms prismatic 
crystals, sparingly soluble in water, and with chloride of gold a yellow 
amorphous precipitate, soon turning purple. 

Apoquinamina, C 19 H 22 N 2 0, is isomeric with homocinchonidia, and 
is formed by the action of concentrated HC1 on quinamina and con- 
quinamina C 19 H 24 N 2 2 — H 2 0=C 19 H 22 N 2 0. It is a white amorphous 
powder, very soluble in ether, alcohol and in diluted HC1. The chlor- 
hydrate is amorphous ; chloride of platinum causes a yellow amorphous 
precipitate (C 19 H 22 N 2 OHCl) 2 -j-PtCl 4 ; chloride of gold gives a similar 
precipitate, which does not turn purple. 

®hiinamicina, C 19 H 24 N 2 2 , is formed when quinamina and probably 
also conquinamina, in the form of sulphate, is heated to ioo°C. The 
residue is dissolved in cold water, precipitated by sodium bicarbonate, 
and the alkaloid freed from quinamidina by repeated solution in acetic 
acid and precipitation with bicarbonate. Quinamicina is a white amor- 
phous powder, which fuses between 95 and I02°C, is slightly dextro- 
gyre and freely soluble in ether and in diluted H 2 S0 4 ; the latter solu- 
tion yields yellow precipitates with the chlorides of platinum and of 

Protoquinamiana, C 17 H 20 N 2 O, is formed, like the preceding, by 
raising the temperature to above iOO°C, preferably to between 120 
and I30°C. The sulphate is nearly insolube in cold water. The 
alkaloid is insoluble in ether, but dissolves readily in acetic acid, form- 
ing a brown solution, from which it is precipitated by ammonia or 

Am Jour. Pharm 
June, 1878. 

The Cinchona Alkaloids. 

sodium bicarbonate, in light brown amorphous flakes, becoming black- 
brown on drying. 

Paricina, C 16 H 18 N 2 0, found with quinamina in red bark from Dar- 
jeeling ; it is at once precipitated by bicarbonate of sodium from dilute 
solutions, and forms a pale yellow amorphous powder, soluble, with a 
yellow color, in ether, when fresh, and yielding amorphous salts ; chlo- 
ride of gold causes a muddy yellow coloration, which will not turn 

Paytina} C 21 H 24 N 2 0-fH 2 0, contained in the white cinchona bark 
•of Payta ; it crystallizes in beautiful prisms, and has the same reaction 
with chloride of gold as quinamina, conquinamina and quinamidina ; it 
differs from them, however, in being easily precipitated by chloride of 
platinum. Paytina rotates the plane of polarized light to the left. 

Paytamina is the amorphous alkaloid present with paytina in the 
above bark ; it is easily soluble in ether, is colored purple by chloride 
of gold, and precipitated by chloride of platinum. 

Cusconina, C 23 H 26 N 2 O i H-2H 2 0, crystallizes in small plates, was 
discovered by Leverkohn in Cusco cinchona, and differs from all other 
cinchona alkaloids by forming an amorphous, jelly like sulphate with 
H 9 S0 4 , which is not dissolved by adding more acid. Its acetate and 
other salts are likewise gelatinous. 

Aricina, C 23 H 26 N 2 4 , is found in the same bark as cusconina ; it was 
discovered by Pelletier and Coriol, crystallizes in white, shining prisms, 
which melt at i88°C, rotates the plane of polarization to the left, like 
cusconia, and forms salts, which are sometimes gelatinous, but are more 
characterized, particularly the binoxalate and acetate, by their sparing 

Cusconidina, also a constituent of the Cusco-bark, is precipitated by 
ammonia from solutions in acids in pale yellow amorphous flakes, which 
after being washed form a loosely coherent mass, become denser on 
drying in the air, and ultimately melt together. Its composition has 
not yet been determined. 

Javanina was separated by the author from the so called amorphous 
bases of Java calisaya bark. It separates from water slowly in rhombic 
scales, is very easily soluble in ether, without crystallizing on evapora- 

1 In the formula published in " Berichte," H 20 was erroneously given ; the alka- 
loid was discovered by Hesse in 1870. — Editor. 

Sulphate of Quinidia. 

f Am. Tour. Pharm. 

\ June, 1878. 

tion, dissolves in dilute sulphuric acid with an intense yellow color, and 
yields with oxalic acid a neutral salt crystallizing in scales. 

Another alkaloid was observed in young calisaya bark from Bolivia ; 
it is liquid, produces a greasy stain upon paper, and has a penetrating 
odor reminding of quinolina. 

Other derivatives are the hydro cinch onins and the bases obtained by 
Zorn by acting with highly concentrated muriatic acid upon the four 
more common cinchona alkaloids. 


By Dr. J. E. De Vrij. 

In reading the transactions of the Paris Societe de Pharmacie (see 
" Amer. Jour. Phar.," April, p. 204,) in the meeting on the 9th of 
January, my attention was struck by the conclusion of M. Petit u that 
the neutral sulphate of quinidia does not contain water of crystalliza- 
tion." This conclusion, combined with the wish of a Dutch chemist, 
expressed in one of our journals, to become acquainted with a cheap 
reagent to test the purity of the commercial sulphate of quinidia, 
induces me to communicate some particulars about this compound. 

Professor A. C. Oudemans determined the molecular rotation of this 
salt dissolved in absolute alcohol. 

A salt prepared by himself, 2 (C 20 H 21 N 2 O 2 ) S0 4 H 2 -|-2H 2 0, in which 
he found experimentally 4*5 per cent, of water yielded a molecular 
rotation of 255 i r d\ 1 

A salt beautifully crystallized in very long needles, presented to me 
by Messrs. Howard & Sons, in which he found 4-5 per cent, of water, 
yielded a molecular rotation of 255 4' cT. 

A salt presented to me by M. Tallendier, of Argenteuil, in which he 
found 4*6 per cent, of water, yielded a molecular rotation of 254 o/. 

From these experiments it follows that the crystallized sulphate is 
scientifically not anhydrous, but contains two molecules of water of 
crystallization=4'6o3 per cent. From a commercial point of view, 
however, I found that M. Petit is right, for 7*003 grams of commer- 
cial sulphate of quinidia, presented to me a few years ago by Messrs. 
Howard & Sons, lost only 0*025 grams— 0*35 per cent, by a long 
exposure to the heat of a water-bath. It seems, therefore, that the 
pure crystallized sulphate loses its water of crystallization very easily. 

The test for the purity of this salt is based upon the fact, which I 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

June, i2 7 8. / 

Resin of Gurjun Balsam. 


found more than twenty years ago, that the hydriodate of quinidia 
requires more than twelve hundred parts of cold water to dissolve it. 

One gram of sulphate of quinidia, prepared by myself, in 1856, 
chemically pure, from a specimen of quinidia kindly presented to me 
by Mr. J. Eliot Howard, was dissolved in 50 grams of hot water, and 
to this solution added 0*5 gram of potassium iodide. By this addition 
a heavy sandy crystalline powder of hydriodate of quinidia was 
precipitated, and on filtering off the liquid on the next day, the clear 
liquid was not altered by the addition of a few drops of liquor ammonia^ 
but remained perfectly clear. 

Having ascertained by this experiment the behavior of the chemically 
pure sulphate of quinidia under the circumstances mentioned, I applied 
this test to the good commercial sulphate, presented to me a few years 
ago by Messrs. Howard. I found that the liquor filtered from the 
precipitated hydriodate of quinidia became slightly turbid bv the addition 
of liquor ammoniae, but without separating an appreciable precipitate. 

Therefore, the practical test for the purity of the commercial article 
is to dissolve one part of the salt in fifty parts of hot water, and to add 
to this solution a half part of iodide of potassium. If the precipitate 
is not sandy, but resinous, no further trouble need to be taken, for this 
resinous aspect proves that the salt contains either cinchonia or cin- 
chonidia, or perhaps both of them. If, however, the precipitate 
constitutes a heavy sandy crystalline powder, the filtered liquid is, after 
some hours, tested by liquor ammoniae. If this addition makes the 
liquor only slightly turbid without formation of an appreciable precipitate ' y 
the conclusion is that the salt is really good sulphate of quinidia, and 
contains only traces of other cinchona alkaloids, which generally is a 
slight trace of cinchonia. — Phar. four, and Trans. , March 23, 1878. 

The Hague. 


By Professor Fluckiger. 
In the " Pharmacographia," p. 204, it is stated that copaivic acid is 
by no means an abundant and common constituent of copaiba. The 
only kind of that balsam I have ever met with, which readily yields 

'Translated from the Archi-v der Pharmacie, February, 1878. 



Resin of Gurjun Balsam. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1878. 

crystallized acid is that mentioned in the said book. The drug 
alluded to was contributed from Trinidad to the London Exhibition of 
1 85 1. The crystals before me are of decidedly acid reaction on litmus 
paper. I have recently again examined several varieties of copaiba, but 
have not been successful in obtaining copaivic acid from them. At 
the same time I prepared the essential oils from them and was aston- 
ished to find them all levogyre, although I had submitted to distillation 
not only levogyre varieties of the balsam, but also strongly dextrogyre 
ones. I must say in fact (see " Pharmacographia," p. 204), that I have 
as yet not met with an oil of copaiba deviating to the right. 

Some time ago I noticed in the price list of Gehe's and Co , Dres- 
den, " crystallized copaivic acid." On applying for it, and at the same 
time for the very balsam from which it had been extracted, I was at 
once informed that the material by which the acid had been afforded 
was " East Indian copaiba." The balsam sent, together with the 
crystals, proved indeed to be Balsamum Dipterocarpi, as described by 
Hanbury and myself in u Pharmacographia," p. 81. I therefore sup- 
posed the crystals sent by Gehe and Co. to agree with gurjunic acid, 
but found them to be devoid of acid character. They were slightly 
yellowish and undoubtedly crystalline, and soluble, although not pre- 
cisely in abundance, in the usual solvents for resins. Among them I 
found petroleum spirit, boiling at about 8o°C, the most suitable for 
purifying the crystals. If they are dissolved in about twelve parts of 
that liquid, tolerably well-formed crystals, thin prisms — sometimes as 
long as two-fifths of an inch — are obtained by exposing the solution to 
cold. I have not been able to get finer crystals, either by evaporation 
of the petroleum spirit solution or by using alcohol. 

The purest, perfectly transparent and colorless crystals of the best 
crops begin to melt at I26°C. without diminishing their weight ; they 
are in fact anhydrous \ somewhat more considerable quantities cannot 
be perfectly liquefied before reaching 130 . Gurjunic acid, 1 according 
to Werner (Zeitschrift fur Chemie, 1862, 588), melts at 220°. The 
resin under notice, as purified by me, after it has been melted, forms 
an amorphous mass, reassuming immediately the crystalline form as 
soon as it is slightly touched with alcohol. By heating the crystallized 

'It is called " gurgunic acid" in the German books, owing no doubt, to a mis- 
print, for I am not aware that in India they ever write "gurgun balsam " but always 
" gurjun," although I am unable to say what this word signifies. 

Am jiS I r if 7 8 arm '} Hospital Stewards, U. S. A. 307 

resin in a platinum capsule it is partly volatilized, and evolves the same 
odor as is given off by heated colophony — partly it is charred, the small 
amount of charcoal being easily burnt away. 

The crystallized resin is not dissolved even by boiling caustic lye, 
nor does it possess an acid reaction on litmus paper; it is in no way 
capable of yielding any compound with basic substances. Its saturated 
solution in petroleum spirit displays no rotatory power on polarized 

It forms an orange solution with concentrated sulphuric acid, 
becoming decolorized and turbid on addition of water. If submitted 
to destructive distillation an acid oily liquid of a rather agreeable odor 
is produced. By using potash the resin under notice is not much 
altered, nor by heating it with anhydride of acetic acid. 

Submitted to ultimate analysis by Dr. Buri, in my laboratory, the 
resin in burning yielded 

i. ir. in. 

0*2476 0*2354 0-2492 

C0 2 . . . 0*7369 0*6996 0*7419 

OH 2 .... °' 2 535 0*2410 0*2557 

Answering in percentages — 

C 81*16 81*05 81*16 

H . . . 11*38 ii"37 11*40 

O 7-46 7*58 7-40 

The formula C 28 H 16 2 would require 

28 C / . 336 8i*i6 

46 H . . . 46 1 i'ii 

2 O . . 32 7*73 


The crystallographic character of the resin has been examined and 
carefully described by Dr. Bucking, in Professor Groth's " Zeitschrift 
fur Krystallographie," Leipzig, 1877, 389. The crystals belong to 
the asymmetric system and are long prisms. — Phar. Jour, and Trans., 
March 16 


Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : — On behalf of the Hospital Stewards, 
U. S. A., allow me to tender our sincere acknowledgments for the service you have 
rendered in advocating our cause in your valuable journal. As the subject of our 
rank, duty and pay seems to be little understood outside of army circles, permit me 
to make a few remarks with the view of rendering it more intelligible. 

First, our rank : This is but nominal ; virtually speaking we hold no rank what- 

3o8 Hospital Stewards, U.S.A. {^'^Sg* 

ever, and outside of the hospital proper we aie subject to the orders of the junioF 
corporal of the regiment or post. It may be said that we certainly do hold a 
definite rank according'to " regulations."" This would be the natural inference to- 
be drawn from the wording of the law creatirg our grade, but this law, or regula- 
tion, is ignored in every instance, as can be clearly shown. 

Our warrants are issued and signed by the Secretary of War, and should, there- 
fore, have precedence of those issued by company and regimental commanders to the 
various non-commissioned officers of their commands. 

That such, however, is not the case. I will cite the law which fixes the rank : 
" Rank of non-commissioned officers : 

ist, Cadets, 4th, Ordnance Sergeants, 

2d, Sergeants Major, Commissary Sergeants and 

3d, Quartermaster's Sergeants, Hospital Stewards." 

Now, although holding the same rank as Ordnance and Commissary Sergeants, 
we receive less pay than either. 

Not only is our rank ignored in so far as relates to the source of our warrants 
and in the matter of pay, but also as regards the custom of the service, for 
example : if the troops of a post or camp are removed and a corporal, or for that 
matter a private, is left in charge of the government property, the said corporal or 
private, according to the custom, commands the Hospital Steward. 

Now as to our duties: That they are multifarious, disagreeable and full of 
responsibility will be sufficiently clear to any one who will take the trouble to read 
our " Vade Mecum, 1 ' the " Hospital Steward's Manual, 11 which has been published 
and adopted by the War Department, as a guide for the Hospital Stewards of the 
army. At the same time, this manual is utterly silent on the subject of Stewards 
performing the responsible duties of the Post Surgeon, which we are called upon to 
do more or less every day. 

For the last two weeks the writer has been attending to all the sick in garrison 
at this place, and performing all the .duties of the Post Surgeon, on account of 
sickness of the Surgeon in charge. In my diaiy I find recorded six cases of 
midwifery attended to during my last four years of service, five of these were thrown 
on my hands by reason of sickness or absence of the Post Surgeon at the time of 
their occurrence, and the other because the woman had refused to do the Surgeon's 
washing and was afraid that he would, on that account, refuse to attend her. 

Again, there are a large number of surgeons who, when called upon by the 
enlisted men and laundresses of the garrison, instead of attending in person, send 
their steward with instructions to do what he can for them, and if necessary take 
them into the hospital, where the surgeon will visit them next day. 

In this and various other ways a great amount of the Post Surgeon's duty is 
thrown upon the shoulders of the steward, and for all which he receives the munifi- 
cent salary of $30 per month. 

This brings me to the subject of our pay. When our grade v>as first established 
our sole duty consisted of drawing the rations for the sick in the hospital and 
superintending the cooking and distribution thereof. At that time the surgeon 
performed all clerical labor, prepared the medicines, compounded his own prescrip- 

A Vn°e U , r i8 P 7 h 8 arm "} Hospital Stewards, U.S.A. 309 

tions, in fact performed all those duties connected with the medical department 
which require intelligence and responsibility. At that time our pay may have been 
ample. But now all this has changed,- gradually all these duties have been 
assigned to the steward, until at the present time nothing remains to be done by 
the Post Surgeon but visit the sick once daily, write the prescriptions and sign his 
name to the official papers and reports required of him. 

This is all very well, the surgeon should not be hampered with all the minor 
•details of his calling, he should have ample time for study and reflection, so that he 
may be able to keep abreast in the rapid advance which medical science is making 
in these days. At the same time it is no more than just that the pay of stewards 
should be increased in proportion to the increase of their duties and responsibilities, 
and their rank made commensurate with their calling and social condition. We 
do not want a liberal salary, nor a sinecure, if such a thing is possible for Hospital 
Stewards, — all we ask for is justice. 

Apothecaries of the navy receive $60 per month, yet their duties are not to be 
compared with those of the stewards, who, in addition to the great disadvantage in 
their pay as compared with the "apothecary," are changed from post to post more 
frequently than any other class of men in the army. As two-thirds of the stewards 
are men of family, their small savings, if they are able to make any, are absorbed 
during these frequent changes of station, and often their slender pay has to be 
mortgaged in order to obtain transportation for their families. To illustrate what 
straits they are often put to I will relate a case which came under my observation, 
and which would be amusing were it not a shame to the government which permits 
such a state of affairs to exi>t : 

The wife of steward G had been sick for two weeks ; the soiled clothes of 

the family were laid aside the first week, as G. had no money to have the washing 
done. As his wife's health was no better the second week steward G. concluded 
to pitch in and do the washing himself 5 for this purpose he selected a day when he 
knew the Post Surgeon would be absent from the post, believing that then he 
would be more likely to finish his laundry duties without being discovered or inter- 
rupted. When his work was about half finished he was summoned in great haste 
to see one of the company laundresses. On visiting her he became convinced that 
in less than two hours there would be an addition to the family. Hastening back 
to the wash-tub he finished his work and returned to his post at the bedside of the 
woman and saw her safely delivered. (This same steward is now a prosperous 
druggist in Chicago, 111.) 

I could mention numerous instances of a similar nature if space permitted. 
It is well known and conceded by all who are conversant with the facts that the 
Hospital Stewards, as a " class," are superior in knowledge and ability to any other 
class of enlisted men in the army. But at the same time we cannot close our eyes 
to the fact that worthless and incompetent men have, by favoritism and otherwise, 
obtained entrance to our corps. 

The remedy for this lies in the hands of the government. No one should receive 
the appointment until a careful, systematic and impartial examination shall have 
determined his fitness for the position, and candidates should be limited to graduates 
of Pharmaceutical Colleges in good standing. 

V arieties. 

\m Jour Pharm. 

June, 1878 

In order to bring about this desired reform it is absolutely necessary that our pay- 
as well as our rank be increased ; for it is absurd to suppose that good and capable 
men in civil life will come forward to compete for a position in the army, where, in 
nine cases out of ten, owing to the inferior rank, they will be compelled to surrender 
all manhood and self-respect and receive the pitiful sum of $30 per month for a 
service for which, in civil life, they would receive double that amount, and at the 
same time be free and independent men, the value of which is not to be estimated 
in dollars and cents. A Hospital Steward. 

April 4th, 1878. 


Alkaloids of Opium, their Action. — The well-determined opium alkaloids now 
number sixteen. The effect of any one differs from the rest or from that of opium 
itself. Dr. Isaac Ott ("Jour. Nervous and Mental Diseases," Jan., 1878), reports a 
large number of experiments which, added to our previous knowledge, enable him 
to draw the following conclusions : 

1. Cryptopia is narcotic 5 excites and then depresses reflex action by an effect on 
the spinal cord, reduces power of motor nerves, abolishes sensation by an action on 
the spinal sensory ganglia and lowers the heart beat by an action on its muscular 
structure. 2. Thebaina is a spinal convulsivant, has no action on motor or sensory 
nerves or striated muscle. It reduces the heart beat by an action on that organ, and 
increases blood pressure by stimulating the cerebral vaso-motor centers. 3. Codeia 
is a narcotic and spinal convulsivant, produces a veratroid contraction of striated 
muscle and depresses the heart-beat by an action on the cardiac muscle 4. Chlor- 
ocodiae is a tetanic agent. 5. Apocodeia produces vomiting, coma and death. 
6. Narceina is soporific to cold blooded animals, but not to man, and is a spinal 
convulsivant ; it does not destroy the motor nerves, as they act on thrusting a probe 
down the spine ; it produces veratroid contraction of the muscle, and reduces the 
heart beat by stimulation of the peripheral end of the pneumo-gastric. 7. Papa- 
verina is narcotic and convulsivant, the convulsions being partly spinal and partly 
peripheral, the latter, it is highly probable, from an action on the muscle ; it dimin- 
ishes the heart's contractions by peripheral action on the cardio-inhibitory apparatus j 
it also causes veratroid contraction of the muscle. 8. Narcotina is non-narcotic 
and a spinal convulsivant, produces veratroid contraction of striated muscle and is a 
very active agent to decrease the beats of the heart by an action on cardiac muscle. 
9. Cotarnina is soporific, and paralyzes, like curare, the motor nerves. 10. Hydro- 
cotarnina is narcotic and convulsivant. n. Hydrochlorate of cotarnamic acid is 
a convulsivant, and paralyzes the pneumo-gastric. 12. Laudanosina and laudanina 
are tetanic agents. 13. Morphia is a narcotic and spinal convulsivant ; it produces 
veratroid contraction of muscle and reduces the heart-beat. 14. Oxymorphia has an 
action like morphia, only weaker. 15. Apomorphia is an emetic, excites and 
reduces spinal reflex excitability, and diminishes the number of cardiac contractions. 
16. Meconin is narcotic to cold-blooded animals, but not in doses of two grains by 
the stomach in man ; it causes hyperassthesia and paralysis of voluntary motion with. 

Am jl™-J£™} Varieties. 311 

general relaxation ; it also produces a veratroid contraction. The opium alkaloids 
all have a dominant action on the nervous system, causing first increased exaggerated 
functions, and, if the dose is large enough, a paralysis of them. In the warm- 
blooded animals this action is both on the spinal cord and cerebrum. — Detroit Lancet, 

Thymol — The essential oils of thyme, of American horsemint and of the Ptycbotis 
ajowjan contain a substance, a homologueof phenol or carbolic acid, having the compo- 
sition represented by C 10 H u O, and known as thymol For more than two years this has 
been used by German surgeons, and is now being introduced among ourselves. It 
was discovered in 1719 by Caspar Neumann, examined chemically by Lallemand 
and Leonard Doveri, and first used to deodorize unhealthy wounds by Bouillon and 
Paquet, of Lille, in 1868. In 1875 several German surgeons published investigations 
of its antiseptic properties, which are estimated to be from 4 to 25 times as powerful 
under certain circumstances as those of carbolic acid. Thymol is a crystalline, nearly 
colorless body, with a pleasant odor and an aromatic burning taste. Its specific 
gravity is 1 028, and it melts at 44°C. It dissolves in 1,200 parts of cold water, 1 
part of rectified spirit, 120 parts glycerin, and in ^ part of caustic alkalies. Fats 
and oils also dissolve it readily. It is prepared from the oils of either of the plants 
before mentioned, but pharmacists should beware of experimenting on English sam- 
ples of oil of thyme, as but few of them are genuine, or, at least, contain any 
thymol. The oil is said to yield as much as 50 per cent, of thymol on the Conti- 
tinent. Thymol can be manufactured from these oils by treating them with an 
equal volume of a 20 per cent, solution of caustic soda, separating the alkaline 
liquid, and neutralizing with hydrochloric acid, when the thymol will float to the 
surface. It may also be obtained by submitting the oils to a low temperature for a 
few days, when the thymol crystallizes out. Its powerful antiseptic action, exceed- 
ing under some conditions that of carbolic acid, its small activity as a poison — about 
one-tenth of that of carbolic acid — and the absence of irritating effect when it is 
applied to the skin, all point to its use as a substitute for carbolic acid in the now 
well-known antiseptic treatment of surgical cases elaborated by Professor Lister. 
This substitution has been made with great success by Professor Volkmann, of 
Halle. For the spray solution, this gentleman uses a mixture of 1 part thymol, 10 
alcohol, 20 glycerin, 1,000 water 5 but we understand that a solution in water only, 
which will not deposit, may be made by adding 1 part of thymol to 1000 of hot 
water. For the gauze dressings used by Professor Lister, others were substituted, 
made by saturating 1,000 parts of bleached gauze with a mixture of 500 parts sper- 
maceti, 50 resin and 16 of thymol. This prepared gauze is extremely soft and pli- 
ant, and, to use the words of the reporter, sucks up blood and the secretions of a 
wound like a sponge. The fibres of the gauze being impregnated with spermaceti, 
cannot, of course, become saturated with the secretions, so that they do not become 
stiff. Thymol has been used for various skin diseases by Dr. R. Crocker, but the 
results of his experiments have not yet been published. As an internal remedv, 
thymol does not seem to make much way. It has proved useful in diseases of the 
stomach, accompanied by fermentation, and Mr. W. H. Stone reports in the " Med- 
ical Times and Gazette" that he has found it useful in cases of chorea, one form of 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
June, 1878. 

which is St. Vitus' Dance. The present cost of thymol is about five times that of 
the best carbolic acid, but as one part of the former seems to do as much work as 
25 parts of the latter, the advantage of price is on the side of thymol. — Chem. and 
Drug. [London], p. in. 

Acetate of Lead in Large Doses in Post-Partum and Other Hemorrhages. — 

According to Dr. Workman, acetate of lead, in drachm doses, acts as a uterine 
motor stimulant to cause firm contraction after delivery of the uterus, thereby 
preventing post-partum hemorrhage. In hemoptysis also, acetate of lead may be 
given in half drachm to drachm doses, with very prompt effect. It should be 
given in solution and the dose repeated, if necessary. No opium should be given 
with it. In these large doses the acetate of lead usually purges, and thus becomes 
eliminated from the system. Notwithstanding the prevailing opinion to the contrary, 
these large doses of acetate of lead are claimed by this author to be perfectly 
harmless. In corroboration of these statements a number of cases is cited which 
go to prove the truth of the above statements. — Detroit Lancet, March, from Canada 
Lancet, January 1, 1878. 

Chloral for Removing Warts. — A solution containing about twenty grains of 
chloral hydrate to the ounce of water is recommended by Dr. Craig as being 
effectual for the removal of warts. The operation is said to be painless. — Detroit 

Med. Jour., Dec, from Canada Med. Rec. 

The Eucalyptus Globulus. —Professor Samuel Lockwod says, in the "Popular 
Science Monthly," that the E. globulus has earned, by fair experiment, its name of 
fever-tree, as a preventive, seems now to be settled Its rapid growth must make it 
a great drainer of wet soils, while its marked terebinthine odor may have its influ- 
ence, and it is highly probable that the liberation of this essence into the air stands 
connected with its generation of ozone. But, whatever the sanatory activities of the 
eucalypt may be, the fact is squarely settled that spots in Italy, uninhabited because 
of malarial fever, have been rendered tolerable by the planting of E. globulus, and it 
is believed that a more plentiful planting would nearly, if not quite, remove the 

The Eucalyptus in Algeria — Consul-General Playfair writes: "Formerly it 
was impossible for the workmen at the great iron mines of Mokta el Hadid to 
remain there during the summer ; those who attempted to do so died, and the com- 
pany was obliged to take the laborers to and from the mines every morning and 
evening, thirty-three kilos each way. From 1868 to 1870 the company planted 
more than 100,000 Eucalyptus trees, and now the workmen are able to live all the 
year through at the scene of their labors " 

Extract of Pimentum as a Counter-irritant. — This preparation has been lauded 
by some French physicians as a valuable revulsive, not being so fugacious as mus- 
tard, nor so irritating as antimony or croton oil. It begins to act in from ten to 
thirty minutes, according to the delicacy of the skin, causing heat, a slight tingling 

Am J U J ne U , r 'I8 P 7 h 8 arm •} Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 313 

and redness, which go on increasing for about three hours, when they remain sta- 
tionary. The plaster may be applied for eight to ten hours in children, and for 
twenty to twenty-four in adults. No great irritation capable of impeding occupa- 
tion ensues, and it may be best compared with that of a sinapism arrived at half its 
power, and so maintained for the twenty-four hours. — Med. Press and Circ, April 3. 

Destruction of a Turkish Industry. — Kezanlik, the city of roses, which has 
not long been relieved from the presence of the marauding Cossack, was until 
lately the centre of the traffic in attar of roses; but the beautiful plain, with its 
vineyards and its clumps of walnut trees, and its great gardens of roses, has been 
passed over four times by alternate waves of battle. The march of armies and 
bivouacs of 100,000 men have ruined the gardens, and the town itself was lately 
burned, the Turkish part first, and then the Bulgarian part. 

It has been suggested that India is quite able to supply the deficiency, but this is 
doubtful, and there is a significance in the fact that the price of " rose oil " has 
made a great leap upwards within the last few weeks, the best being quoted in the 
British market at 40 shillings per ounce, with every probability of a further advance. 
Dr. Septimus Piesse, an authority on all matters relating to perfumes states the 
average yearly production of attar in the now devastated districts to have been as 
follows: District of Kezanlik, 1,736 pounds ; Gucupso, 754 pounds; Karadja- 
Bahg, 384 pounds ; Yeni-Saghra, 108 pounds; Zoaghra, 98 pounds ; say a total of 
3,470 pounds, or 55,520 ounces. — Confectioners'' Journal. 

The Rain Tree. — At a recent meeting of the Linnsean Society, Prof. Thistleton 
Dyer described the "rain tree 11 of Mogobamba, South America, under the name 
of Pithecolobium saman. The so-called " rain " is the fluid excreta of cicadas which 
feed on the juices of the foliage, and its dropping is therefore analogous to the 
"honey-dew" which sometimes drops from the leaves of lime-trees by the agency 
of aphides. — Dublin Med. Press and Circ, April 17. 


Philadelphia, May 21st, 1878. 
In absence of the President Mr. Ed. Gaillard was called to the chair, and Mr. 
J. L. Patterson was elected to act in place of the Registrar, who was engaged in 
other duty for the college. On motion the reading of minutes of last meeting was 
dispensed with. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited a specimen of crystallized chloral hydrate which, when 
received in this country, two years ago, was colorless, but now had a uniform 
reddish tinge, intermixed with small spots of a deeper color ; as the vial had never 
been opened all were at a loss to account for such a change. 

A specimen of spiegeleisen (mirror-iron) was presented to the cabinet; it contains 
much carbon and manganium and is largely used in the manufacture of cast steel 
at the present time. 

3 H Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { Am jine, r 'i8 7 8 arm * 

A paper by Mr. E. Gaillard, upon the impurities of acetic acid (see page 293), 
was read and discussed ; it was suggested that the proposed test for nitric acid might 
be shortened by adding an equal bulk of sulphuric acid to the acetic acid and then 
the ferrous sulphate. 

Mr. C. H. Cressler, of Chambersburg, Pa., communicated a paper upon the 
effects of the rhizome of Aspidium marginale (see page 290), and an additional 
note, by Prof. Maisch, was read describing the plants and rhizomes of the species 
mentioned, and of Asp. jilix mas j the papers were accompanied with specimens of 
the plant and rhizome, sent by Mr. Cressler. 

A paper by Mr. J. J. Brown, of Oakland, Cal., upon a pill excipient, was read 
(see page 289), recommending a compound glycerite of starch for the purpose. This 
induced a conversation upon the subject of glycerin as an excipient for pills, and 
attention was called to its tendency to absorb moisture, which rendered it unfit for 
pills containing deliquescent substances, unless an absorbent powder be added. 

Prof. Remington exhibited a graduated minim pipette, improved by Dr. Squibb \ 
it has a gum nipple attached to the dropping tube, and by immersing the latter in 
the liquid after pressing out the air the desired amount of liquid will be readily 
admitted and measured, and can at once be dispensed on again pressing upon the 
nipple. It is found most convenient to keep such graduated minim pipettes in a 
wide-mouthed bottle, partially filled with water, thus insuring constant cleanliness- 
Several of the members present spoke of the superiority of these pipettes over the 
ordinary minim measures. 

There being no further business, on motion, the meeting adjourned. 

J. L. Patterson, Registrar pro tern. 


Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The Committee on Instruction of the 
Board of Trustees have had under consideration, for some time past, the advisability 
of establishing a graded course of instruction. During the past winter the number 
of students in attendance was so large that the Hall Committee had to provide 
more seats for their accommodation, in consequence of which nearly all the available 
space has been occupied by benches. The subject of increased and still better 
accommodations for the students and the organization of a graded course having 
been repeatedly before the Board, that body, early in January last, referred the 
whole subject to the Committees on Instruction and on Property, in conjunction 
with the professors, and a plan was matured which has received the sanction of 
the board. Although it will require some time yet to arrange all the details, we 
may mention the following outlines : 

1. The instruction to the junior and senior students will be arranged, with 
perhaps slight modifications, according to the plan which received the sanction of 
the "Conference of the Schools of Pharmacy," in 1876 (see " Amer. Jour, of 

Am jine"*i878 arm '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 315 

Pharm.," 1876, p. 471) ; in the junior department, therefore, the elementary 
branches wiil be taught, which will hereafter be omitted from the senior course, 
thus affording more time in the latter for necessary details and a more extended 
range of instruction. 

2. There will be six lecture hours per week for each class, the same as for the 
undivided class heretofore. The lectures to the two classes will be on alternate 
days so as to afford the professors ample time for preparing the necessary specimens, 
apparatus and experiments in illustration of the lectures. 

3 Near the close of February an examination of the junior students will be 
held j the examination for the degree of Ph.G. will, as heretofore, take place early 
in March. 

4. For admission to the senior course the juniors will be required to successfully 
pass the examination in each branch ; those failing in one or more branches, in 
February, will be granted another examination towards the end of September 
previous to the beginning of the lectures. Students who have attended one course 
of instruction in some other College of Pharmacy, before entering the senior course, 
will be required to prove that they have passed, at such college, an examination in 
all the branches taught to the juniors, or submit to the examination in the autumn. 

5. Students who, previous to the beginning of the lectures in October next, may 
have attended one full course of lectures in this or another College of Pharmacy,, 
will be entitled to admission to the senior course without previous examination, up 
to and including the lecture course for 1880-1881. 

It will be observed that the adopted modifications in the instruction will vastly 
increase the labors of the professors, but at the same time afford the students still 
greater inducements for systematic study and the opportunity of obtaining a more 
thorough professional education than heretofore. 

At the annual meeting of the college, held in March, the subject of a social 
reception to the members of the college and their ladies had been introduced, and 
referred to the Board of Trustees, who appointed a committee to make proper 
arrangements. In the afternoon of May 21st the last pharmaceutical meeting of 
the session was held, and the evening of the same day had been selected for the 
reception. About an hour and a half was occupied by Prof. Remington in experi- 
menting with and explaining the use of the oxhydrogen lantern as a means of 
instruction, and in projecting upon the screen photographic views of landscapes, 
buildings, works of art, portraits, etc , after which the company repaired to the 
museum. This had been handsomely decorated with flags and exotic plants from 
the hot-house of Dr. G. B. Wood, the extensive collections of the college were 
exposed to view, and in the adjoining library Prof. Maisch's flower garden had been 
arranged, consisting of the large models of flowers imported a few years ago and 
used in illustrating his lectures. The centre of the museum hall was occupied with 
the tastefully arranged refreshments provided for the occasion ; a piano had been 
procured, and music and conversation were indulged in until the company separated. 
The reception was well attended by ladies, and appeared to please all present to 
such a degree that many expressed the hope that similar reunions of the members 
of the College might be arranged from time to time. 

3 1 6 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { Am june% P 7 8 arm ' 

Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. — The tenth annual commencement was 
held last month, in the hall of the Institute of Technology, and was largely 
attended. After an address by the president, Mr. S. A. D. Sheppard, in which he 
paid a tribute of respect to the late Ashel Boyden and Daniel Henchman, the first 
president of the college, the diplomas were conferred upon the following graduates : 

Jonathan Marshall Colcord, Mass., Dialyzed Iron j Charles Dwight Cooke, 
Mass., Analysis of D ami ana j Herbert Augustus Curtis, Mass, Salicylic Acid-, 
Edmund Culver Danforth, Mass., Sodii Sulpho-Carbolas ; Frederick Arthur 
Hartshorn, Mass., Saccharated Pepsin; Charles Huestis Hyde, Vt., Coffee; Charles 
Kenneth Short, N. B., Petroleum and some of its Products having Pharmaceutical 

The valedictory addresses were delivered on the part of the faculty by Prof. W. 
P. Bolles, M.D , and in behalf of the graduating class by Mr. J. M. Colcord. 
After the audience was dismissed, the members of the College, together with their 
ladies and invited guests, repaired to the Hotel Brunswick, where they partook of the 
annual dinner. 

At the annual meeting held May 2d, the following officers were elected: Presi- 
dent, L. C. Flanagan ; Vice Presidents — W. W. Bartlett and C. P. Orne ; Secretary, 
S. A. D. Sheppard j Treasurer, John C. Lowd, and Auditor, E. S. Kelly. 

Alumni Association of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy — An adjourned 
meeting was held on the evening of May 21st, to act upon some proposed amend- 
ments to the constitution 5 afterwards the Association sat down to the annual supper* 

The New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association held its eighth annual meeting 
in Library Hall, Elizabeth, on Wednesday, May 15th. The meeting was called to 
order at 10.45 A. M. by the President, Mr. C. B. Smith, who introduced Dr. 
Green, the mayor of the city. His honor addressed the Association, extending a 
hearty welcome to the members. The President, on behalf of the Association, 
returned thanks for the kindness shown. 

After reading the annual address by the President, the following officers were 
elected for the ensuing year : President, Randolph Rickey, of Trenton ; Vice Presi- 
dents — A. S. White, of Mount Holly, and Robert Eastburn, of New Brunswick 5 
Treasurer, William Rust, of New Brunswick; Recording Secretary, A. P. Brown, 
of Camden; Corresponding Secretary, R. W. Vandervoort, of Newark; Standing 
Committee— A. S. White, ex-officio, of Mount Holly ; Chas. Holzhauer, of Newark ; 
Richard Frohwein, of Elizabeth ; Bunting Hankins, of Bordentown, and Franklin 
Dare, of Bridgeton. 

Several papers of interest were read by' members. 

Princeton was decided on as the place for the next annual meeting, and it was 
also decided to hold a two days' session ; the first day for business, the second to be 
devoted to reading answers to queries and volunteer papers. A number of new 
members were elected, and the Publishing Committee were directed to have five 
hundred copies of the proceedings of 1878 printed, and to send a copy to every 
druggist in New Jersey. At 5 P. M. the meeting adjourned, the members well 
pleased with the work of the day. 

Am june, r 'i8 P 7 8! irm '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 317 

Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. — The druggists and pharmacists of 
Reading have held several meetings to secure proper accommodations for this State 
Association, which will meet there June nth, at n A. M. The American Hall 
has been selected as the place of meeting, and the American House as headquarters, 
both located at Fourth and Penn streets. 

The Secretary, Dr. J. A. Miller, of Harrisburg, has informed us that he has 
endeavored to notify by circular every druggist and pharmacist in the State ; how- 
ever, since the notice cannot have reached many who are eligible to membership, we 
insert here Chap. II, Art. I, of the by-laws, which is as follows : 

" Every pharmacist and druggist of good moral and professional standing, whether 
in business on his own account, retired from business, or employed by another, and 
those teachers of pharmacy, chemistry and botany, who may be specially interested 
in pharmacy and materia medica, are eligible to membership. " 

The objects of the Association are expressed in the following Art. II, of the 
constitution : 

" The aim of this Association shall be to unite the educated and reputable phar- 
maceutists and druggists of the State ; to improve the science and art of pharmacy, 
and so restrict the dispensing and sale of medicines to regularly educated druggists 
and apothecaries " 

The initiation fee is $2; the annual contribution, $1. Applications for mem- 
bership may be addressed to the Chairman of the Executive Committee, Chas H, 
Cressler, Chambersburg. We have learned from the Assistant Secretary, J. H. 
Stein, of Reading, that by May 15, besides the members, about sixty druggists had 
signified their intention to be present, and it is hoped that all who are eligilble will 
join, and, if possible, attend the meeting. 

Louisville College of Pharmacy. — At the annual meeting held in March the 
Board of Directors was elected to serve the ensuing year, and afterwards organized 
as follows : President, C. Lewis Diehl 5 Vice Presidents, Emil Scheffer and Vincent 
Davis; Recording Secretary, Fred. C. Miller 5 Corresponding Secretary, C. Tafel 5 
Treasurer, Edward C. Pfingst 5 Curator, R. Snyder ; Directors — John Colgan, 
John Newman, C. J. Schranz, Jas. A. McAfee and W. W. Smith. 

The College had twenty-nine students at the session just closed, five of whom, 
having passed the examination, received the Degree of Graduate in Pharmacy. The 
College has jubt removed to a commodious building of its own, which was purchased 
last April. The building is situated on one of the principal streets of the city, 
accessible from all parts of the city by street railway, and within two squares of the 
post-office and custom-house. 

Professor Scheffer has just commenced his lectures of the practical course in 
Botany to a class of nineteen students, in the new building of the College. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Paris.— At the session held April 3d, Mr. Mehu pre- 
siding, Mr. Marais directed attention to subnitrate of bismuth, which he had recently 
found to contain lead. The recent researches of Carnot were described by Mr, 

3 1 8 Editorial. 

Poggiale, according to which 10 or 20 grams of the subnitrate are dissolved in boil- 
ing hydrochloric acid, and the solution evaporated nearly to syrupy consistence j a 
little more acid is added to render the residue fluid, and then several drops of sul- 
phuric acid and 30 or 40 cc. of alcohol. If not sufficiently concentrated, the liquid 
may become turbid from the partial decomposition of the bismuth chloride, and 
must be rendered clear by a little hydrochloric acid. After standing for a day, the 
precipitate is collected upon a small filter, washed with alcohol acidulated with 
hydrochloric acid, afterwards with alcohol and dried. The filter is first incinerated, 
then the precipitate is added, moistened with sulphuric acid, heated to redness and 
the remaining sulphate of lead weighed. In this way he obtained from seven sam- 
ples sulphate of lead corresponding to between -on and -098 metallic lead. 

Mr. Petit presented a specimen of the alkaloid from Duboisia myoporoides, and 
described its properties (see "Am. Jour. Pilar.,' 1 May, p. 267). Mr. Lefort sug- 
gested that the dichroism of the alkaloid might be due to some impurity. Mr. Petit 
will continue his investigation. 

A note by Mr. Burcker was read, describing a carbonate of uranium and ammon- 
ium, and a method for separating the oxides of iron and uranium. 

The observations of Mr. Duhomme, that the presence of creatin and creatinin 
accounted for the anomalous behavior of saccharine urine to Fehling's solution, 
created some discussion, and led to the appointment of a committee charged with 
investigating this subject. 


The "Homes "of Pharmaceutical Colleges. — It is well nigh on to fifty years 
when the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy determined to secure a permanent 
home and erected a building on Zane (now Filbert) street, which is still standing, 
but was sold ten years ago, when the present larger and more commodious hall was 
erected. Half a century ago, pharmaceutical education in the United States was in 
its infancy, and it may well have been regarded as a hazardous undertaking on the 
part of the College to incur a debt which must have weighed heavily upon the then 
young institution, and for the discharge of which there was then but a slim prospect. 
We well remember the satisfaction of every member present on the occasion, when 
one of the most faithful officers of the College reported the result of a life-long 
service that the institution was free from debt, and thus, freed from a burden, was 
enabled to look around for more comfortable quarters, the necessity for which had 
gradually become more apparent 

About a year ago the Maryland College of Pharmacy procured a suitable build- 
ing, and a few months ago we had the pleasure of chronicling the purchase of a 
building by the New York College of Pharmacy, which had been seriously crippled 
by a long law-suit with one of its early members, which, however, was ultimately 
decided in its favor. And in the present issue we are pleased to record the fact that 
one of the youngest — the Louisville College of Pharmacy — has followed suit, and 
secured for itself a permanent "home !'" 

( Am Jour. Pharm. 
\ June, 1878. 

Am jour Pharm 
June, 1878 


3 l 9 

The pleasing feature in connection with these evident signs of progress is that no 
aid was asked or received from the cities or States wherein the institutions are located, 
but that the result has been reached through the liberality of the members and friends 
of the colleges. We sincerely wish that the other colleges of pharmacy may soon 
be in a similar position, and secure for themselves that comfort which can only be 
found in a " home." 

The Pharmaceutical Examining Board of Philadelphia have recently presented 
the following report to the Mayor of the city : 

To the Honorable William S Stokley, Mayor : 

The Pharmaceutical Examining Board respectfully report that from January 1st, 1877, to April 22a. 
1878, forty applicants for examination and registration as proprietors of retail drug stores were examined 
as to their qualifications for conducting the apothecary business. Of this number twenty-six were passed 
by the Board and duly registered, the remainder being unfitted for the responsible duties of dispensers of 
poisons and physicians' prescriptions. 

Eighty-six clerks appeared before the Board during the same period, of whom sixty-nine received cer- 
tificates of " Qualified Assistant," authorizing them to be left in charge of a store during the temporary 
absence of the proprietor. Those who fail to pass a satisfactory examination are granted a second one 
after the expiration of three months. 

The names of seventy-seven retail druggists have been added to the register being entitled thereto, 
without examination, on account of being graduates of an incorporated college of pharmacy, " whose 
diploma is based upon a regular term of service in the drug and apothecary business." 

The total number of individuals now registered as proprietors of retail drug stores is 692, and 397 qua- 
lified assistants have received certificates since the organization of the Board on April 29th, 1872. 

The census ol drug stores taken last year by your patrolmen developed the fact that over one hundred 
proprietors were violators of the law in not being registered, and shows the advantage that would arise 
from an annual inspection of a like character. Notification from the City Solicitor induced the delinquents 
to apply for examination or registration. 

With this report the term of the present Board of Examiners expires by limitation of the Act of Assem- 
bly, and: they trust that their successors whom you appoint will be enabled to discharge the responsible 
■duties of the position with impartiality and fidelity, so as to assure that protection to the public from 
incompetent pharmacists which was the object of the law. 

Subsequently the Mayor appointed the Board to serve for the next three years, as 
follows: Messrs. Jas. T. Shinn, Chas. L. Eberle, Rob. England, B. L. Smedley and 
Wm. C. Bakes. Three of the gentlemen were members of the original Board, 
appointed in 1872, and have served in that capacity without interruption. It is a 
well-deserved compliment paid to them by the appointing power. One of the 
appointees has served for some time on the second Board after the resignation of Mr. 
Marks, and the fifth gentleman enters for the first time upon these duties. 

The Board was organized by electing Mr. Eberle President and Mr Bakes Sec- 

Pharmaceutical Legislation in Pennsylvania. — The way by which some drafts 
of laws become the objects of general interest, and acquire historical fame, must be 
dark indeed. Early in the present year a bill was introduced into the Legislature 
by Hon. Mr. Ringgold, of Philadelphia, with the avowed object of "regulating the 
practice of pharmacy and the sale of poisons in the State of Pennsylvania." We 
have had the privilege of examining that bill after the " Committee on Vice and 
Immorality, " to which it had been referred, had passed judgment on it and, in legisla- 
tive parlance, had "killed " it. The bill was, indeed, a proper subject for the con- 

3 2Q 

Editorial. — Obituary. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1878. 

sideration of the committee named, because, under the disguise of an honest pur- 
pose, it displayed a tendency which could not have been better hidden if the bill had 
been drafted by those whom it would have benefitted, namely, the vendors of 
diplomas. The main feature of the bill was that no one should be allowed to com- 
mence the business of an apothecary, except after showing a diploma to the clerk of 
a certain court and being registered. No inquiry into the character of the diploma 
or of the institution granting it was provided for; the passage of the bill would 
have secured a harvest for diploma mills at home and abroad. 

After the defeat of this bill another one was brought forward which, particularly 
from the second "whereas," leads to the supposition that it emanates from the same 
source that fathered the first one. This time it was prefaced by an article full of 
misrepresentations, which had been furnished to and published by a daily paper, and 
has recently been reproduced, with slight modifications, by a weekly. We now 
regret that we did not take a full copy of the first bill referred to, but this second 
one, we think, equally deserves to be preserved, inasmuch as it was printed together 
with the article referred to above. It is as follows : 

At a meeting of the Independent Apothecaries of the city of Philadelphia, held on February 28th, 
1878, it was unanimously resolved to lay this matter before the Legislature, and to request that the follow- 
ing bill, which was drafted by a member of the Philadelphia Bar, may be enacted into a law, or a general 
law passed for the whole State : 


To repeal the "Act to Regulate tlie Practice of Pharmacy, and Sale of Poisons, etc., in the City of 
Philadelphia, approved April 4th, 1872. 

Whereas, The Act to Regulate the Practice of Pharmacy, and Sale of Poisons, etc., in the City of 
Philadelphia, approved on April 4th, 1872, being only a local law establishing a " Pharmaceutical Exam- 
ining Board," should be abolished. 

And whereas, The Act relative to the Sale of Academic Degrees, approved on May 19th, 1871, is a 
general law, and affords ample protection to all the people of all parts of the State of Pennsylvania. 

Section I. Be it enacted, etc., That the " Act to Regulate the Practice of Pharmacy, and Sale of 
Poisons, etc., in the City of Philadelphia, approved on April 4th, 1872," be and the same is hereby 


Professor Joseph Henry, well known as the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, and one of the most distinguished scientists in the United States, died in 
Washington, D. C, May 13. He was born in Albany, N. Y., December 17, 1797, 
became a watchmaker, civil engineer and afterwards professor of mathematics in 
the Albany Academy. He then directed his attention to physics, and more particularly 
to electricity and magnetism, in which he made several important discoveries. He 
had held the chair of natural philosophy at Princeton College for fourteen years, 
when, in 1846, he was called to Washington to draw up a plan for the organization 
of the Smithsonian Institution, and was subsequently elected secretary or director of 
it, an office which he held ever since. He served the general government, without 
extra compensation, as chairman of the light-house board and in other capacities. He 
was President of the National Academy of Sciences and of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Education, and he organized a system of volunteer 
meteorological observations, which subsequently became the basis on which the 
weather bureau was organized. 



JULT, 1878. 


By F. H. Storer, Professor of Agricultural Chemistry in Harvard University. 

The fact that the ripe strawberry is apt to induce constipation seems 
to be less generally known than it should be ; perhaps because the 
binding action would not naturally be expected, in view of the numer- 
ous small seeds of the berry, which might be supposed to promote dis- 
charges from the bowels by mere mechanical action. 

In this country in particular, where an immense and well nigh uni- 
versal consumption of strawberries is coincident with the setting in of 
hot weather, the constipating action of the berry is complicated and, 
as it were, increased by the excessive waste of water from the body, 
by perspiration, which occurs at this period ; and there can be little 
doubt that, taking the two causes together, the strawberry season — 
though perhaps beneficial to some constitutions — is the occasion of 
much ill health among the American people. 

It occurred to me some years since — at the time of Graham's defi- 
nition of " colloid " and " crystalloid " bodies— that Liebig's argument, 
that the cathartic action of many saline medicaments is to be referred 
to their osmotic relations to the membranes of the intestinal canal and 
the blood vessels, might now be carried on a step further and be made 
the basis of a rational treatment of constipation. 

I argued, in particular, that it might, perhaps, be an easy matter to 
annul the tendency to constipation which is so noticeable in the hot, 
dry weather of early summer, by checking or diverting the course of 
some part of the water which would naturally be exuded by the skin 
at this season, and causing it to piss into the rectum. The idea was 
that we might eat or drink habitually small quantities of some harm- 
less indigestible hygroscopic colloid substance, which, while holding 
water forcibly, could not readily pass through the walls of the stomach 
or intestines by way of osmose, and would consequently arrive in the 


322 Epsom Salt versus Strawberries. { Am )liy%f^ rm ' 

rectum as a liquid, whose presence would hinder the contents of that 
receptacle from becoming hard. I have never found time to study this 
conception in its original simplicity, though I think it not unlikely that 
certain familiar remedies may be found to fall within the scope of it. 
For example, the use of the fleshy pulp of several fruits which are 
known to act as laxatives may perhaps be justly regarded as an approx- 
imation to the above-mentioned idea. It is not improbable that the 
pulp-like flesh of prunes and tamarinds contains an inert indigestible 
colloid substance, or that the advantages derived from the use of these 
fruits may depend upon the presence and properties of this substance. 
Perhaps even the sweet pulp of the cassia pods of India may be another 
example of the same general order. 

However this may be, I have latterly had occasion to notice that the 
action of one, at least, of the mineral waters now in very common 
use is so closely analogus to that of my proposed medicament that the 
conception seems worthy of being kept in view, and of being subjected 
to the test of experiment whenever opportunity may offer. 

Indeed, it may be said in general that the osmotic theory of the action 
of some laxative medicines is so well illustrated by the practical use of 
certain saline waters, that the fact is worthy of more careful attention 
and consideration than appears to have been given to it hitherto. The 
Friedrichshall bitter-water, for example, taken in doses of a small wine- 
glassful three or four times per day, or five or six times if need be, is 
an effective bar to the constipations of early summer and to those pro- 
duced by strawberries ; not that the saline water, when taken in the 
small doses just described, acts as a cathartic, properly so called, but 
that it carries enough water to the rectum to keep its contents soft. 

Analysis 1 of the Friedrichshall water has shown that it contains a 
variety of salts, some of which may perhaps be useful medicaments in 
one case and some in another ; but for the purpose now under consid- 
eration the magnesium salts, which are prominent constituents of this 
water, would seem to be amply sufficient. I have, in fact, prepared a 
solution of far less disagreeable taste than Friedrichshall water and 
equally effective with it against the kinds of constipation here in ques- 

1(1 Jahresbericht der Chemie," 1847-48, p. 1002} from "Annalen der Chemie 
und Pharmacie," lxiii, 127. 

Epsom Salt versus Strawberries. 323 

tion, by simply dissolving 15 grams of Epsom salt and 8 grams of 
common salt in a champagne bottle (quart) full of water. 1 

In how far the presence of the common salt may be essential to the 
efficacy of this mixture I am not prepared to say. I added it on the 
conjecture that a solution containing a chloride as well as a magnesium 
compound might perhaps serve a better purpose than sulphate of mag- 
nesium by itself. 

The common salt has at least the merit of abating or disguising to 
an appreciable extent the disagreeable taste 2 of the Epsom salt. 

As for the mode of action of these small doses of saline matters, it 
would seem to admit of ready explanation on the old theory that the 
salts tend to detain the water in which they are held dissolved. That 
is to say, the salts hinder the water from passing through the walls of 
the intestines by way of osmose, and consequently carry into the rec- 
tum a certain amount of water, which but for the presence of the salts 
would naturally have been discharged through the skin. Since the mag- 
nesium salt is a crystalloid and not a colloid body, part of it undoubt- 
edly passes into the blood, and some of it passes through the kidneys 
and is discharged with the urine ; but a certain quantity does, neverthe- 
less, go into the rectum, carrying with it enough water to keep the 
contents of that receptacle moist. 

It is to be borne in mind, of course, that in using these continuous 
small doses of the magnesium salt we undoubtedly produce some other 
physiological effects which are known to attend the use of this medica- 

1 A small wine-glassful of this solution may be taken on going to bed at night, 
on getting up in the morning, in the middle of the afternoon, and of the forenoon 
also, if need be; or more frequently still, in case the foregoing doses should prove 
to be insufficient. Sometimes, on the other hand, a couple of doses will be all-suf- 
ficient, taken at night and morning. 

It may here be said that in a preliminary trial, or mixture of 100 grams Epsom 
salt, S grams crystallized chloride of magnesium, 12 grams Glauber salt and 8 grams 
common salt, to the quart of water, was found to be too strong. 

It is noteworthy that the solution described in the text contains a much smaller 
amount of saline matter than the sum of the matters contained in the Friedrichshall 
water, as indicated by the analysis above cited. 

2 1 have noticed in several instances that the taste of the mixed solution has 
improved on standing; that is to say, a slight but peculiar disagreeable taste was 
noticeabele in the freshly prepared solutions that could not be detected in solutions 
that had been kept a week or more. 

324 Epsom Salt versus Strawberries. { Am )X%^ rm - 

ment. There will be a certain amount of diuretic action, doubtless, 
in addition to the laxative, and perhaps some manifestation of the cool- 
ing or anti-inflammatory influence which has led, at one time and 
another, to the employment of Epsom salt in the treatment of fevers 
and inflammations. But these results are evidently of no great conse- 
quence to a healthy person. The only unpleasant doubt that suggests 
itself is in connection with the diuretic movement, namely, whether 
there may not be some danger in continually bringing into the bladder 
an unnaturally large quantity of magnesia, lest it should there enter 
into insoluble combination with the phosphates of the urine. But it 
is none the less true that the ability to prevent occasional constipation 
by means of salts so simple and so nearly harmless as the mixture here 
described will be of much advantage in many cases. 

The salts here in question can be obtained almost everywhere, and 
may readily be carried about in traveling, in the form of dry powders, 
to be dissolved in water at the moment of use or whenever they may 
be needed. 

Note by the Editor. — Prof. Storer's paper has recalled to our 
mind several cases which appear to sustain his views. In a case of 
external piles, well advanced in the forming stage, magnesium sulphate 
was selected, not so much on account of its laxative action, as rather 
for its well known property of absorbing and retaining water in the 
intestinal canal. A solution was made containing in each fluidounce 
half an ounce of the salt, and this was regularly taken before break- 
fast. The commencing dose, half a fluidounce, containing 120 grains 
of the salt, had to be reduced in a few days to one-half, and was dur- 
ing the following two or three months very gradually lessened to f3ss, 
and finally discontinued, having effected a cure, or rather prevented a 
further enlargement of the distention. We are informed that during 
the twenty years which have since passed by there has been no neces- 
sity for repeating the treatment. 

Another case of very recent occurrence is one of chronic constipa- 
tion in an aged person, requiring the frequent use of active cathartics, 
and in which milder laxatives, like confection of senna, were of no 
avail. A similar solution of magnesium sulphate was made and taken 
in doses commencing with half a fluidounce. The dose was perhaps 
too rapidly reduced to a fluidrachm j for the latter dose soon failed to 
accomplish its object, and had to be increased again to a tablespoonful. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1878 J 

Hydrargyrum cum Creta. 

3 2 5 


By Elwood G. Hendricks, Ph.G. 

So much has been said and written on this subject that every phar- 
macist should know the danger of this preparation when not properly 
made, and the changes it undergoes when in contact with the atmos- 
phere. My attention was attracted not long ago in a pharmacy to the 
upper shelf, where there was an array of 8 oz. salt-mouth bottles, con- 
taining various preparations, among them one containing hydrargyrum 
cum creta, probably about three ounces. Near the bottom I noticed 
a peculiar coloration, and on closely examining it observed that about 
one-sixth of the whole quantity in the bottle had undergone the change 
and formed red oxide of mercury. The proprietor had two stores, and 
in this one he also kept on hand a small 2 oz. bottle to supply the dis- 
pensing counter ; yet serious results might happen in case a new or 
younger assistant should be left in charge of the store. 

In speaking with a physician of Northumberland county, he informed 
me that he had used the preparation of mercury and chalk very often 
with bad results, viz., producing vomiting and gastric irritation, and 
very dangerous symptoms. He afterwards spoke to a neighboring 
physician about the preparation, and leared that he also had experienced 
the same results ; both have not prescribed it for nine years. 

A very interesting and instructive article on commercial hydrargyrum 
cum creta, by Prof. J. P. Remington, was published in the "Am. Jour. 
Phar.," 1869, p. 43, in which he speaks of Dr. Squibb's process for 
preparing this officinal article with honey, which prevents the oxidation 
of the metallic mercury, and it is to be hoped that all pharmacists will 
pay more attention to this valuable preparation which, through careless- 
ness in preparing or keeping, may become such a dangerous article. 

Note. — The editor agrees with Prof. Procter's opinion appended to 
the paper referred to, "that this preparation as made by the officinal 
process should be abandoned, and a new formula adopted, containing 
saccharine matter, as in blue mass.'' Mr. Bibby's process, published 
in this journal, 1876, p. 269, appears to be well adapted for pharmacists 
who prefer making their own preparations, and we invite readers who 
may have had practical experience with this or another reliable process, 
to communicate the same. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t July, 1878. 


By Ph. H. Dilg, Ph.G. 
In preparing emulsions, German apothecaries generally employ the 
relative quantity of gum and oil officinal in the German Pharmacopoeia ; 
many differ, however, in regard to the exact proportion and time of 
adding the first portion of water. Some mix at once 4 parts of water, 
4 of oil and 2 of gum ; others first mix 4 parts of oil with 2 parts of 
gum, and then add 4 parts of water at once ; still others follow either 
one of the above methods, with the exception of using only 3 instead 
of 4 parts of water as the first portion. I have experimented with 
each one and came to the conclusion that, though there is no material 
difference in the result, the second is the most advantageous mode. It 
is preferable to the first for being less liable to afford the gum, espe- 
cially when in fine powder, opportunity to clog, and it is more easily 
manipulated than the third method, since the larger amount of water 
facilitates the division or spread of each particle of gum, thereby 
expediting the thorough combination of the mixture. After mixing 
intimately half as much gum as a given quantity of oil or balsam, add 
at once the same quantity of water as oil, and triturate until a crackling 
noise is produced, which indicates that the oil is thoroughly emulsion- 
ized and will bear any amount of dilution ; it is one of the principal 
points to be observed in following the German process. As far as 
permanency and pure milkiness are concerned there is probably no 
superior emulsion made ; it has, however, the decided disadvantage of 
requiring too much gum. Therefore, whenever a larger amount of 
oil is required to be emulsionized, it is advisable to use the method 
which has found much favor, at least among Philadelphia druggists, 
namely, forming a mucilage and adding oil gradually, with much less 
gum than is generally used. I have succeeded in making perfect 
emulsions, which will remain so as long as extemporaneous mixtures 
are generally expected to stand without separating, namely, about a 
week, when they will commence to separate into layers, without liber- 
ating the oil, and a slight shake will recombine them. I make a 
a mucilage with f^iv water and 3i gum and gradually (not necessarily 
slowly) add f^i oil ; after these are well combined enough water is 
added to make fsii, after which the mixture will bear copious dilution. 
It is a mistake to think that the mucilage must be thick, as this renders 
it necessary to add the oil and balance of water alternately. In trying 

Am Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1878. J 

Medicated Syrups. 


to make the same emulsion, using only f£ii water to begin with, I have 
found that, before half finished, it became granulated, and required 
additional water to spread the gum sufficiently so as to combine 
smoothly with all the particles of oil. I have made emulsions of cod 
liver oil, copaiba, castor oil and oil of turpentine, by this method, with 
very satisfactory success. 


By Isaac Davis, Ph.G. 
Abstract from an Inaugural Essay presented to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

The author refers to some of the disadvantages of preparing syrups 
by boiling, and afterwards to Mr. Orynski's process for preparing syrups 
without heat ("Proceedings Amer. Phar. Assoc. ," 1871, p. 451). 
Simple syrup was prepared by placing 36 troyounces of granulated sugar 
in a conical glass percolator upon a perforated diaphragm covered with 
a piece of linen, and gradually pouring distilled water upon it until the 
sugar was dissolved and the syrup measured 44 fluidounces. The 
result was quite satisfactory however, the application of the same 
process in the preparation of other syrups was not equal in its results to 
those obtained with the following process : 

Syrupus scillse, made by the officinal process, becomes cloudy and 
separates a flocculent albuminous matter, but a permanently clear and 
transparent syrup is obtained by making a mixture of 2 fluidounces of 
acetic acid and 30 of simple syrup, adding of this mixture sufficient to 
2 troyounces of squill in moderately fine powder to obtain a thin paste, 
and setting it aside for four hours to allow of the swelling of the squill ; 
it is then introduced into a conical glass percolator in the neck of which 
a piece of wet sponge has been placed ; the surface is covered with a 
disc of paper and the mixture poured upon it ; after this has disappeared 
from the surface, three fluidounces of simple syrup are added, and the 
last portion of the syrup may be displaced by water, gradually poured 
on, until the percolate measures two pints. 

Syrupus Pruni virginianse. — Mix 5 troyounces of wild cherry 
bark in moderately coarse powder with 2 fluidounces of simple syrup, 
set aside for 24 hours in a close vessel, then transfer it to a conical 
glass percolator, and gradually pour upon it 30 fluidounces of syrup 
and afterwards sufficient water to make the percolate measure 32 fluid- 


Medicated Syrups. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1878. 

ounces. Prepared in this manner, syrup of wild cherry bark is an 
elegant transparent syrup, having in a very marked degree the odor and 
taste of the bark. 

Syrupus Senegse. — Mix 1 fluidounce of alcohol with 15 fluid- 
ounces of syrup, and with 2 fluidounces of this mixture moisten 4 
troyounces of senega in moderately coarse powder, transfer this to a 
conical glass percolator, and gradually pour on it the mixture of alcohol 
and syrup, and when this has passed through, sufficient syrup to make 
the percolate measure 1 pint. Thus prepared, the syrup has the odor 
and taste of the root very decidedly. 

In the same manner, using a mixture of 1 fluidounce of alcohol and 
15 of syrup, were prepared 

Syrupus rhei from 720 grains of rhubarb, in moderately coarse 
powder ; 

Syrupus rhei aromaticus, from 120 grains of rhubarb, 15 grains 
of nutmeg and 30 grains each of cinnamon and cloves, all in moderately 
fine powder ; 

Syrupus ipecacuanhse, from 1 troyounce of ipecac ; 

Syrupus sarsaparillae compositus, from 3 troyounces of sarsapa- 
rilla, 180 grains of guaiacum wood and 120 grains each of pale rose, 
senna and liquorice root ; 3 drops of oil of anise and 2 drops of oil of 
gaultheria are dissolved in the percolate ; 

Syrupus scillse compositus, from 1 troyounce each of squill and 
senega ; 12 fluidounces of percolate are obtained and mixed with a 
solution of 12 grains of tartar emetic in 2 fluidrachms of hot water. 

Syrupus kramerise, from 3 troyounces of rhatany, in moderately 
fine powder. 

Several of the syrups were also prepared without the addition of the 
fluidounce of alcohol, which, however, the author does not consider 
objectionable, but, on the contrary, preferable. Although it takes a 
longer time to prepare a syrup in this manner than by the' officinal 
process, the one suggested is claimed to yield better results because no 
injury by heat can occur, and because no principle is taken up in the 
early part of the process to be discarded and filtered out towards the 
end. The essay was accompanied by specimens of the syrups prepared 
in September, 1876. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. } 
July, 1878. J 

Fluid Extracts. 

3 2 9 


By Alonzo Robbins, Ph.G. 

The subject of fluid extracts deservedly continuing to attract the 
attention of pharmacists, the following experiments were undertaken 
with the hope that they might throw some light on the question, at 
least so far as concerned the drugs operated upon. 

The substances chosen for the experiments were senna and seneka ; 
the senna was used in No. 40 powder, and the seneka in No. 50. The 
menstruum employed for the senna was made of 1 part alcohol, sp. gr. 
•822, and 2 parts water. The menstruum used for the seneka was com- 
posed of 150 parts alcohol, *822, 150 parts water and 10 parts water of 
ammonia. Parts by weight were used throughout. The use of parts by 
weight and the adoption of 100 parts of the drugs as the standard number 
to be taken, which allows the results to be read as percentages as well 
as parts, presents its advantages so plainly that it can hardly fail of 

The percolators used were of glass and made specially for these 
experiments. They were 14 inches high, 3! inches diameter at the 
top and f inch at the bottom. When in use the lower orifice was 
closed with a perforated cork, to which was fitted a glass tube T \ inch 
diameter and 2 inches long. To the glass tube a rubber tube 3 inches 
long was attached, and on this was placed a pinchcock to control the 
rate of percolation and to stop it entirely during maceration. 

Moistening and Packing of the Powder. — To 100 parts of the powdered 
drug from 35 to 40 parts of menstruum were added and thoroughly 
mixed, and the mixture passed through a No. 18 sieve. The lower 
end of the percolator was closed with a cork, and on this was placed a 
loosely-fitting plug of cotton. The moistened powder was now intro- 
duced in small portions, each portion being well shaken down, and 
when all was in it was rather firmly packed with a pestle ; the surface 
of the powder was then covered with a thin layer of cotton, which was 
kept in place by two or three glass stoppers. The cork was now 
removed from the lower aperture, and the perforated cork containing 
the glass tube put in place and the percolation proceeded with as 
described. By means of the pinchcock the rate of dropping was kept 
at from 4 to 8 drops per minute. All of the percolators were provided 
with close-fitting covers. One hundred grams of the moistened powder, 


Flid Extracts. 

{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1878. 

when packed in the percolator, occupied a space from 7J to 8 inches 

A series of four fluid extracts was made from each drug and the 
results arranged in tabular form, the better to allow a comparison to 
be made of the various stages of the process. On another more con- 
densed table is shown the rate or percentage of exhaustion in those 
experiments in which the percolates were taken in twenty portions. 
100 grams of powder was used for each experiment. 

Experiment No. 1. — As soon as the powder was packed menstruum 
was added, and the percolation allowed to proceed at once without 
maceration. The percolate was taken in portions of 25 grams each 
until 20 portions or 500 grams in all had been obtained, then the per- 
colation was continued until 500 grams more had passed, which was 
collected in one portion. 

Experiment No. 2. — When the powder was packed menstruum was 
added, and when the percolate appeared in the cotton plug the lower 
aperture was closed and maceration continued four days, and then the 
percolate was taken in portions as in experiment No. 1. 

Experiment No. 3 was intended to show what effect repeated macera- 
tion would have in the exhaustion of soluble matter from the substances 
operated upon. When the percolate appeared in the cotton plug the 
lower aperture was closed, and maceration was continued four days, 
then 25 grams of percolate was obtained, and then the percolator 
again closed and maceration continued three days, when 25 grams more 
of percolate was obtained ; the percolator was now closed for two days, 
and then 25 grains percolate obtained. It was now closed one day, 
and then allowed to proceed without interruption until the full number 
of 20 percolates were obtained and the final 500 grams. 

Experiment No. 4. — This experiment was intended to corroborate 
the results obtained by experiment No. 1. The percolation was allowed 
to proceed without maceration, and at a more rapid rate ; the percolate 
was taken in two portions of 500 grams each. The greater specific 
gravity shown by this fluid extract is not due to its containing more dry 
extract than the others, but is caused by the entire percolate being 
evaporated until reduced to 100 parts, thereby driving off all or nearly 
all of the alcohol, while, in the other experiments, the first 75 parts of 
percolate were reserved and not subjected to any evaporation. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

July, =878. / 

Fluid Extracts, 

33 1 

Determination of the Dry Extract. — The amount of dry extract was 
determined by the following method : From the first to the tenth per- 
colate 1 gram was weighed on a carefully tared watch-glass and evap- 
orated on a steam bath until it no longer lost weight. After subtract- 
ing the weight of the watch-glass the residue multiplied by 25 gave the 
total amount of dry extract in the 25 grams of percolate. From the 
eleventh to the twentieth percolate 5 grams was taken and the residue 
multiplied by five ; of the 500 grams dilute percolate 10 grams was 
taken and the residue multiplied by fifty. By slow percolation it 
appears to be possible to get about 75 per cent, of the dry extract in 
the first 75 parts of percolate, whether previously macerated or not, 
and practical exhaustion is arrived at when the total percolates amount 
to times the weight of the drug, these containing nearly 98 per 
cent, of the total dry extract yielded. The percolation might even be 
stopped when percolate equaling i\ times the weight of the drug is 
obtained, as that would contain nearly 95 per cent, of the total extract. 

The third experiment, particularly, with seneca was quite a disap- 
pointment. By a preformed opinion, I expected to get such results 
from remaceration in facility of exhaustion and economy of menstruum 
as would quite overbalance the value of the greater length of time 
required for the process. 

Weight of Dry Extract in each 25 grams of Percolate. 

100 grams 
of drug 
used in 
each ex- 

































3" 2 5 

2 18 











9 - 54 

5 9 2 

3 00 


I 'OO 












1 50 

1 -oo 








10 50 






1 50 

I 25 












2- 5 

I- 75 






33 2 

Fluid Extracts. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm: 
\ July, 1878. 

100 grams 
of drug 
used in 
each ex- 

Extract in 
j grams Di- 
e Percolate. 

.1 Dry Ex- 
tct obtained. 

Specific Gravity 
of the Fluid 

ific Gravity 
Menstruum | 



i 3 th. 










O — 










* c 5 















35 32 























































•1 1 




42 - o6 









Rate of Exhaustion. 



1st 5 Percolates. 

2d 5 Percolates. 

3d 5 Percolates. 

4th 5 Percolates. 

500 grams 
Dilute Percolate. 


30 25 








3' J 7 







I 04 




34* 2 5 

4 OI 






33 -2 5 


I* 5 2 





33' 2 5 


i *6o 



In the following formulas for fluid extracts in view of the results 
shown by the foregoing tables I have omitted maceration for the seneka 
and retained it for senna. Direct percolation really appears to be best 
for seneka, and probably for some other drugs, but I believe that in 
most cases maceration would be advantageous. 

Fluid Extract of Serwka. 
Take of Seneka, in powder No. 50, . . 100 parts 

Water of ammonia, 
Alcohol, s. g. '822, 

Water, each, a sufficient quantity. 

Mix 150 parts each of alcohol and water, add 10 parts water of 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1878. J 

Fluid Extracts, 


ammonia, and, having moistened the seneka with 35 parts of the mix- 
ture, put it into a narrow conical glass percolator in small portions, 
each portion being well shaken down, and when all is in pack firmly 
with a pestle, cover the surface of the powder with a layer of cotton, 
which keep in place by two or three glass stoppers, and gradually add 
the menstruum. When the percolate amounts to 75 parts expose it 
in a shallow dish to the open air until it has lost about 5 parts, or until 
the odor of ammonia is no longer perceptible. Continue the percola- 
tion with the same menstruum until the seneka is exhausted ; evaporate 
this percolate by means of a water-bath to 30 parts, mix it with the 
reserved portion, and make up the quantity to 100 parts with alcohol. 

This fluid extract is quite dark in color, forms no deposit on stand- 
ing and remains clear when mixed with simple syrup to make syrup of 

If the percolation proceeds slowly the odor of ammonia will not be 
perceptible in the 75 parts of reserved percolate, but it was thought 
best to expose it to spontaneous evaporation to make sure that no free 
ammonia should be present in the finished preparation. The addition 
of an alkali to the preparations of seneka is by no means original ; it 
has been previously suggested by Prof. Procter and Mr. Bullock ("Am. 
Jour. Phar.," 1862, p. 136), by Dr. Squibb ("Proceedings Am. Pharm. 
Assoc. ," 1 87 1, p. 454), by Prof. Markoe ( u Proceedings Am. Pharm. 
Assoc. ," 1873, p. 519) and by Prof. Maisch. The first two gentle- 
men added bicarbonate of potassium to the fluid extract ; Dr. Squibb 
used ammonia ; Prof. Markoe did not specify what alkali, and Prof. 
Maisch used bicarbonate of sodium. I was led to the use of water of 
ammonia by the ease with which, owing to its volatility, any excess 
might be removed. 

Fluid Extract of Senna. 

Take of Senna, in powder No. 40, . . 100 parts 

Alcohol, s. g. '822, 

Water, each, a sufficient quantity. 

Mix 50 parts of alcohol with 100 parts of water, and moisten the 
senna with 35 parts of the mixture, mix well and pass through a No. 
18 sieve, then put into a narrow conical glass percolator, in small por- 
tions, each portion being well shaken down, and when all is in pack 
firmly with a pestle, cover the surface of the powder with a layer of 
cotton, which keep in place by two or three glass stoppers ; add the 


Flluid Extracts. 

{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1878. 

menstruum, and when the percolate appears in the cotton plug at the 
orifice close the percolator and macerate 48 hours, then allow the per- 
colation to proceed until 75 parts of percolate have been obtained, 
which set aside, and continue the percolation until the senna is 
exhausted ; evaporate this percolate by means of a water-bath to 25 
parts, and mix it with the reserved portion. 

Wishing to ascertain the value of the use of glycerin in fluid extract 
of senna, three fluid extracts were prepared, differing only from the 
above in containing respectively 10, 15 and 25 per cent, of glycerin, 
which was added to the dilute percolates previous to evaporation. For 
that sample containing 25 per cent, of glycerin only 60 parts of percolate 
were reserved. Too short a period has elapsed since their preparation 
to justify an opinion as to the effect of time on these samples, but at 
present my belief is that glycerin is of no service in fluid extract of 

In regard to repercolation, it is probable that the additional labor and 
trouble of the several packings and percolations required by that process 
may be quite equaled by the labor and trouble of evaporation required 
by the process of simple percolation ; the remaining dilute percolate 
may also represent what usually disappears into the air during evapora- 
tion in simple percolation. If some modification of the process of reper- 
colation could be made which would do away with the necessity of any 
dilute percolate remaining over, I have no doubt about its greatly con- 
tributing to the general adoption of that process. Having no practical 
experience with repercolation, I am reluctant to suggest a modification 
of it, but it appears to me that if 100 parts of drug were taken and 
divided into three equal portions, and 25 parts of reserve percolate 
obtained from each of the first two portions and 50 parts from the 
remaining portion, and then stop, a near approach to at least practical 
exhaustion would be made. There would certainly be some loss, but 
as the 50 parts of final percolate would be obtained from 33J parts of 
drug that loss could not seriously affect the activity of the preparation. 

I hope that in the next U. S. Pharmacopoeia both processes may be 
made officinal, thereby allowing pharmacists to use whichever they 
may prefer. 

Philadelphia, June 17th, 1878. 

Am j J u^, r i 7 h 8 arm *} The Active Constituents of Ergot. 335 


By Phil. H. Dilg. 

Ergot has been frequently the subject of investigation previous to 
the discovery, by Wenzell, of the alkaloids ergotina and ecbolina, to 
the last of which the effects of ergot were supposed to be due ("Am. 
Jour. Pharm.," vol. xxxvi, p. 193, 1864). Since then the same 
author, in 1872, has published a modified process for obtaining his 
alkaloids, and a host of other investigators have made known their 
results. The most recent publications are two interesting and exhaus- 
tive papers, throwing much light upon the hitherto somewhat obscure 
and rather complicated literature of ergot, viz., " Ueber die wirksamen 
und einige andere Bestandtheile des Mutterkorns " (on the active and 
some other constituents of ergot), by Dragendorff and Podwissotzky, 
reprint from the u Archiv fur experim. Pathol, und Pharmacol.," vol. vi, 
1876, and an inaugural essay for the degree of " Master of Pharmacy," 
by Theo. Blumberg, entitled " Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Mutter- 
korn-Alkaloide" (a contribution to the knowledge of the ergot alkaloids) 
Dorpat, 1878. The following is a brief summary of what appears to 
me to be the principal results obtained by these authors with the most 
important constituents of ergot : 

Though long known that ergot yields its active principle to cold 
water its precise nature has for many years been a subject of continued 
controversy. It is principally due to the united efforts of Prof. Dra- 
gendorff and von Podwissotzky, of the Pharmac. Institute of the Uni- 
versity of Dorpat, that it has now been proven that the most active 
constituent is an acid termed sclerotic acid, which is present in combina- 
tion with K, Na and Ca, which salts are freely soluble in water. It 
is, however, rivaled in action, both qualitatively and quantitatively, by 
a colloidal substance, scleromucin, which is obtained in connection with 
the acid in the following manner : Digest ergot, previously exhausted 
by ether and absolute alcohol, with water, dialyze, evaporate the dialy- 
zate to a syrupy consistence, and treat with sufficient alcohol to obtain 
a mixture containing 40 to 45 per cent, alcohol, which precipitates the 
potassium phosphate ; while more alcohol added until the strength is 
increased to 75 or 80 per cent., precipitates the salts of sclerotic acid, 
which are soluble in dilute but insoluble in stronger alcohol, and leave 
about 19 per cent, of ash. 

The filtrate, upon which alcohol has no further effect, produces with 


The Active Constituents of Ergot. 

i Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1878 

ether a slight precipitate, which after a few days' standing forms a 
syrupy, brown mass, which has scarcely any medicinal virtue. The 
filtrate from this precipitate, in which the reactions still distinctly indi- 
cate the presence of WenzelFs alkaloids, after evaporating the ether 
and alcohol, does not produce the specific action of ergot. 

The dark liquid remaining on the dialyzator, when mixed with suf- 
ficient alcohol to bring it to 45 — 50 per cent., precipitates the scleromucin^ 
which while moist forms a mucilaginous solution with water, but after 
drying is only partially soluble, differing in this respect from sclerotic 
acid, which is soluble, in all proportions, before and after drying. 

Sclerotic acid is obtained in a nearly pure state by kneading the mixed 
sclerotates as obtained above, with 80 per cent, alcohol, and afterwards 
dissolving them in 40 per cent, alcohol ; the solution is mixed with an 
excess of hydrochloric acid, and after several hours precipitated with 
absolute alcohol, whereby the ash is reduced to about 3 per cent., and 
consists mainly of some silica, manganium, and phosphates of iron and 
potassium. The acid is not a glucoside, and yields no precipitates with 
the reagents for alkaloids, except with phosphomolybdic acid a yellow, 
and with tannin a nearly colorless one. Sclerotic acid is obtained as a 
yellowish-brown, tasteless and inodorous substance, which has a very 
slight acid reaction, and is hygroscopic without being deliquescent. It 
is very well adapted for subcutaneous appliances, in doses of 0*03 — 
0*045 gram. 

Scleromucin is darker in color, slightly hygroscopic, gummy, inodor- 
ous and tasteless ; yields 26'8 per cent, of ash, and, like sclerotic acid, 
contains nitrogen, is not a glucoside, and is precipitated by tannin and 
phosphomolybdic acid. 

Good ergot yields about 4 to 4J per cent, of sclerotic acid, and 
about 2 to 3 per cent, of scleromucin. 

In the commercial extracts the acid is found in variable quantities, 
depending on the strength of alcohol used in their manufacture. Scle- 
romucin is generally not present, except sometimes in very small quan- 
tities, as, for instance, in Bonjean's ergotin, which contains consider- 
able sclerotic acid. 

The following coloring matters have been isolated from ergot : yel- 
low crystalline scales of scleroxanthin^ in combination with the pale yel- 
low needle-like crystals of its anhydrid termed sclerocrystallin ; also an 
amorphous mass, soluble with difficulty in ether, alcohol and chloro- 

Am jSy ( r 'x8 P 78 arm '} The Active Constituents of Ergot. 337 

form, to which the name scleroiodin has been given. By far the most 
important coloring matter, however, is sclererythrin, to which the char- 
acteristic reactions of ergot are due, which were erroneously ascribed 
to a ferruginous substance supposed to be allied to the coloring prin- 
ciple of blood. 

If ergot is exhausted by ether or alcohol, and then treated with acid- 
ulated alcohol or ether, sclererythrin will be liberated from its calcium 
compound and produce a red solution. Diluted solutions of alkalies 
and alkaline carbonates dissolve sclererythrin, with a beautiful murexide 
color. Ether agitated with this solution is not colored, but after neu- 
tralizing with an acid a delicate and characteristic reaction occurs, by 
imparting a red-brown color to the ether. Alcohol or ether will not 
dissolve the sclererythrin directly from ergot, unless the drug be previ- 
ously acidulated. 

In connection with the above investigations, Dragendorff and Pod- 
wissotzky isolated a bitter alkaloid, which they call picrosclerotin, and a 
yellow acid, which they named fuscosclerotic acid. They were obtained 
in purifying sclererythrin, by precipitating its alcoholic solution with 
lime water, when picrosclerotin and fuscosclerotate of calcium remained 
in solution ; on the addition of dilute sulphuric acid and agitating with 
ether, this solvent took up the fuscosclerotic acid and left nearly all 
picrosclerotin behind, which is readily dissolved by acetic or sulphuric 
acid and reprecipitated by ammonia. 

A solution of the amorphous alkaloid subcutaneously injected was 
observed to produce in frogs decreased sensibility, paralysis of the 
extremities, and in 10 or 12 minutes death, without convulsions. 
Blumberg noticed that picrosclerotin is colored violet by oil of vitriol, 
and that in the isolated state it rapidly loses its activity, forming a resin- 
ous mass, which is insoluble in acetic and dilute sulphuric acid, and 
colored brown by oil of vitriol. It is identical with the resin obtained 
by Ganser (1870) from the fixed oil of ergot, from which Blumberg 
isolated also a crystalline alkaloid, closely allied and probably identical 
with picrosclerotin. 

As above stated, the filtrate showing the reactions of Wenzell's 
alkaloids proved to be destitute of medicinal action ; Dragendorff and 
Podwissotzky isolated the alkaloids by Wenzell's process from this 
filtrate as well as directly from ergot, and found that both ergotina and 
ecbolina are precipitated by corrosive sublimate from their concentrated 

33 8 Gleanings from the German Journals. { Am j{?y^? 7 h 8 arm ' 

solutions, and that both contain admixtures of different salts and for- 
eign matters. Blumberg has made the same observation, and agrees 
with Dragendorff in regarding the two as only one alkaloid, which is 
but partially precipitated by corrosive sublimate, since its compound 
with the latter is not insoluble in water, the solution being, however, 
precipitated by phosphomolybdic acid. 

Blumberg has also isolated the crystalline alkaloid ergotinina observed 
by Tanret in 1875. The oil of ergot, obtained by extraction with 
ether, is repeatedly agitated with water acidulated with sulphuric acid, 
and the acid solution rendered alkaline by carbonate of sodium. The 
precipitate may be dissolved in ether or in absolute alcohol, which solu- 
tions on being concentrated yield crystals of ergotinina. These are 
colored violet-blue by oil of vitriol, and by Froehde's reagent at first 
violet, then soon blue, finally blue-green, and on heating olive-green. 
Ergotinina soon decomposes, forming a resinous mass, and when in solu- 
tion, injected subcutaneously, produced in frogs effects very similar to 
those observed from picrosclerotina. 

Philadelphia, June 12, 1878. 


By Louis von Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 
The Relation of Chemical Compounds in Volatile Oils. — 
Volatile oils consist either of several carbohydrogens or of carbohy- 
drogens and oxygenated substances, among which there is a certain 
relation noticeable, as is seen from the following list : 
Oil of Dryobalanops Camphor, C 10 H 16 ,C 10 H 18 O. 
Caraway, C 10 H 16 ,C 10 H U ,C 
Thyme, C 10 H 16 ,C 10 H 14 O. 
Dill, C 10 H 16f C 10 H M O. 
Caraway, C 10 H 16 ,C 10 H u O. 
Eucalyptus, C 10 H 16 ,C 10 H u ,C 10 H 16 O,C 10 H u O. 
Sassafras, C ]0 H 16 ,C 10 H 10 O 2 . 
G. Bruylar.ts has endeavored to determine the relation of the con- 
stituents of oil of tansy and of valerian, with the following results : 

Oil of tansy contains about 1 per cent, of a terpene, C 10 H 16 , boiling 
between 160 and i65°C, about 26 per cent, of an alcohol, C 10 H 18 O, 
boiling near 205°C, and about 70 per cent, of the aldehyd tanacetyl 
hydride, boiling at I95°C. and forming a crystalline compound with 
bisulphite of sodium. 

Am j^, r *i8 > 7 h 8? rm '} Gleanings from the German Journals, 339 

Oil of valerian was found to contain a terpene, C 10 H 16 , the alcohol 
borneol, C 10 H 18 O, the ether of the same, (C 10 H 17 ) 2 O, and the formic, 
acetic and valerianic ethers of the same, the latter having the formula 

C 10 H 17 C 5 H 9 O 2- 

The seeds of Euphorbia Lathyris, Z/«., are known in Europe as 
semen cataputiae minoris. O. Zander obtained from them by treat- 
ment with bisulphide of carbon, 42 per cent, of a yellow, clear, fixed 
oil. 5 drops of it, taken in water, caused a lasting burning pain in the 
throat, followed by nausea, vomiting, and finally strong purgative 
effects. Applied externally it caused a burning sensation, which 
induced the author to believe that it might be advantageously employed 
as a substitute for the more expensive Croton oil. — Archiv der Phar- 
macies March, 1878, p. 211. 

Agaricus atrotomentosus. — By extracting this agaric with ether 
W. Thoerner obtained a beautiful wine-red liquid, and after evaporat- 
ing a dark brown shining crystalline mass, which was purified by boil- 
ing with an alkali, acidulating the solution, separating the precipitate 
by filtration, and recrystallizing from boiling alcohol. The purified 
compound forms dark brown scales having a metallic lustre ; dissolv- 
ing in alcohol with a wine-red and in alkalies with a yellow color. It is 
insoluble in water, ligroin, benzol, chloroform and carbon bisulphide, 
and with difficulty soluble in boiling alcohol and glacial acetic acid. It 
appears to be a dioxykinon, C n H 6 2 (OH) 2 , and probably a derivative 
of a carbohydrogen, C n H 10 . 

The same author has obtained from this agaric and from Ag. bulbosus 
and Ag. integer beautifully crystallizing double salts of platinum, with 
one or more alkaloids, and from A. integer also a considerable quantity 
of mannite. — Ber. Deutsch. Chem. Ges n 1878, p. 533. 

Extraction of Morphia. —Dr. Eugene Buri, referring to Stas-Otto's 
method, in which morphia is dissolved in amylic-alcohol, and after 
evaporation left in an amorphous condition mixed with impurities, like- 
wise soluble in amylic-alcohol, suggests to evaporate this solution spon- 
taneously in a watch-crystal, or if too bulky to evaporate it to dryness 
on a water-bath, treat the residue with about 1 or 2 cc. of acidulated 
water, pour off" from the insoluble residue, supersaturate with ammonia, 
shake again with 2 or 3 cc. of amylic alcohol, and allow the latter to 
evaporate, as stated above ; the residue will then consist of pure crys- 

34o Gleanings from the French Journals. } Am jify, r ' l8 78. arm 

tals of morphia, while the impurities, if any are present, will form an 
amorphous ring on the outer edge of the glass. — Ztsch. Anal % Chem., 

1878, P . 185. 

Phosphorus found in a Corpse Six Weeks after Death. — Dr. 

Elvers tells us that an analysis made of the intestines of a woman who 
had died under very suspicious circumstances six weeks before, proved 
the presence of 0*07 gram of phosphorus in the alimentary canal, which 
had been administered to her in soup prepared by her daughter-in-law. 
In connection with the analysis it was shown that water, macerated 
with phosphorus paste for some time, will hold a considerable amount 
of phosphorus suspended as a very fine powder, the mixture resembling 
an emulsion in appearance, and precipitating the phosphorus very 
slowly. — Ztsch. Oest. Apoth. Ver., May, 1878, p. 224 — Vierteljahressch. 
f.gerichtl. Med. 

Colored Artificial Sago.— G. C. Wittstein states (" Dingl. Pol. 
Journ.) that artificial pearl sago prepared from potato starch often 
appears colored. A sample left 0*7 per cent, of ashes, 0*4 of which 
were found to consist of oxide of iron. — Schw. Wochenschr., 1878, 
p. 132. 

Chinese rice paper is not really a paper, but consists of the pith of 
the stems of Aralia papyrifera, cut with large and very sharp knives 
either radially into small, or spirally into large layers, as thin as paper, 
which are pressed smooth and are used in China for delicate aquarell 
paintings, and in Europe in the manufacture of artificial flowers, etc. — 
Pharm. Centralh., May 9, p. 182. 

Glacialin is the name of a preserving liquid, consisting of a solu- 
tion of 9 parts boracic acid, \\ parts borate of soda, 3 parts sugar, and \\ 
pts. glycerin, in about 200 parts water. — Pharm. Zeit., May 1 1, 1878. 


By the Editor. 

Solubility of some Organic Acids. — E. Bourgoin has determined 
that 100 parts by weight of pure ether, absolute alcohol and 90 per 
cent, alcohol dissolve at I5°C. (59°F). the quantities of acids given in 
the following table : 

Am j^y, r ;8 P 7 s arm *} Gleanings from the French Journals. 341 

Pure Ether. Absolute Alcohol. 90 per cent. Alcohol. 

Acid, benzoic 31*35 46-68 4162 

citric 2*26 75'9° 5 2 *^5 

gallic 2-56 38*79 2 3"3i 

oxalic 1-266 23-73 14 70 

phtalic 0-684 io-o8 11*70 

salicylic 5°'47 49 ^3 4 2 "°9 

succinic 1*265 7'S 1 I2 '59 

tartaric 0*400 25-604 41*135 

Journ. de Phar. et de Chim., March, 1878, 173-179. 

A new oxide of lead has been obtained by H Debray. The 
oxides hitherto known are litharge, PbO, binoxide of lead or plumbic 
anhydrid, Pb0 2 , and red lead or plumbate of lead, Pb ;i 4 =(PbO) 2 Pb0 2 . 
The latter compound is formed by heating Either of the two former 
oxides to about 440°C (824°F). Debray has observed that when 
binoxide of lead is heated to 350°C. (662°F)., a rapid disengagement 
of oxygen takes place, which soon becomes less active, and when it 
has nearly ceased, the binoxide has been converted into sesquioxide or 
rather into the neutral plumbate of lead, PbO.Pb0 2 . The same 
compound is formed by heating litharge to the degree indicated, and 
passing a current of oxygen over it * it is a greenish-brown powder 
which is very slowly oxidized to red lead in an atmosphere of oxygen 
and on continuing the heat. — Ibid. April, p. 549-253. 

Separation of arsenic from other metals. — Ph. de Clermont and 
Frommel have made the observation that the freshly-precipitated sul- 
phides of many metals when boiled with water are decomposed with the 
formation of sulphuretted hydrogen and oxide of the metal. Arsenic 
being the only one whose oxide is soluble in water, the authors propose 
its separation by washing the sulphides, obtained from acidulated solu- 
tions, until every trace of hydrochloric acid has been removed, after 
which the filter with its contents is boiled, preferably in a retort, the 
tension therein seeming to favor the dissociation ; the precipitate from 
•2 gram of arsenic will be completely decomposed, when 500 or 600 
cubic centimeters of water have been distilled. The contents of the 
retort are then filtered and the arsenic determined in the usual manner. 
— VUnion Phar., April, p. 104. 

Curare. — Dr. Jobert, in a letter dated Belin de Para, gives the follow- 
ing information concerning the preparation of this poison by the Indians. 
The principal ingredients are urariuva (probably Strychnos castelnae^N ed.) 

342 Gleanings from the French Journals. { Am jJ° y u , r - l8 P 7 8 arm ' 

and eko also called pant du mahardo (probably Coccculus toxiferus, 
Wed.) The young bark of these plants is well scraped, and the scrap- 
ings mixed in the proportion of 4 parts of the powder and 1 part of 
the latter ; the mixture is well kneaded with the hands and in a funnel 
made of a palm leaf exhausted with cold water, the liquid being re- 
turned 7 or 8 times. The red infusion is boiled with fragments of taja 
(an aroidea) and mucura-ea-ha or eone (probably Didelphys cancrivora). 
After about 6 hours the liquid has acquired a thick consistence and is 
mixed with the scrapings of three species of pepper (Artanthe ?) and 
tau-ma-gere and again boiled and allowed to cool, when it will have 
the consistence of a thick paste. — Jour, de Phar. et de Ckim., June, 

P- 443- 

Catechin. — A. Gautier has communicated to the Academie des sci- 
ences his researches on catechin from catechu. He found its formula 
to be C 21 H 18 8 , which differs from the formulas as ascertained by 
Zwenger, Hlasiwetz and Rochleder. Fused with potassa, proto- 
catechate of potassium, KC 7 H 5 4 , and phloroglucin, C 6 H 6 3 , are the 
principal decomposition products obtained, besides a hydrocarbon, CH 4 , 
water, formiate and carbonate of potassium, according to the supply of 
oxygen. Heated with very diluted sulphuric acid to I40°C, an 
amorphous orange-colored body, C 28 H 22 7 , is obtained, which is little 
soluble in hot water, precipitates ferric salts blackish green and is 
readily oxidized to red and brown compounds. Among the products 
of decomposition are also two which are soluble in ether, one of which 
is precipitated by acetate of lead and is protocatechuic acid ; the other 
seems to have the composition C 11 H 16 7 and to be a polyatomic 
phenol. — Jour, de Phar. et de Chim., May, p. 368. 

Jaborandi. — Prof. Baillon has examined the jaborandi used by the 
pharmacists of Paris and noticed that three kinds are employed, 
namely, Piper (Serronia) jaborandi, Velloso, Pilocarpus pennatifolius, 
Lem., and Piloc. Selloanus, Engl. The first is now very rare .in com- 
merce. In regard to the others he suggests that they may, perhaps, 
be merely two varieties of one species. The author has in his posses- 
sion fresh leaves of Pit. pennatifolius, the nerves of which are destitute 
of hairs on both sides ; he has noticed, however, a slight difference in 
the color of the bark, which, near the top of the branches of Pil. 
Selloanus, is usually more yellowish or of a pale brown. — Ibid., p. 393. 

Am j J u" r x8 P 7 h 8 arra '} Gleanings from the French Journals. 343 

(For a description of these species see " Amer. Jour, Phar.," 
^75, p. 177 and 2I 4-) 

The Lactic Fermentation of Milk Sugar. By Richet. — Milk 
kept at 40°C. coagulates and acquires an acidity equal to 1*6 gram of 
lactic acid for 100 of milk. The fermentation is completely arrested 
if sufficient hydrochloric or sulphuric acid is added to the milk, so that 
the acidity will correspond with 1 per cent, of lactic acid. But if 
gastric juice is added to the milk the casein will be coagulated and 
redissolved, and the lactic fermentation will proceed with an extraor- 
dinary rapidity, so that at the end of four or five days as much as 4 
per cent, of lactic acid may have been produced. The rational 
explanation of this difference seems to be that the dissolved casein 
serves as a nutrition to the ferment ; for if the milk is filtered imme- 
diately after its coagulation by rennet, the whey which contains all the 
lactose, but no casein, will acquire an acidity, never surpassing 1*6 per 
cent, of lactic acid. On the other hand, casein, deprived of milk 
sugar, will ferment and yield lactic and butyric acids among the pro- 
ducts of decomposition. These observations explain why unfiltered 
milk ferments better than filtered milk ; the author obtained, in one 
case, from the former, 3 9 per cent., but after filtration only i'6 per 
cent, of acid. — Jour, de Phar. et de Chim., May, p. 371. 

Sulphovinate of Quinia. — P. Carles has ascertained that an acid 
and a neutral sulphovinate of quinia may be obtained, the former of 
which is very hygroscopic and, on account of its strong acid reaction, 
is not adapted for subcutaneous injections. The neutral salt is 
obtained by dissolving 16*6 grams of pure sulphovinate of sodium in 
200 grams of 90 per cent, alcohol, and 42*8 grams officinal sulphate of 
quinia in 600 grams of the same alcohol, mixing the solutions, filter- 
ing from the precipitated sodium sulphate, and evaporating. The salt 
is perfectly neutral, crystallizes with difficulty in radiating prisms, is 
inodorous, of a very bitter taste, dissolves in 3 parts of water at I5°C. 
and in less alcohol. It is likewise very soluble in acetic ether and 
glycerin, but insoluble in absolute ether, benzol, oil of turpentine 
and fixed oils ; with the latter, however, a kind of an emulsion may be 
formed on the addition of a few drops of alcohol. — Ibid., June, p. 463, 
from Bull. Soc t Phar., Bordeaux, March, 1878. 

Pancreatin. — According to Th. Defresne, good pancreatin should 
have the following characters : 

344 Gleanings from the French Journals. { Am -^\\l^! m ' 

It is a tawny-colored, rather hygrometric powder, has a strong animal 
odor and taste, and dissolves in water to the extent of 70 per cent, of 
its weight ; the limpid solution coagulates like albumen. It digests 
not less than 30 parts of albumen, transforms 8 parts of starch into 
sugar and completely decomposes 10 parts of lard. The digestion of 
albumen takes place in the presence of a little acid, one drop of lactic 
acid being sufficient for 15 grams of albumen and 25 grams of water ; 
no other addition is required for starch or lard ; the temperature may 
vary between 20° and 40°C. (68° and I04°F.) 

The author has examined some samples of German pancreatin, 
which were of a whitish color, resembling powdered orris root, of a 
sweetish odor and a cheese-like taste ; they contained about 80 per 
cent, of milk sugar and 15 per cent, of insoluble matter, and digested 
between o and 6 parts of albumen. A sample of French pancreatin 
was in greyish pieces, of a strong animal odor and taste, completely 
soluble in water, but the solution was not coagulated by heat and did 
not digest albumen. — Rep. de Phar., April, p. 153. 

Purification of Carbonic Acid Gas. — Mehu states that the dis- 
agreeable odor and taste of carbonic acid gas generated from dolomite 
were completely removed by passing the gas successively through 
water, persulphate of iron, permanganate of potassium, and again 
through water, when it was unobjectionable for the preparation of 
mineral waters. — Jour, de Phar. et de Cbim., April, p. 290. 

A Hydrate of Ether.— On filtering an etherial liquid with free 
access of air, a frost-like congelation is observed on the upper part of 
the filter, its appearance and quantity depending upon the temperature 
and the hygrometric state of the atmosphere. Tanret has collected 
some of that solid substance, and found that after it had been com- 
pletely freed from ether by strongly blowing upon it, it had the temper- 
ature — 3'5°C. (25*7°F.), and on fusion yielded 17 to 18 parts of water 
for 37 of ether ; the formula (C 2 H 5 ) 2 0.2H 2 requires 18 parts. — Ibid., 
May, p. 345-347- 

Color Reactions of Oil of Valerian. — In an essay on the chem- 
ical constitution of oil of valerian (see page 339), communicated to the 
Academie royale de medecine de Belgique, G. Bruylants gives the fol- 
lowing color reactions which may be observed with the freshly prepared 
or old oil, and with all etherial and alcoholic tinctures of the root : 

^jS^i^s?™'} Fast-growing Variety of Cinchona, 345 

1. Gaseous hydrochloric acid gas imparts a splendid purplish-red 

2. Perchloride of phosphorus gives a red color, turning to blue and 
finally to green when a moderate heat is applied. 

3. Heated with a little nitric acid, a purplish-red color is produced, 
which changes to violet and blue. — Ibid., June, p. 439. 

Wine of Creasote. — Dr. Fournier gives the following formula : 6 
grams of beechwood tar creasote are dissolved in 125 grams of alcohol; 
to the solution is added simple syrup 400 grams, and enough Malaga 
wine to make one liter. Each tablespoonful contains '30 gram of 
creasote, and the dose is readily taken in a glass of sweetened water. — 
four, de Phar. et de Chlm., May, p. 377. 

The formula of Bouchard and Gimpert is as follows: Creasote 13*5 
grams, alcohol 250 grams, tincture of gentian 30 grams and Malaga 
wine sufficient for I liter. — V Union Phar., May, p. 132. 

Caustic of Chloride of Zinc. — Under the name of Pate de Can- 
quoin a preparation is used in France which, according to the Codex, 
is prepared by dissolving chloride of zinc in a small quantity of water 
and adding, with continual trituration, an equal weight of flour. P. 
Carles has found this to be too hygroscopic, and proposes to triturate 
in a mortar 10 grams of fused chloride of zinc ^vith 2 grams of 60 per 
cent, alcohol, and incorporating, with constant trituration, 15 grams of 
wheat flour. This mass may be formed into cylinders of suitable size, 
and when once dry is but little affected by atmospheric humidity. The 
author has kept samples in stopped vials for over three years without 
noticing any alteration.— U Union Phar., April, p. 100. 


By J. E. Howard, F.R.S. 

I send a few facts to complete (thus far) the history of the above 
promising sort, to which Dr. de Vrij has very properly called attention 
in your columns (April 13) ; and respecting which I had much corres- 
pondence with the late Mr. Mclvor. 

It is about ten years since this skillful cultivator raised from seed 
two sorts of officinalis, which for some reason he considered to be hybrid 
with C. succirubra. The two were alike distinguished by strong and 

34-6 Fast-growing Variety of Cinchona. 

vigorous habits of growth, and at a little distance it was difficult to 
discriminate between them. As they developed, however, it was found 
that the one with slightly pubescent leaves yielded much more quinia 
in the bark than the other. I suggested, for distinction's sake, calling 
this the var. pubescens, which has unfortunately since become changed 
into C. pubescens, How., an entirely erroneous designation. 

Referring to the bark sent both to Dr. de Vrij and to myself in 1873, 
Mr. Mclvor says, "This bark is taken from a hairy-leaved variety of 
C. officinalis. It is a tree of wonderful growth. It produces enor- 
mously thick bark, and the tree is not injured by wind. The tree 
from which I now send you the bark is only five years old. It is 
twenty-six feet high, and has a stem of sixteen inches in circumfer- 
ence at the ground, and the bark now sent you is taken in a strip from 
the stem to the height of about twelve feet from the ground. This 
tree grows at least twice as fast as C. succirubra. The bark of this 
variety which I sent to Dr. de Vrij was taken from a tree grown at a 
high elevation and with a N. W. exposure. The bark now sent you 
is taken from a tree growing at a low elevation with a N. £. exposure. 
Dr. de Vrij found the bark of this species to yield 10*67 per cent, of 
total alkaloids, with 4 72 of crystallized sulphate of quinia. If under 
all conditions this bark is found to yield this amount of alkaloids, and 
especially quinia, it is certainly the best plant we can grow ; being 
hardy and of rapid growth and perfectly free from canker and other 
diseases to which the officinalis and especially the calisaya are liable. I 
therefore sincerely hope that you will be able to confirm Dr. de Vrij's 
results, and if this occurs in. the two barks taken from different posi- 
tions of elevation, it will establish the value of the species beyond 

The examination which I made quite confirmed and even surpassed 
the results obtained by Dr. de Vrij, as the notes I have preserved indi- 
cate a produce equal to 6'00 sulphate of quinia, 5*00 sulphate of cin- 
chonidia, cinchonia and amorphous alkaloid i'20 per cent. Even this 
was exceeded after an additional year's growth. In June, 1874, Mr. 
M. writes, " I take the liberty of again sending you some bark of C. 
pubescens. This sample is of the narrow strips left on the same tree 
from which I took the bark sent to you in December last. If not 
giving you too much trouble, I would very much like to know what 
this bark yields, the more so [as some persons] have been trying to 

Am rur y u , r i878 ann *} Fast-growing Variety of Cinchona. 347 

impress on the government here that mossing does not improve the 
bark on the tree generally, and that the renewing bark draws the alka- 
loids from the natural bark adjoining, /'. that the alkaloids in the 
natural bark are transferred to the renewing bark. I do not believe 
this to be the case, but if it is so in any degree the bark now sent you 
will show exactly to what extent this takes place ; as the narrow strips 
of bark were surrounded on all side by renewing bark." 

The examination of the above "strips" was therefore of special 
interest in connection with an important problem in vegetable physiol- 
ogy. They gave equal to — 

Per cent. 

Sulphate of quinia, ..... 6 94 
cinchonidia, . . . . 4*48 

cinchonia, .... 0*20 

quinidia, .... 0*14 

Amorphous alkaloid, ..... 114 


Thus disproving the transference theory. 

It will be noticed that my friend de Vrij has recently obtained more 
quinia and less cinchonidia than I have done. This is no doubt owing 
to his having described the results of examination of renewed bark. 
I have also a small specimen of this, but have not subjected it to exam- 

It is obvious that a plantation of this kind is likely to be very profit- 
able. Mr. Mclvor wrote me in August, 1875, that 20 acres had been 
planted in the previous year, and that in the year above named they 
had planted out 60 acres on the Kartairy estate. The next year occurred 
his lamented decease, and I am unable to continue my record in con- 

The great question is, how far is it possible to count upon the prop- 
agation of this sort. Mr. Mclvor speaks with a varied amount of cer- 
tainty. In the last letter I had from him he says, u You are quite cor- 
rect as to the danger of relying on plants raised from seeds of our 
hybrids ; of course to be certain we must propagate from cuttings only, 
but pubescens comes pretty true. Still I would not rely on a plantation 
formed by seedlings even of this variety." 

In 1874 Mr. M. sent me a few seeds, from which I have one plant 1 
remaining, which reproduces all the character of vigorous growth and 

Another has diverged. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 July, 1878. 

promising aspect of the parent plant. It is already between six and 
seven feet in length, and the leaves reach the length of 9 or 10 inches 
by 6 inches in width. The plant may be a hybrid ; but if so, as 
admitted by Mr. Mclvor, it has much more the characteristics of C. 
officinalis than of C. succirubra. I send for the Musum of the Phar- 
maceutical Society a section of a tree of this sort sent me by Mr. M., 
from which those who are conversant with the characteristics of the 
wood of these different species will easily discern what I have stated 
to be true. A good botanical specimen in a collection given me by 
Mclvor does not appear to settle the question of hybridity. 

It remains that I add a parting word about Cinchona pubescens. This 
very distinct species was named by Vahl, and has been described and 
figured by Dr. Weddel. Not much is known about the /9 form, but 
in its form Pelletierana it is the source of the bark from whence aricina 
was procured, and from whence I have myself many times obtained 
this much contested alkaloid. Its whole chemical constitution is dis- 
tinct from other cinchonae, the cinchona red being superseded by an 
intensely yellow substance. It is no longer to be met with in com- 
merce, as it is useless except for scientific investigation, and has cer- 
tainly never been introduced into India. So I hope we have heard the 
last of C. pubescens, Howard, though not of the promising sort of offici- 
nalis which obtained this erroneous name. — Phar. Jour, and Trans. 
[Lond.], April 25, 1878. 


By Professor Fluckiger. 

Forty years ago Geiger was well aware of the fact that aqueous solu- 
tions of salts of quinia are decomposed in sunlight. It would appear 
that Pasteur 1 attributed this alteration to the formation of quinicia and 
cinchonicia, for in his researches on the two latter substances he lemarks, 
" J'ai reconnu, en effet, qu'en exposant au soleil, seulement durant 
quelques heures, un sel de quinine et de cinchonine quelconque, en 
solution Vendue ou concentre, il s'altere a tel point que la liqueur 
prend une coloration rouge-brun extremement foncee. Cette altera- 
tion est d'ailleurs de la meme nature que celle qui s'effectue sous l'influ- 
ence d'une temperature elevee." He recommended the manufacturers 

1 " Comptes Rendus," xxxvii, 1853, p. 114. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

July, 1878. J 



of quinia not to expose to direct sunlight either their products or even 
the barks. 

Carles 1 exposed powdered Calisaya bark to sunshine during the 
month of August, and found it to yield afterwards less quinia than 
before. Broughton 2 likewise pointed out the detrimental influence of 
direct sunshine on barks collected in the government plantations in the 

Hesse, 3 on. the other hand, stated that the influence of light was by 
no means so powerful, and did not favor very vigorously the formation 
of amorphous alkaloids. He exposed for seventy-three days to sun- 
light an aqueous solution containing 3-72 per cent, of quinia in the 
form of sulphate. Quinicia was found to be at last contained in the 
liquor, besides a red amorphous substance no longer possessing the pro- 
perty of neutralizing the acids. Hesse did not meet with the latter in 
the barks as might be expected, supposing sunlight to act in the same 
way on the alkaloids contained in the tissue itself. 

Mr. David Howard 4 ascertained that quinicia at least occurs in the 
mother-liquids obtained in manufacturing quinia, and Dr. de Vrij 5 is of 
the opinion that not only quinicia and cinchonicia, but another third 
amorphous alkaloid is present in the barks. 

The influence of sunlight on the latter and on their bases is a very 
interesting question, as shown by the experiments just alluded to. They 
refer not to the alkaloids, but to salts of them. What part is played 
by the acids with which the alkaloids are combined ? Are the alkaloids 
themselves likewise altered by sunshine or only their salts ? 

I thought it of some interest to submit quinia to a few experiments, 
and was struck to see how rapidly and thoroughly it is altered ; 2,000 
parts of water at I7°C. dissolve a little more than 1 part of quinia, 
yielding a clear solution, which remains colorless and clear for any 
length of time, provided it be kept in the dark or in dispersed daylight, 
in closed or in open phials. But on exposure to sunlight in July or 
August, for a few hours, the liquid turns yellowish or brownish, the 
coloration being developed uniformly in the whole solution, not begin- 

1<< Jour. de Pharm.," xii, 1870, p. 161. 

2 "Blue Book, East India Cinchona Plantation," 1870, fol. 241, 243, 118. 

:1 " Annalen der Chemie," clxvi, 1873, P- 2 75- 

4 " Pharm. Journ ," i, 1871, p. 485, and ii, 1872, p 765. 

& " Pharm. Journ.," iv, 1874, p. 589. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 July, 1878. 

ning at the surface. By and by it becomes turbid, and after a few days 
a flocculent brown matter sinks down, amounting when dry to nearly 
the quantity of quinia originally employed. A very little of it remains 
in solution, for the latter remains brownish and has always a bitter taste, 
reminding of quinia. Yet in the clear solution the alkaloid is present 
in so trifling an amount that the brown liquid becomes but very faintly 
turbid on addition of either tannic acid or iodohydrargyrate of iodide of 
potassium. By both these tests, as well known, precipitates are pro- 
duced in a solution containing even less than 1 part of quinia in 2,300 
parts of water before it is submitted to the action of light. 

The transformation of quinia into the brown flocculent substance, 
which for the sake of brevity may be termed quiniretin, is due to sun- 
light exclusively. If water is boiled in order to deprive it of air as much 
as possible, and then saturated with quinia, the cooled filtered solution 
keeps perfectly colorless until it is exposed to sunlight, when it soon 
begins to turn yellowish. It is true, however, that in a closed tube, in 
the dark, the aqueous solution, if quinia, turns red, yet not brown, as 
soon as it is heated to I70°C. ; at 300 it affords an intensely red 
liquid. The effect of sunlight is the same if the solution of quinia is 
deprived of air by a current of hydrogen and the tube immediately 
closed ; the solution thus absolutely deprived of oxygen becomes brown 
in sunlight. 

The brown substance, which I call quiniretin, must therefore con- 
tinue to have the same composition as quinia, but it is modified in an 
extremely remarkable way ; it is neither quinia or quinicia, nor does it 
contain a trace of either. Quiniretin is devoid of an alkaline reaction, 
insoluble in both alcohol and ether as well as in hot or cold water, 
softening but a little in boiling water. It is not fusible, but melts only 
far above the melting point of quinia, yet quiniretin then undergoes a 
thorough decomposition. 

Quiniretin is dissolved by acids, but unable to neutralize them or to 
combine with them. It is abundantly soluble in hydrochloric acid 
I'll sp. gr. ; this solution displays an intensely brown color, and may 
be diluted with water without becoming turbid. Its very bitter taste 
reminds of that of quinia, but it is at the same time somewhat, I may 
say, aromatic. The hydrochloric solution of quiniretin is not precipi- 
tated by tannic acid ; this is likewise in favor of the statement that it 
is not an alkaloid. The solution is precipitated, on the other hand, as 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ( 
July, 1878. J 



soon as it is neutralized by ammonia, yet quiniretin is not dissolved by 
an excess of the latter, and in this respect, too, it differs from quinicia. 

It must be granted that the iodohydrargyrate of potassium (1*35 per 
cent, chloride of mercury, 5 iodide of potassium, 100 water) yields an 
abundant precipitate in the hydrochloric solution of quiniretin, but the 
same may be said with regard to other salts, for instance chloride of 
ammonium or sodium. 

A small quantity of dilute sulphuric acid (1*112 sp. gr.) gently 
warmed and shaken for a day or two with a large excess of quiniretin, 
affords always an acid liquid of a yellowish hue, far less colored than 
the hydrochloric solution. The former is not fluorescent, and is 
decolorized by chlorine water. On addition of ammonia the latter 
assumes a dingy green hue or yields a greenish precipitate ; these reac- 
tions succeed better if quiniretin is immediately dissolved in chlorine 
water (it will usually contain an appropriate amount of hydrochloric 
acid) and ammonia added to it. This behavior agrees with that of 
quinia, quinicia and quinidia (conquinia), yet quiniretin again differs 
from these three alkaloids, inasmuch as it does not afford that red tar 
(Grahe's test) which makes its appearance if barks containing quinia 
or the allied alkaloids, or certain salts of them, are heated in a glass 

Quiniretin, consequently, differs very widely in many respects from 
quinia, its mother substance, the composition of which quiniretin must 
necessarily share with regard to the conditions of its formation, as 
pointed out above. I may add that I have restricted myself to ascer- 
taining the presence of nitrogen as a constituent of quiniretin. The 
intense action of sunlight, especially in summer, causes the quinia to 
be transformed. The alteration is not precisely more favored by acids ; 
the aqueous and also the alcoholic solution of pure quinia is more 
rapidly transformed ; dry quinia requires more time. The other alka- 
loids of cinchona are much less affected by sunlight than quinia, at least 
in aqueous solution. This, no doubt, depends upon their sparing solu- 
bility, quinia being more readily dissolved by water. It is interesting 
to see how little kinic acid is altered by sunlight ; saturated or diluted 
aqueous solution of it was but almost imperceptibly affected after a 
summer's stay in sunshine. As to quinovin, I noticed the absolute 
absence of any coloration after a similar treatment. 

Aqueous solution of morphia is very slightly colored by sunlight, 

35 2 The Mineral Springs of Turkey. { Xm )X%^ m ' 

solution of codeia very much ; solution of strychnia is scarcely altered, 
that of brucia turns brown. It is evident that the amount of solubility 
is of prominent importance in these experiments, codeia as well as 
brucia being much more abundantly soluble than morphia or strychnia. 
Further experiments relating to these remarkable effects of sunshine 
should be simultaneously instituted by means of other solvents than 

I thought my few observations worthy of notice, inasmuch as they 
refer to quinia itself, other chemists having examined its salts. It 
would appear that the absence of acids prevents the formation of 
quinicia. — Pharm. Journ. and Trans., May nth. 


By X. Landerer. 

These springs may be arranged, according to their chief constituents, as follows : 
Sulphur springs (theiothermae), Chalybeate springs, Alkaline springs. Carbonic Acid 

SULPHUR SPRINGS. — Tchesme (now Kallede).— The peninsula was called 
by the ancients Myonesus, from the large number of mice found there. In the 
neighborhood are found the ruins of Erythrea. The springs were known to the 
ancients (see Pausanias) and seem to have been in great repute, to judge from the 
magnificent remains of buildings in the immediate environs. 

The temperature of the water averages i45°F. (5o°R.), and some of the springs 
reach i58°F. (6o°R.) They are very efficacious in skin diseases, rheumatic affec- 
tions and scrofulous diseases. 

Nissyros (formerly Porphyris). — It is a small island only a few miles in diameter, 
and with about 3,000 inhabitants. In the centre of the island is found a large cavity 
containing a large quantity of sulphur, and here is found the spring called by the 
inhabitants bromoneri (stinking water). From most of the fissures escape vapors of 
sulphuretted hydrogen of quite a high temperature. In one place a house is built 
over such a fissure for the use of persons who wish to take a sulphuretted steam 
bath 5 this is called Pyria. 

Adramiti. — Although strongly sulphuretted, no facilities exist, and the patients 
are obliged to dig holes in the neighborhood, conduct the water there, and bathe in 
this way. These waters are said to be very efficacious taken internally in consump- 
tion and in asthma. 

Lemnos has from old times been considered as the abode of Vulcan, and is now 
nearly uninhabited, owing to repeated eruptions of lava. There exist two springs, 
one chalybeate and the other sulphuretted. 

Smokobo has been renowned from the earliest times. There exist two basins, one 
of which is reserved for the use of animals. 

Am jity, r x8 P 7 8? rm -} The Mineral Springs of Turkey. 353 

Salonica. — These springs are the most renowned in Macedonia, and the town was 
by the ancients therefore called Thermae, and the Bay of Salonica, Sinus thermaicus. 
The water is considered very efficacious, not only in rheumatic affections and skin 
diseases, but also in metallic poisonings and syphilis. The mud might be used 
with advantage. 

Nicomedia. — The town of Isnimid is situated not far from the Bay of Nicomedia 
(formerly Sinus astacenus) and some twenty miles northwest of Broussa. The 
springs, called Yalova, are next to those of Broussa, most in repute with the inhabi- 
tants of Constantinople. 

Kioussesi. — The mud deposited in these springs, and called theiothermine, is used 
as poultices in ulcers and other skin diseases. 

Erzerum. — About 12 hours' travel from Erzerum, near the village of Hassan- 
Kale, are found the springs, which are surrounded with splendid buildings. 

Springs of Syria and Mesopotamia. — In that part of Syria which comprises the 
Libanon and Antilibanon several springs are found of different composition, and 
near Aleppo are found sulphur waters. 

In Antiochia (now Antakia) are found magnificent ruins of colossal aqueducts, 
which conducted the water of mineral springs found in the vicinity. 

CHALYBEATE SPRINGS. — Troy (now Eski Stambul).— This water has a 
ferruginous, very saltish, taste, and is much used in chlorosis and chronic 
hemorrhages. The springs are called Lidjia hamam. 

Icaria. — Three springs are found on this island, which anciently was called 
Dolicho, and, from the great number of fishes found there, also Ichthyoessa. One 
of these springs has a temperature of i27°F. (42°R.), and is found near the village 
Agios Kyrillos; the other near the cloister Panayia Evangyelistra.i The third 
spring is sulphuretted. 

Angora. — In Galathea of old (now Angora) two kinds of mineral springs are 
found. The ones are cold and ferruginous, the others hot and sulphuretted. The 
chief chalybeate springs are found at Kidje hamam and Schah hamam and have got 
a wide reputation in dropsical cases. 

Chos. — This island, the birthplace of Hippocrates, formerly called Merope, now 
Stanchio, possesses four springs. One called Kokkino neron (red water) or Xono 
neron (acidulated water) is found near Burina, and is said to be very good in 
enlargement of the spleen. Not far from this one are found some sulphur springs, 
which are intermittent. Near Saint Marim is found a saline spring, which is said 
to be the original Hippocratic spring. 

Pergamos. — This town, the birth-place of Galenus and Oribasus, is situated near 
several small springs, which, however, are not much visited, since the tanners use 
the waters for softening the hides. 

ALKALINE SPRINGS.— Saint Catherine in Macedonia.— between Salonica and 
Volo, near the base of the Olympus, are found several springs of bitter water, with 
a temperature of u8°F. (38 a R.) The water is very useful in disorders of the liver, 
spleen and intestines. 

Candia. — Near the village of Rethimo is found the only important spring, which 




{Am. Jour Pharm. 
July, 1878. 

may be classed as a weak soda water. It is used in gravel, stone in the bladder and 
other maladies of the uro-poetic system. 

Bathy belongs to the class of bitter waters, and is used by the inhabitants as a 
spring medicine. Bathy is situated on the Bay of Adramite, not far from Kidonia. 

Bolt. — Near the base of Ala Dagh, in Bithynia, is found one of the most remark- 
able caves, with beautiful stalactites. Not far from this cave, near the ruins of 
ancient Acherusia, are found several springs of great repute in the neighborhood. 
Some sulphur springs are found near Gerede (Ptolomy's Cratia). 

Enos. — In the vicinity are found several small springs, the water of which has a 
very bitter, saltish taste, and a considerable amount of carbonic acid gas. It is very 
useful in maladies of the liver and spleen, sequences of the malarial fevers which 
are so frequent throughout the Orient. In the environs are found ruins of a palace 
of the emperor Trajan. 

Kainurio. — Not far from Pharsalus (Macedonia) exists a spring of bitter water, 
which is considered efficacious in scrofula. A second spring (saline) is found in 
the vicinity of Kephalo. A third is found near Milies, and called by the inhabi- 
tants kala nera (good water). All these springs contain chloride of sodium and 
sulphate of magnesium. 

Lebedos or Lidjia. — About six or seven hours' travel from Smyrna are found the 
ruins of Lebedos (Lebethos of Pliny and Strabo), now called Elidja. Here are 
found some springs of bitter water, with a temperature of 95°F. (28°R.) 

Tenedos (formerly Leucophrys) has a spring, the temperature of which is 86°F. 
(24°R.) The water is used chiefly as spring medicine. 

Astyra or Kirk Gheuz (that is forty eyes), the water issuing from about forty 
aperatures. The temperture varies, from time to time, from ioo°F. (300R.) to 
i6 7 °F. (6o°R.) 

Arimathea. — Near Jerusalem, in the place called Atzeldamah (Blood acre), pur- 
chased with the thirty silver pieces which Judas Iscarioth threw away, is a spring of 
a very saltish and bitter taste which is renowned over all Palestine for its vermifuge 

CARBONIC ACID SPRINGS.—/^ (in Bulgaria) possesses a spring of very 
cold water containing an abundance of carbonic acid gas. Waters like this are 
very rare in the Orient and not surpassed by any in the rest of Europe. It is 
reputed efficacious in pulmonary consumption and other affections of the chest. 

Ephesus. — Near the ancient town of Ephesus is situated the village Aya Suluk, 
which possesses a spring called formerly Alethaia. — From Gazette Medicale 
d'Orient, September, 1877. H. M. W. 


Tayuya as a Remedy for Syphilis.— Tayuya, a plant from Brazil, 1 has been 
highly recommended during the past few years as a remedy for syphilis and scrofula, 
[t has been used chiefly by the Italian surgeons. All parts of the plant are used, 

1 Said to be Bryonia Tayuya, nat. ord. Cucurbitaceae. — Editor. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1878. J 



but the most efficacious in syphilis is the root, either as a watery infusion or a tinc- 
ture made by adding 1,000 grams of 80 per cent, alcohol to 339 grams of the 
powdered root. The strong tincture thus obtained is to be diluted by the addition 
to it of 1,000 grams of rectified spirits. Of this, 14 drops is the maximum dose for 
an adult. 

Ambrosoli, who has used it freely in the Maggiore and Sifilo-comio hospitals of 
Milan, reports favorably on its use in syphilis, and states that the skin affections, 
ulcerations and swellings of the glands are promptly relieved by it. Veladini reports 
" brilliant results," as do also Magri, Strambio, Bazzoni and others. Gamba, how- 
ever, in the Syphilitic Hospital for Women in Turin, has not had such satisfactory 
results. Ziessl, of Vienna, states that he has seen no injurious results from 
tayuya, and, after giving it a fair trial, he greatly prefers it to mercury in the early 
stages of syphilis. He is not yet prepared to express a positive opinion as to its 
value in the later stages of the disease. — Virginia Medical Monthly, April, from Allg. 
Wien. Med. Zeitung, No. 3, 1878. 

Antidote to Phosphorus. — Hager recommends old oil of turpentine for this pur- 
pose, and states that the rectified oil is entirely unreliable as such. — Phar. Central/?., 
March 28, 1878, p. 120. 

Pitcherine— A New Stimulant. — The British Medical Journal has a long ac- 
count of a new stimulant, which has been lately described by the papers of Austra- 
lia. It is called by the natives pitcherine, and is used as we use tobacco, for both 
smoking and chewing. The effect is that of pleasant exhilaration 5 when long con- 
tinued, intense and continuous excitement follows. It is used, when on long foot- 
journeys, to invigorate and keep up the strength or excite them to courage in battle ; 
large doses are said to infuriate all the passions. Some of the natives make a 
plaster of this plant and place it back of the ears, believing they are influenced by 
\t.—Virg. Med. Monthly, April. 

Plastilina is a permanently plastic mass, which has been recently introduced for 
the use of artists. F. Giesel has analyzed it, and gives the following formula for its 
preparation: 300 grams oleic acid and 43 of zinc oxide are heated together until 
combined ; this zinc salt is fused together with 60 grams of wax and 130 of olive 
oil, and the fused mass intimately mixed with 250 grams of sulphur and 118 grams 
of clay, both in the form of impalpable powder. — Ber. Deutsch. Chem. Ges., 1878, 
p. 3io. , 

Plating Iron with Platinum; By I. H. Johnson. — The iron is first coated with 
lead and copper, by applying with a fine brush a paste made by mixing 22 parts of 
borate of lead and 4.} parts of oxide of copper with a little oil of turpentine. The 
iron is then heated and immersed in the solution of platinum ; after which it is 
allowed to dry, and then baked at a moderature temperature. The solution of pla- 

356 American Pharmaceutical Association. {^l™]'^™' 

tinum used is made as follows: 10 lbs. of platinum are transformed into chloride of 
platinum, which is mixed with 5 lbs. of ether; the latter is then allowed to evapo- 
rate spontaneously. A paste is then made of the residue with a mixture of 20 lbs. 
of borate ot lead, 11 lbs. of red lead and a little oil of lavender; then 50 lbs. of 
amylic alcohol are added. — Pharm. Centralh., March 28, 1878, p. 118. 

For Falling Out of Hair. — Erasmus Wilson recommends a lotion composed as 
follows : 

U Liq. Ammon. fort, ..... 
Ol. Amygd, ..... 
Chloroformi, . . . aa 3i 

Spts. Vini <vel., spts. rosemar, . . • 3 V 

Ol. Limonos q. s. to flavor. 
Mix. This should be rubbed on the scalp after thorough friction with the hair 
brush. There are cases in which it should be used with caution, or largely diluted. 
— Ohio Med. Recorder, April. 

Tully's Powder.— 

Morphiae sulph., . . . . . gr. . 

Camphoras, ..... 

Cretse preparatas, ..... 

Sacch. alb., . . . . . aa gr. xx. M. 

Used sometimes as a substitute for Dover's Powder. — Ibid. 

Bichromate of Potash in Syphilis.— In the " Annales de Ciencias Medicas," for 
April, Dr. Carlos Vincente Charpantier gives a series of cases illustrating the value 
of bichromate of potash in secondary and tertiary lesions. Though not altogether 
new, this treatment is not much known, and yet, from these observations, well 
deserves to be. The dose is one-fourth of a grain, doubled every three or four days 
to two or three grains. During the treatment all alkaline substances are prohibited, 
as liable to neutralize the chromic acid, which is the active agent. From some 
experiments on himself, Dr. C. finds the bichromate to lower both pulse and tempera- 
ture in a marked degree. — Med. and Surg. Rep., June 1. 


The twenty-sixth annual meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association 
will be held in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, on the first Tuesday, the third day of 
September, 1878, commencing at three o'clock, P. M. 

Mr. J. W. Rankin, of Atlanta, the Local Secretary, will be glad to receive 
articles for exhibition and make arrangements for their display. There will 
doubtless be a large gathering of Southern pharmacists on this occasion and from 
among them a considerable accession to our ranks ; many new members are also 
expected to join us from the more Northern States. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1878 J 

Minutes of the College 


The twenty-sixth meeting is likely to be one of more than ordinary interest. In 
addition to the usual reports it is expected that the Committee on the Revision of 
the Pharmacopoeia will have a very important and interesting one to present; much 
valuable information may also be expected in the replies to queries, and in the 
volunteer papers. The city of Atlanta has many attractions and is beautifully and 
healthfully situated amidst charming scenery. Our Southern friends are expecting 
a large attendance, and will be glad to welcome to their beautiful city all who can 
come. Let there be a grand rally of Northern pharmacists. 

Wm, Saunders, President. 

London, Ontario, Canada, June 17th, 1878. 


' Philadelphia, June 24th, 1878. 

A stated meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held this day at 
the College hall. Charles Bullock, Vice President, in the chair. Fifteen members 
in attendance. 

The minutes of the Annual Meeting in March last were read, and on motion 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees during April, May and June were also 
read, and on motion adopted. The minutes of the Board for December, 1877, 
show the election to honorary membership of Messrs. Joseph Bosisto of Victoria, 
Australia, and Professor Alfonso Herrera of Mexico; and as corresponding mem- 
bers Messrs. L. Creteur and Achille Jonas, both of Brussels, Belgium. 

A report of the committee, appointed at the annual meeting to consider the pro-: 
priety of changing the mode of electing the Board of Trustees, was read by Mr. 
Wiegand. It was on motion adopted, but considerable discussion arising upon 
another subject pertinent to the duties of the committee, the report was referred to 
them for further consideration. 

The following gentlemen were elected delegates to represent this College at the 
Annual Meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, which will convene 
at Atlanta, Georgia, on Tuesday, September 3d, 1878, viz.: Alonzo Robbins, 
Prof. J. P. Remington, Charles Bullock, J. L. Patterson and Dr. F. M. Murray. 

An election for delegates to represent the College in the Convention of Teaching 
Pharmaceutical Colleges, which will meet at the same time and place, resulted in 
the choice of the following gentlemen, viz. : Prof. John M. Maisch, Prof. J. P. 
Remington and Charles Bullock. 

Then, on motion, adjourned. William J. Jenks, Secretary. 

35 8 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { A %^ y % p 7 8 arm: 


American Pharmaceutical Association The time is drawing near for the 

twenty-sixth annual meeting, which, as our readers know, will be the first one held 
in the State of Georgia, and will doubtless be attended by many pharmacists and 
druggists from the Southern States. A considerable attendance is likewise expected 
from the more Northern States, since aside from the attractions of the meeting, the 
locality selected will induce many to embrace the opportunity for paying a visit to 
one of the fairest portions of the South, which is reached by passing through a sec- 
tion of country full of interest and scenic beauty. It is contemplated to organize 
an excursion party, and we may now state that the route will be at a considerable dis- 
tance from those districts which may be considered as being under malarial influence 
throughout a portion of the warm season. The details will be communicated to 
the members in due season 5 in the meantime the secretary would invite those who 
contemplate to be present to inform him of their intentions. 

In order to make the necessary preparations' for the exhibition of pharmaceutical 
novelties and objects of interest to pharmacists, it is very desirable that the local 
secretary, Mr. J. W. Rankin, be informed without delay of the space desired. 

We are pleased to give publicity to the following report of the Committee on 
Prize Essays, awarding the Ebert prize to Mr. Fr. B. Power, for his valuable in- 
vestigation on resin of podophyllum : 

To the President of the American Pharmaceutical Association : 

The Committee on Prize Essays would respectfully report, that having carefully examined all the 
original essays presented at the Twenty-fifth Annual Meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, they have unanimously, and independently of each other, decided to award the "Ebert Prize," for 
the year 1877, to Mr. Frederick B. Power, for his essay, "On the Resiu of the Rhizome of Podophyllum 
peltatum. Linn." 

The considerations that prompted the committee to make the award to Mr. Power were : 

1. The evidently scrupulous care in the identification of the drug and in the execution of the experi- 
ments which the author conceived to be necessary, thereby insuring a series of results that will stand 
conclusive for the sample of podophyllum rhizome experimented with. 

2. The results, which are confirmatory in some directions and contradictory in others, contribute 
materially to our knowledge of the constituents of the podophyllum rhizome, and, if not conclusive, are 
calculated to incite renewed investigation, particularly as regards the hitherto undisputed presence of 
berberia in the drug 

The committee do not consider it expedient to subject the essay to a nearer criticism. The results 
obtained by Mr. Power may be disputed or confirmed by future experimenters ; but they have, beyond a 
doubt, rendered the existence of berberia as a constituent of the rhizome of Podophyllum peltatum ques- 
tionable, and clearly prove its absence in the particular sample examined by Mr. Power. 

A strict interpretation of the "by-law " governing the action of this committee prevents .direct refer- 
ence to other meritorious essays that were selected by the committee for special consideration, 


Cincinnati, June 19th, 187S. 

Association of the Alumni Massachusetts College of Pharmacy.— At the 

meeting, June 6th, the Syrups of the Pharmacopoeia were the subjects of discussion, 
several members, at the request of Mr. S. A. D. Sheppard, having experimented and 
presented the results of their observations. Mr. Sheppard detailed an interesting 
account of his experience with Syrup, and gave his opinion that cold percolation or 
agitation were to be preferred to heat, and that fifteen (15) parts by weight of 
sugar to 8 parts by weight of water gave a syrup leaving nothing to be desired. 

Am j5^i8 7 s arm '} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 359 

Mr. Thomas Doliber approved the plan of cold agitation, stating that it had been 
the custom of the firm which he represented to prepare 30 gallons at a time by this 
process. He advised a final filtration through paper as an improvement over ordi- 
nary straining. Mr. Sheppard read extracts from a letter written to the Pharmaco- 
poeia Committee of the American Pharmaceutical Association, by Mr. Edwin 
Baker, Esq , Shelbourne Falls, Mass., suggesting a process combining agitation, 
maceration and percolation, for which the writer claimed good results. President 
Flanagan exhibited aromatic and simple syrups of rhubarb prepared with water as 
a menstruum. 

Mr. Lowd showed samples of Syrup of Iodide of Iron, and read a formula said 
to be satisfactory. 

Iodine, . . . 10 parts (by weight) 

Iron wire cut in pieces, . 3 " " 

Water, . . . 4 " " 

Mix in a flask and shake until the reaction of the Iodine and Iron is complete. 
Add to syrup boiling, too parts; shake, and when cold, add syrup to make 130 

Mr. Sheppard presented a formula for syrup of ipecacuanha, by precipitating the 
resinous matter from the fluid extract by hot water. The precipitate was less in 
weight by hot water than by cold, and the syrup was much brighter in appearance. 
He also showed samples of syrup of ipecacuanha, made by precipitating the resin 
by a mixture of water, acetic acid and glycerin, and stated that his experiments on 
this syrup were not complete. If this syrup is to be made from the fluid extract, 
our chief attention should be turned to fluid extract to be made efficient and be 
miscible with simple syrup. 

Mr. Goff exhibited compound syrup of sarsaparilla made in accordance to U. S. 
P. process, with the exception of pale rose, which he was unable to obtain in the 
Boston market. Mr. Doliber corroborated this statement, and Mr. Davidson sug- 
gested white rose as a substitute for the pale, it possessing a fine aroma and slight 
laxative tendency. 

Mr. Edward S. Kelley read a formula for a permanent syrup of Phosphate of 
Iron, Quinia and Strychnia. 

The Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association held an adjourned meeting in 
American Hall, at Reading, on June nth. President Heinitsh opened the session, 
giving a brief account of the organization and the aims of the association. Hon. 
Chas. F. Evans, Mayor of Reading, extended a hearty welcome to the members, 
which was responded to by the president. After roll-call and the reading and 
approval of the minutes, the Executive Committee reported the names of many 
applicants for membership, who were duly elected. A question arose as to the time 
for which the officers were elected at Harrisburg in February ; a motion was made 
and carried requesting the officers to serve until the election of their successors at 
the next annual meeting. 

The Secretary reported that steps had been taken to procure a charter, and that 
the necessary application would soon be made. The members residing at Harris- 
burg were empowered to make the application. The poison bill passed at the last 

360 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { Am ){™%™l rm - 

session of the Legislature was read and discussed, and reference was made to the 
bill attempting to regulate the practice of pharmacy (see pages 361 and 363). A 
very interesting paper on a drug press, constructed by Mr. Chas T. George, of 
Harrisburg, was read, and samples of cold-pressed linseed oil, of excellent quality, 
obtained therewith, to the amount of 19 per cent , were shown. We expect to pub- 
lish a full description of this press in our next number. 

Mr. George exhibited also a specimen of citrate of iron and cinchonidia, prepared 
by him, and which is beginning to be used to some extent. 

At the second session, held in the afternoon, it was decided that twelve members 
constitute a quorum of the association ; and the Secretary was instructed to procure 
a blank book, to be used as a register, and to have a suitable number of the consti- 
tution, by-laws and roll of members printed. The following gentlemen were elected 
honorary members of the association : Dr. E. R. Squibb, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; William 
Saunders, London, Ont ; Chas. A. Tufts, Dover, N. H., and Prof. Rob. Bridges, 
M.D., Philadelphia. 

An election of five delegates to the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, resulted as follows: Messrs. Lemberger of Lebanon, Kennedy of 
Pottsville, Stein of Reading, George of Harrisburg and Ro^s of Lebanon. 

Mr. Burns of Minersville, from the Committee on the Next Annual Meeting, 
reported that it be held at the city of Pittsburg on the second Tuesday of June, 
1879. The report was unanimously adopted. 

A committee of three, consisting of Messrs. Remington, Maisch and Patterson, 
of Philadelphia, was appointed to obtain some designs for a certificate of member- 
ship, ascertain the cost and report at the next annual meeting} also a committee on 
papers and queries, consisting of Messrs. George, Kennedy and Heinitsh. 

The subject of the State tax on the sale of patent medicines was brought up and 
discussed. It appears that the tax is not collected in some counties, and in others 
very unequitably levied, general dealers selling patent medicines being usually not 
taxed, although liable under the law, the same as apothecaries and druggists. The 
whole subject was finally referred to the Committee on Legislation, with the instruc- 
tion to examine into the matter, to memorialize the Legislature for the repeal of the 
law, and to prepare blank petitions for signature, to be sent to members of the asso- 
ciation and others interested. 

New members were elected, and votes of thanks were passed to the druggists, the 
citizens and the press of Reading for the many courtesies extended. Dr. Ziegler 
responded on behalf of the druggists and apothecaries of Reading, and stated that 
they had formed an organization some years ago, but had concluded not to hold 
meetings at regular intervals 5 the members were called together whenever a subject 
of sufficient importance made it desirable. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited and briefly described a number of new and rare drugs, and 
after some remarks by various members the Association adjourned, and the visiting 
members returned to their homes by the evening trains. 

The attendance at the meeting was quite satisfactory, between forty and fifty 
members having been present. The total membership, we learn from the Secretary, 
is 66, of which but a very small number are residents of Philadelphia. Many phar- 

Am ju°y, r xSjC™" } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 361 

macists and druggists residing in different parts of the State have corresponded with 
the Secretary, Dr. J. A. Miller of Harrisburg, and with the chairman of the Execu- 
tive Committee, Mr. Chas. H. Cressler of Chambersburg. These and all others 
entitled to membership are invited to connect themselves now with the Association, 
under the following clause of the By-Laws (Chap. I, Art. 5): 

tc The Executive Committee shall take into consideration and report without delay 
on all matters of business and on all propositions of membership, and audit all bills 
against the Association ; and, in the interim, they, <vjith the President, shall have the 
pouoer to elect applicants for membership." 

Augusta Pharmaceutical Association — We have received the Constitution and 
By-Laws of this Association, which was organized May nth, 1878. 

St. Louis College of Pharmacy. — The Annual Meeting was held on Monday, 
May 27th. An election of officers, trustees and a board of pharmacy for the city 
of St. Louis took place, with the following result : President, Theodore Kalb ; 
Vice President, Chas. Gietner 5 Secretary, E. P. Walsh 5 Treasurer, F. W. 
Sennewald ; Board of Trustees— H. E. Hoelke, W. H. Crawford, M. W. 
Alexander, Geo. Ude and F. X. Crawley 5 Board of Pharmacy — Theo. Kalb, F. 
X. Crawley, Chas. Habicht, M. W. Alexander and I. M. Good. Votes of thanks 
were tendered to Dr. Chas. A. Lips, the retiring Treasurer, who, for the last twelve 
years, had served the College in this capacity, his annual report showing the College 
to be in a prosperous condition. The Board of Trustees, at a subsequent meeting, 
organized itself by electing M. W. Alexander chairman and Chas. Gietner Sec'y. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Ireland.— At a special meeting of the Council, held 
at the College of Physicians, Dublin, on Wednesday, May 8th, Prof. Tichborne, 
Ph.D., F C.S., was elected, unanimously, President, in place of Sir Dominick 
Corrigan, Bart., resigned. Dr. A. Smith, Vice-President, declined to accept the 
post of President, and requested the Council to allow him to remain as Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Society. Mr Bennett, of Kingstown, and Mr. Brunker, of Dublin, 
were elected to fill the two vacancies on the Council. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Paris.— Mr. Mehu presided at the meeting held 
May 8. Mr. Stan. Martin presented a specimen of Sapindus with stinging hairs, 
which grows on the Senegal, and the fruit of which is employed there by the natives 
as a dcpurative. A note by Mr Duf'resne was read, in which he described certain 
falsifications of pancreatin and his observations of its digestive power. 

Mr. Mehu directed attention to the presence of small quantities of copper in some 
commercial "samples of boric acid; he had also met with a boro-taitrate of potas- 
sium having a greenish color, which, however, was not due to copper. 

Mr. Coulier made an interesting communication on the drugs which are used by 
the Persians for dyeing the hair; he presented to the Society specimens of the plants 
from which the materials are obtained, and which proved to be the henna (Lawsonia 
alba, Lam.) and the silvery indigo plant (Indigofera argentea, Lin.) 

362 Editorial. l^XJii™' 


Acetic Acid Pure — A correspondent has directed our attention to the identity of 
the article on page 293 of our June number, with one published years ago by a 
manufacturing house of New York, and on comparing the two we have found them 
to agree with each other, ^verbatim et literatim, with very few and entirely unim- 
portant verbal changes. The pamphlet containing the article referred to was pub- 
lished in the year 1870, by Messrs. E. J. Mallett, Jr., & Co., 72 William St., N, Y. 

Pharmaceutical Legislation in Pennsylvania. — We have received from our 
friend G. W. Kennedy a copy of the bill which was introduced at Harrisburg early 
in February by Hon. Mr. Ringgold, and to which we alluded in our last number. 
Mr. Kennedy has accompanied the "dead innocent" by some comments, from 
which we take the following : 

" The bill was at last found in possession of the Committee on Vice and Immo- 
rality, the very last place we expected to find it, and had it not been for my friend, 
an associated press reporter, I would have given it up as lost. Its reference to this 
committee put it into the place where it properly belonged, and was very properly 
' killed 1 by being indefinitely postponed. 

" On glancing over the bill it is readily observed that it is not what the educated 
pharmacists of the State desire. There is no question but it was framed and worded 
for the interest and benefit of those who have been engaged in this dishonest and 
disreputable practice of selling diplomas. If the bill was intended for the good of 
the people, and for protecting them from unreliable and dishonest druggists in the 
compounding and dispensing of their medicines, why was it not brought before a 
body of pharmacists for their sanction or approval ? 

" No, this would not suit the framers of the bill, as they knew that it never would 
have been presented in the shape in which it was 5 at least, there would have been 
some provision made as to the standing of the institutions issuing the diplomas. 
You will observe by reference to Section I that it simply requires, in order to be 
proprietor or manager of a store, to be the possessor of a diploma from some med- 
ical college or college of pharmacy, stating that he has studied pharmacy. What 
a flimsy, transparent section this is ! They would also have liked to abolish the 
Board of Examiners of the city of Philadelphia, which has done so much good for 
the community in preventing incompetent persons from commencing the drug and 
apothecary business. 

" But the managers of the bill were foiled in their attempt to push this obnoxious 
bill through, thanks be to our Senators and members of the House. So long as we 
have such men to legislate for us as Senator Keefer and Representative Potts, from 
Schuylkill county, and others, there need be no apprehension that such a ridiculous 
bill may become a law ; for, in order to vote intelligently, they make it their busi- 
ness to examine into the merits critically before voting. 1 ' G. W. K. 


To regulate the Practice of Pharmacy and Sale of Poisons, and to Prevent the Adulteration of Drugs 
and Medicinal Preparations in the State of Pennsylvania. 
Whereas, The safety of the public is endangered by want of care in the sale of poisons, whether to 
be used as such for legitimate purposes or employed as medicine and dispensed on physicians' prescrip- 
tions ; 

And whereas, The power of physicians to overcome disease depends greatly on their ability to 
obtain good and unadulterated drugs and skillfully prepared medicines ; 

And whereas, The act to prohibit the sale of academic degrees, approved May 19th, 1871, does 
away with the necessity of irresponsible pharmaceutical examining boards ; 

And whereas, The class of persons to which the preparation and sale of drugs, medicines and poi- 
sons properly belong, known as chemists, druggists, should possess a practical knowledge of the science 
of pharmacy in its various business relations ; therefore 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

July, 1S78. ; 



Section I. Be it enacted etc., That after May 1st, 1879, no person whomsoever shall be allowed to 
establish or carry on within the limits of the State of Pennsylvania any retail chemical, drug, apothe- 
cary or pharmaceutical store, as proprietor or manager thereof, unless he shall have obtained from a med- 
ical college or college of pharmacy a diploma stating that he has studied pharmacy. 

Sec. II, That any person who has served two years in a store where medicines are compounded or 
dispensed, and who has attended the lecture courses for one session in a medical college or college of 
pharmacy, shall be rcognized as a qualified assistant, and, under the supervision of a graduate of phar- 
macy, he shall be permitted to compound or dispense physicians' prescriptions. 

Sec. III. That every graduate of pharmacy actually engaged in the practice of his profession shall 
be registered as such in the office of the Clerk of the Court of Quarter Sessions of the county in which 
he is located. The fee for each registration shall be one dollar ($1). 

Sec. IV. That any person who shall knowingly, willfully or fraudulenty falsify or adulterate, or cause 
to be falsified or adulterated any drug or medical substance or any preparation authorized or recognized 
by the Pharmacopoeia of the United States, or used or intended to be used in medicinal practice, or shall 
mix or cause to be mixed with any such drug or medicinal substance any foreign or inert substance 
whatsoever, for the purpose of destroying or weakening its medicinal powers or effect, and shall willfully, 
knowingly or fraudulently sell or cause the same to be sold for medicinal purposes, shall be guilty of a 
misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall pay a penalty not exceeding five hundred dollars (#500), 
and shall forfeit to the commonwealth all of the article so adulterated. 

Sec V. That " the Act to regulate the Practice of Pharmacy and Sale of Poisons, etc., in the city 
of Philadelphia, approved April 4th, 1872," be and the same is hereby repealed; and all other acts or 
parts of acts inconsistent or conflicting witn this act are also hereby repealed. 

In addition to what Mr. Kennedy has said about this bill, we wish to call atten- 
tion to the provision of Section I, requiring all who carry on any retail apothecary 
store to procure a " diploma." There are a large number of apothecaries through- 
out the State, particularly among the older members of the profession, who would 
thus have been compelled to hunt for the crooked diploma venders — provided the 
provision would have stood the test of law in a court of equity. 

Other provisions which we especially commend to the consideration of those who 
desire to know "how not to do it," are contained in Sections II and III. Is a per- 
son a qualified assistant who has to learn yet how to compound even simple pre- 
scriptions? And if a person has served as errand boy or in a similar position in a 
dispensing establishment, and has attended a course of lectures, of which perhaps 
he has not grasped even the rudiments, will that make him a qualified assistant? A 
graduate of pharmacy was to procure registration (Sec. Ill) 5 but the happy individ- 
uals who under Section I would have procured a " diploma stating that they had 
studied pharmacy," we presume would have been exempt from paying the registra- 
tion fee, because the bill does not declare them to be graduates, and very likely a 
crooked diploma fee may have been considered as a sufficient tax. 

A Poison Act. — We have received the following copy of a new law, which, 
though it does not directly affect pharmacists, is nevertheless of interest to them. 
We print the law, together with some comments from our correspondent : 


To prevent the zvanton or careless use of poisons. 

Section I, Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commomvealth of 
Pennsylvania, in General Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, That 
no person shall put or expose in any public place or highway, nor on his own lands outside of his build- 
ings, nor on the lands of any other person, any poison or admixture thereof, with the intent that the same 
shall be taken or swallowed by any bird, fowl or wild animal. 

Section II. Any person violating this act shall, on conviction before any alderman orjustice of the 
peace, be subjected to a fine of twenty dollars to the use of the Commonwealth, 

3 6 4 


{' Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1878. 

" The above is an act passed at the last session of the Legislature of Pennsylvania. 

" The title of the act is clear enough, and the premises such where careful legisla- 
tion would be desirable. We think, however, that the author of the bill has failed 
in the present case to cover the ground judiciously. 

" Leaving it to the naturalist to decide whether the potato beetle is an animal, and 
if so, a nvild or domestic animal 5 we see in the present act no clause which ex- 
tends protection to dogs, sheep, hogs, etc., which are not uoild animals, while the 
question of what is a " wild animal, 11 is left open to the judicial construction of any 
alderman or justice of the peace." B. 

Diploma Selling — We have repeatedly called attention to the fact that diploma 
venders in North America and Europe are reaping a harvest by selecting high-sound- 
ing titles for their imaginary institutions, or such which closely resemble those of 
well-known institutions of unquestioned respectability. The arrangements for ac- 
commodating dupes with all sorts of scientific honors and titles are usually made 
secretly, and it is not often the case that the agents who, for a valuable considera- 
tion, lend their helping hand to the transaction of a business that shuns the light, 
receive the merited stamp before they have even begun to embark in the new enter- 
prise. It affords us pleasure, therefore, to republish the following letter from the 
" Cincinnati Eclectic Medical Journal" for April, in the hope that the writer of the 
letter may reap all the benefit, which his benevolence and kindness deserve: 

" Berlin, 10th of January, 1878. 

" To the Eclectic Medical College, Cincinnati : 

" I herewith take the liberty to inquire if you are inclined to confer the degree of a Doctor in absence 
on qualified and respectable parties. I could labor for you with the best success, if you would elect me 
as a delegate for Europe. I have acted till now in this capacity for qualified persons for the American 
University of Philadelphia, American University of New Jersey, and Nova Anglica University, Man- 
chester, New England, but would prefer to work for an university of your well-known reputation. I would 
endeavor to arrange matters in such a manner that the good name of your university will not suffer, as I 
will confer the degree of a doctor only to such parties as are entitled by their previous studies. I require 
diplomas as a Doctor of Medicine and a Doctor of Dental Surgery. Therefore, if the laws of your 
country allow that you grant the degree of a Doctor in absence, I beg you to inform me at what price you 
would confer the promotion, that is, how much the fee for each diploma will be. 

"With the assurance that the good name of your university will be preserved, and that I will further 
your interest to the best of my ability, I look for an early reply. I remain, yours, respectfully, 

" Dr. H Rumlkr, M. D., Hollmannstrasse No. 40, Berlin." 

The introduction of the metric system into the United States has been very 
materially furthered by an order, dated April 27, 1878, which, with the approval of 
the Secretary of the Interior, has been issued by John M. Woodworth, Surgeon- 
General, United States Marine-Hospital Service. The medical officers of this ser- 
vice will hereafter be required to discard the apothecaries 1 weights and measures, 
and to express quantities by weight only in " grammes" and "centigrammes," and 
quantities by measure in " cubic centimetres." 1 To facilitate compliance with this 
important order a pamphlet has been published containing rules for converting the 
old into metric values, suggestions for writing metric prescriptions, a metric 
posological table, etc., which have been prepared with commendable care, by the 
Chief Clerk and Acting Medical Purveyor, Prof. Oscar Oldberg, Phar.D. We 
copy from the rules and explanations the following : 

1 We regret that the Surgeon-General has not sanctioned the simpler orthography adopted by the 
American Metric Bureau. 

Am Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1878. / 




Rule A. — Reduce each quantity to grains ; then divide the number by 10, (or move the decimal 
point one place to the left,) and from the quotient subtract one-third. The remainder is in each case 
the number of grammes representing (nearly) the same quantity. Or, 

Rule B. — Reduce each quantity to drachms, and multiply the number by 4. The product is in 
each case the number of grammes representing (nearly) the same quantity. Or, 

Rule C. — Reduce each quantity to ounces, and multiply the mimber by 32. The product is in each 
case the number of grammes representing (nearly) the same quantity. 

One gramme is equal to i5"43234874 troy grains {Professor Miller). — In preparing the above rules 
the fraction has been ignored, as for medical and pharmacal purposes one gramme and 15 troy grains may 
be safely considered as equal quantities. In rule A, therefore, a division of 15 may, if preferred, be 
substituted for the division by 10, followed by a subtraction of one-third from the quotient, with the same 
result. The difference between 15 and 15*43234874 is 2 - 882+ per cent., and hence the deviation from 
exactness in the answer arrived at by either of the above rules corresponds to an excess of 28-82+ grains 
for every 1,000 grains, or about 14 grains for every ounce. 

To insure greater accuracy, if in any case deemed necessary, three per cent, maybe deducted from 
the answer arrived at by either of the Rules A, B and C. The deviation from exactness will then be 
reduced to one-fifth of one per cent , the remainder being less than the exact equivalent sought by only 
2*04 grains for every 1,000 grains, or about one grain for every ounce. 


Rule D. — Reduce each quantity to minims ; then divide the number by 10, (or move the decimal 
point one place to the left), and from the quotient subtract one-third. The remainder is in each case 
the number of cubic centimetres representing (nearly) the same quantity. Or, 

Rule E — Reduce each quantity to fluid drachms, and multiply the number by 4.. The product is 
in each case the number of cubic centimetres representing (nearly) the same quantity. Or, 

Rule F '.—Reduce each quantity to fluidounces, and multiply the number by 32. The product is 
in each case the number of cubic centimetres representing (nearly) the same quantity. 

One metre is equal to 39 370432 inches {Captain Clarke). — Hence one cubic centimetre is equal to 
0.0610253868 — cubic inches, or to 16*2311678 + minims, (there being 61,440 minims in each wine-gallon of 
231 cubic inches). In preparing the above rules 1 cubic centimetre and 15 minims have been considered 
as equal quantities, which, for medical and pharmacal purposes, is deemed sufficiently accurate. In 
Rule D, therefore, a division by 15 may, if preferred, be substituted for the divis : on by 10, followed by a 
subtraction of one-third from the quotient, with the same result. The difference between 15 and 
16-2311678+ is 8 208— per cent., and hence the deviation from exactness in the answer arrived at by either 
of the above rules corresponds to an excess of 82*08 — minims for every 1,000 minims, or about 41 minims 
for every fluidounce. 

To insure greater accuracy, if in any case deemed necessary, 8 per cent, may be deducted from the 
answer arrived at by either of the Rules D, E and F. The deviation from exactness will then be reduced 
to less than one-half of one per cent., the remainder being less than the exact equivalent sought by only 
4*49 — minims for every 1,000 minims, or less than 2^ minims for every fluidounce. 

We are pleased that official sanction has been given to this very simple method of 
familiarizing physicians with the use of the metric system, and thus set at rest the 
groundless fears of dangerous inaccuracy occurring in consequence of the conversion 
of old values into their approximate metric equivalents. It will also be observed that 
for liquids of the spec, grav- of water weights may be substituted for measures, since 
1 gram=i cubic centimeter. It would seem then as if there was but little if any 
difficulty of abandoning measures altogether in prescriptions in favor of weights, as 
we have repeatedly taken occasion to advocate. It affords us pleasure to refer to a 
paper, by Dr. E. Wigglesworth, which was recently published in the " Boston 
Medical and Surgical Journal," and strongly urges the course indicated. There is 
a slight inaccuracy in that paper, which, however, does not detract from the value 
of the argument j the author has overlooked the fact that the apothecaries' grains, 


Editorial. — Reviews, etc. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1878. 

drachms and ounces formerly in use in Prussia, were not identical with the corres" 
ponding Troy values, but were almost equivalent to our apothecaries' measure, 
weighed as water. We give place to the concluding remarks of Dr. Wiggleworth's 
paper : 

In our old " systemless system" some fluids were measured. How shall we obtain, with weights, 
the desired bulks of fluids with varying weights ? Must we learn the specific gravities of all fluids ? 

Not at all ! 

1. Fixed oils, honey, liquid acids and chloroform, must at present be prescribed in our old weights, 
not measures, according to the Pharmacopoeia. Here change old weights to metric ones. 

2. Not enough chloroform or ether is included in any one prescription to admit of harm arising from 
the amount contained in a single dose, even were their weights regarded as the same with that of water. 
Moreover, it is not difficult to remember that ether weighs seven-tenths as much as water, chloroform 
twice as much as ether. 

3. There remain infusions and tinctures, glycerins and syrups. These four are used in bulk as doses, 
or as solvents or vehicles. The former two may be regarded as identical in weight with water ; the latter 
two as one-third heavier, and when prescribing these we need merely write, by weight, for four-thirds as 
much as we should write for were we prescribing water, and we obtain an equal bulk. The teaspoon or 
tablespoon dose will then contain the desired amount of the drugs employed. 

Or, simplest of all, we can make any mixture up to any desired bulk by merely directing the druggist 
to use enough of the vehicle to bring the whole mixture up to the requisite weight for that bulk. 

The Metric Bureau, 32 Hawley street, Boston, will furnish metric prescription-blanks to order, to 
druggists or physicians, at four-fifths printers' rates, or any blank can be made sufficiently metric by a 
perpendicular line at the right, headed Grams. 

Old Style. Metric. 


IT\ i or gr. i . . equals . . . . . .. 06 

f 5i " oi . " . . . . . 4 

f Si " Si . " 32 

The decimal LINE instead of POINTS makes errors impossible. 
A teaspoon is 5 Gins ; a tablespoon, 20 Gms. 


Medicinal Plants, being descriptions with original figures of the principal plants 
employed in medicine, and an account of their properties and uses. By Robert 
Bentley, F.L.S , and Henry Trimen, M.B., F.L.S. Philadelphia : Lindsay & 
Blakiston. Parts 27 and 28. Price, $2.00 each. 

The parts of this excellent work now before us contain Aconitum ferox, Wall. 
(yields bish or bikh root); Aeon, heterophyllum, Wall, (used in India as a tonic and 
antiperiodic); Andropogon nardus, Lin. (yields oil of citronella); Capsicum fastigi- 
atum, Blume (bird-pepper or chillies); Cicuta virosa, Lin. (water hemlock); Daucus 
caiota, Lin.; Glycyrrhiza glabra, Lin.; Liquidambar orientale, Miller (yields storax); 
Matricaria chamomilla, Lin.; Melia azadirachta, Lin. (the nimor margosa of India); 
CEnanthe crocata, Lin. (water dropwort of Western Europe); Origanum vulgare, 
Lin.; Papaver somniferum, Lin., and Piper cubeba, Lin. 

Die allgemeinsten chemischen Formeln, ihre Entivicklung und Anuoendung zur Ablei- 
tung chemischer Verbindungen. Von Dr. C. Willgerodt, Docent der Chemie an der 
Universitat zu Freiburg. Heidelberg: Carl Winter's Universitats-Buchhandlung 
1878. 8vo, pp. 208. 

Chemical formulas generalized, their evolution and application for the derivation of 
chemical compounds. 

As indicated in the title, this work is not intended for a mere enumeration of the 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1878. j 

Reviews j etc. 

3 6 7 

elementary or empirical formulas of the various chemical compounds. On the con- 
trary, it aims at producing a general mathematical formula for all compounds, from 
which the rational formula of any compound may be deduced, bearing in mind the 
different quantivalence of the elements or groups of elements entering into combi- 
nation. The subject is one of especial interest and importance in theoretical chem- 
istry, and has been treated in a very commendable manner. It is impossible, how- 
ever, in the brief space allotted to this review to follow the author in his evolution 
of the generalized formula, and to give the latter without the preceding considera- 
tions would be of no avail. 

In an appendix, the author has arranged a number of formulas regarding all 
elements as being of the same chemical value (univalent), but reserves for future 
consideration to determine the general applicability of such a theory. There is no 
difficulty in the way of this view as long as the compounds consist of one atom each 
of two elements ; but with a larger number of one or both it is different, and we 
believe it will be of interest to our readers to learn, from a few examples, the shape 
which the formulas of some well known compounds would assume. Water, H 2 0= 
(0 / — H / ) / H / 5 oxide of potassium, K 2 = (0 / — K / ) / K / j hydrate of sodium 
NaHO = (O'— Na / ) / H / j ammonia, NH 3 = [(N / — H / ) / — H / ] / H / ; acetylene, 
C 2 H 2 =(C / — fl')'(C— H T> etc - 

Proceedings of the Connecticut Pharmaceutical Association at the Second Annual Meet- 
ing, held in New Haven, Conn., Feb. 6th, 1878. New Haven. Pp. 43. 
The meeting was opened by the President, Nathan Dikeman. The reports of 
officers and committees were presented and the usual routine business transacted. 
The draft of a proposed pharmacy act was submitted, discussed and adopted, and a 
committee appointed to present it to the Legislature and urge its passage. Nine 
papers on practical subjects and affairs of the Association were read and referred for 
publication. The following officers were elected to serve for the current year : 
President, Hugh H. Osgood, Norwich 5 Vice Presidents, Dwight Phelps, West 
Winsted, and F. V. Perry, Danbury 5 Secretary, Romanta Wells, New Haven ; 
Treasurer, George P. Chandler, Hartford. 

Eighth Annual Report of the State Board of Pharmacy, made to the General Assembly 
1878. Providence, R. I." 

During the past year fourteen persons applied for registration as pharmacists, ten 
of whom passed on the first, three on the second and one on the fourth examina- 
tion. Of six applicants for registration as assistants three passed on the first and one 
on the second examination. 

Sixth and Seventh Annual Reports of the Alumni Association of the College of Phar- 
macy of the City of New York, 1877-78. New York. 8vo, pp. 59. 

Third Annual Report of the Alumni Association of the St. Louis College of Pharmacy. 
St. Louis, Mo., 1878. 8vo, pp. 53. 

The organizations whose reports are before us have the praiseworthy object to 
unite the graduates into closer fellowship, and to advance the interests of the institu- 
tions where the graduates have received their pharmaceutical honors. Local in 
character, such associations nevertheless exert a laudable influence in more distant 
localities by promoting good feeling among its members wherever they may reside, 
and by renewing through these annual publications the bond of union which naturally 
centers in the Alma Mater. The graduates of the different colleges of pharmacy, 
whose only object has not been to obtain the coveted degree, attach themselves to 
an association the ultimate aim of which, obviously, is the promotion of pharma- 
ceutical education and pharmaceutical progress. 

3 68 

Reviews, etc.— Obituary . 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1876. 

Prescription Writing, designed for the use of medical students who have never studied 
Latin. By Fr. H. Gerrish, M.D., Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics 
in the Medical School of Maine. Second edition. Portland, Me. : Loring, Short 
& Harmon. 1878. i6mo, pp. 51. 

This little work is intended to instruct not in the art of prescribing, but in the 
proper construction of prescriptions in Latin. With this end in view, it gives some 
simple rules, and afterwards some classified lists of words used in prescriptions, 
intended to aid those who are ignorant of Latin to avoid mistakes which are bad 
enough in written prescriptions, but infinitely worse when printed. We commend 
the little book to physicians and apothecaries who desire to improve in the correct 
writing and reading of perscriptions 

The following pamphlets have been received : 

Fluid Extracts by Repercolation. By E. R. Squibb, M.D., Brooklyn, N. Y. Reprinted 
from the "Am. Jour. Phar.," May, 1878, with additions by the author. Pp. 43. 

Studien uber die Zusammensetzung des Holies. Inaugural-Dissertation von Arthur 

Stackmann. Dorpat, 1878. 8vo, pp. 60. 
Researches on the Composition of Wood. 

Is Modem Education Exerting an Evil Influence upon the Eyesight of our children ? 
By A. W. Calhoun, M D., Professor, etc., Atlanta Medical College. Pp. 18. 

Is Phthisis Pulmonalis Contagious, and does it belong to the Zymotic Group ? By W. 
H. Webb, M.D , Philadelphia. Pp.38. 

A Nenv Treatment of Skin Diseases. By Meigs Case, M.D , Oneonta, N. Y. Pp. 8. 

Fifty fifth Annual Report of the Managers o r the State Lunatic Asylum, Utica, N. T., 
for 1877. Pp. 96. 

Lithotomy. A tabulated statement of cases with considerations, etc. By David 
Prince, M.D., Jacksonville, 111. 

Laparo- Elytrotomy, a substitute for the caesarean section. By T. Gaillard Thomas, 
M.D., New York. Pp. 25. 

The Intro-njenous Injection of Milk as a substitute for the Transfusion of Blood. By 
T. Gaillard Thomas, M.D., New York. Pp. 19. 

The Vest-Pocket Anatomist (founded upon Gray). By C. Henri Leonard, A.M., 
M.D., Detroit i6mo, pp. 60. 

Eulogy upon Lunsford P. Yandell, M.D. By Theo. S. Bell, M.D., Louisville, Ky. 
Pp. 22. 


Felix Henri Boudet died at Paris April 6th, having nearly completed his 72d 
year. He was born in the same city May 22d, 1806, became a pharmacist, and in 
1833 received the diplomas of Doctor of Sciences and of Pharmacy. In competing 
for the first one of these degrees, he had instituted researches and wrote a thesis " on 
the action of hyponitric acid upon the oils," in which he pointed out the difference 
in its behavior to the drying and non-drying oils. Soon afterwards, he took charge 
of his father's ofHcine, which he sold in 1849 to Edmond Robiquet, and henceforth 
devoted all his time to scientific researches. He was a member of the most promi- 
nent scientific bodies of France, and in 1852 was appointed to the Conseil d'hygiene 
et de salubrite of Paris. Of his numerous scientific memoirs many have been noticed 
in this journal, notably several on strictly pharmaceutical subjects, which were 
published about 30 years ago. 



AUGUST, 1878. 


By Frederick B. Power. 

Since the publication of my paper on the resin of podophyllum, 1 at 
which time attention was called to the possible pre-existence of proto- 
catechuic acid in the rhizome, an opportunity has been extended for 
pursuing the investigation in this direction. The material worked upon, 
prepared in the laboratory of Dr. E. R. Squibb, was very kindly sent 
by him to Prof. Fluckiger, who was so kind as to place it at my dis- 
posal. It consisted of the washed and dried precipitate produced by 
lead acetate in the mother liquors obtained in the preparation of podo- 
phyllum resin from 400 pounds of powdered rhizome, and this, as 
stated by Dr. Squibb, was a portion of a lot of 1,000 pounds of rhizome, 
all practically the same in quality. For complete precipitation, twelve 
pounds, avoirdupois, of crystallized lead acetate were employed, the 
washed and dried precipitate therefrom weighing about ten ounces. 

This lead precipitate, consisting of the lead compound of the acid 
resin associated with a small amount of lead chloride, was finely 
powdered, suspended in water, and saturated with hydrosulphuric acid, 
the liquid filtered to separate the lead sulphide, which latter was again 
suspended in water and treated as before, in order to insure the com- 
plete removal of the lead. The lead sulphide was then dried, and 
exhausted with boiling alcohol. The amount of acid resin as obtained 
by the evaporation of the aqueous liquid upon the water-bath was 60 
grams. By the evaporation of the alcoholic solution, obtained by the 
subsequent exhaustion of the lead sulphide, 40 grams of resin were 
obtained j the resin being so much more sparingly soluble in water than 
in alcohol that the extraction of the entire amount produced by the 
decomposition of the lead compound would have required repeated 

l " Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc.," 1877. pp. 420-433. 


The Resin of Podophyllum. 

< Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Aug., 1878. 

treatment with large amounts of water. The acid resin was then 
further examined, as detailed in my previous paper, 1 by exhaustion with 
ether, and treating the portion soluble therein (which should contain 
the protocatechuic acid if present, associated with resin) with boiling 
water. The final product, thus obtained, consisted chiefly of amor- 
phous resin, and all efforts to isolate a crystalline compound therefrom, 
which would admit of a more minute examination, were unsuccessful. 
Although the peculiar character of the resin in being soluble in water 
presents a great barrier for a thorough separation and examination of 
its constituents, yet from the amount of material operated upon, and 
without reliance alone upon color tests, the conclusion must be drawn 
that protocatechuic acid can as yet only be obtained as a decomposition 
product, and its pre-existence in any drug must still remain a subject 
for future observation and discovery. 

In the course of this investigation notice was also again taken of the 
statement of Prof. Mayer, made some years ago, 2 in regard to the pres- 
ence of a colorless alkaloid in the rhizome, which may be precipitated 
by lead or by acids. That such an alkaloid exists, which is precipi- 
tated by lead salts, seems quite improbable, and the results of the 
present investigation have also failed to indicate its presence ; in this 
respect but more fully confirming the results of my previous investiga- 
tion. That the alkaloid Berberina is absent, the writer believes to 
have quite conclusively proven, and may be supported by the observa- 
tion of Dr. E. R. Squibb, who has more recently subjected a liter of 
the filtered liquid, obtained by the precipitation of the resin, to the 
action of Mayer's solution of mercurio-potassic iodide, but with nega- 
tive results. It may not be inopportune, in this connection, to call 
attention to the fact which, if generally known, is not always considered, 
that Mayer's solution of mercurio-potassic iodide, as well as other com- 
monly-employed alkaloidal reagents, produce precipitates with many 
other substances beside alkaloids, which may possibly have led other 
investigators astray in assuming the presence of an alkaloid in the 
rhizome of podophyllum. 

u^In view of this fact, we can only be justified in assuming such 
reactions as simply indicative, but by no means as furnishing conclusive 
evidence of the piesence of an alkaloid : the latter only to be estab- 
lished by its isolation and identification. 

1 Ibid. 

2 "Amer. Jour. Pharrr .," March, 1863, vol. >.xxv, p. 98. 

Am A J u°g U , r 'i8 > 7 h 8? rm '} Commercial Extracts and Resins of Jalap. 371 



By Chas. D. Farwell, Ph.G. 
[From an Inaugural Essay.) 

The examination of a few commercial extracts and resins of jalap, 
for the purpose of comparing them in regard to purity and the relative 
amount of medicinally active constituents contained therein, was con- 
ducted in the following manner: 

One gram of each extract was dried over sulphuric acid and weighed^ 
to ascertain the amount of moisture present. Ten grams of each 
extract were exhausted by water, and the residual resins, after being 
dried and weighed, were treated with stronger ether to separate the 
soft from the hard portion. The etherial solutions, being allowed to 
evaporate, yielded the soft resins, which were weighed and dissolved in 
officinal solution of potassa, forming clear, deep reddish-brown solu- 
tions, the color probably being due to the action of the alkali on a 
peculiar coloring principle. When dilute hydrochloric acid in excess 
was added to these alkaline solutions, either hot or cold, dense light- 
colored precipitates were thrown down. In this respect the soft resin 
of jalap differs decidedly from the resin of scammony, with which 
some chemists have claimed it to be identical. Resin of scammony is 
wholly soluble in ether and officinal solution of potassa, but is not pre- 
cipitated from its alkaline solution upon the addition of dilute hydro- 
chloric acid in excess. 

The hard resins — convolvulin of Mayer — were also weighed and 
dissolved in officinal solution of potassa. When dilute hydrochloric 
acid in excess was added to these solutions, either hot or cold, no pre- 
cipitate was occasioned, the convolvulin having been converted by 
assumption of water into soluble convolvulinic acid. 

The aqueous solutions from the extracts were evaporated, and the 
residues, after being weighed, were exhausted by stronger alcohol to 
ascertain the amount in each soluble in both alcohol and water. 

In examining the commercial resins, one gram of each was dried, 
weighed, exhausted by water and again dried and weighed, to ascertain 
the amount of moisture and extractive matter present. One gram of 
each, previously exhausted by water and dried, was treated with stronger 
ether to separate the hard and soft resins. These, after being weighed, 
were treated with officinal solution of potassa and dilute hydrochloric 

372 Commercial Extracts and Resins of Jalap. { A %{f g u ^£ 7 h 8 arm; 

acid, in the same manner as the resins from the extracts, and with 
like results. 

To insure correctness, each of the operations were repeated with 
fresh portions of the preparations. The quantitative results are given 
in the following tables, samples from the different manufacturers being 
designated by numbers, as follows : No. I being from a New York 
manufacturer, while 2, 3 and 4 were made by different firms in Phila- 
delphia. Resin No. 4 was made by myself by the process of the U. 
S. Pharmacopoeia. 






per cent. 


per cent. 

per cent. 


18 7 

per cent. 

1 6*3 

Water, ..... 
R s s 1 n , .... 
Soluble in water, 

Soluble in both alcohol and water, . 





Resins from Extracts soluble in ether, . 
" « " insoluble " 










Water, ..... 
Soluble in water, 




Soluble in ether, 
Insoluble in ether, . 


9 ro 



The behavior of the resins when separated by ether and treated with 
solution of potassa and dilute hydrochloric acid was considered sufficient 
proof of purity, the difference in the proportion of the active consti- 
tuents being, no doubt, mainly due to the quality of the drug used, and 
perhaps in part to the manner of preparation. It will be seen by the 
foregoing tables that this difference consists chiefly in the relative pro- 
portion of the resin contained in the extracts, and it is, of course, upon 
the resin that the activity of the extracts chiefly depends, although the 
portion soluble in both alcohol and water has been proven to be pos- 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Aug., 1878. J 

Berber is Nervosa, 


sessed of valuable mild cathartic and diuretic properties. Only'one of 
the commercial resins contained matter soluble in water, and this was 
found to be principally sugar. 

Although neither of the preparations examined may be considered 
poor, and fair results might be attained from the employment of 
any one of them medicinally, the use of inferior drugs or improper 
manipulation by the manufacturer to any extent should not be encour- 
aged, nor should the pharmacist be satisfied with even a good prepara- 
tion when there is a better or a best. 

There is no doubt that what is true of so many of the preparations 
usually purchased from the manufacturer is also true of the extract and 
resin in jalap : this is, that the pharmacist, by the use of proper care in 
selecting the drug, can himself produce a preparation fully equal, if not 
superior, to the best from the manufacturer. 


By Peter F. Neppach, Ph.G. 
[Abstract from an Inaugural Essay.) 

This is the Mahonia glumacea of De Candolle, known in Oregon as 
Oregon Grape^ and is indigenous to California, Oregon and Washington 
Territory, principally in the Coast Range and Cascade Mountains, 
from Vancouver Island to the Bay of Monterey. The part used in 
medicine is the rhizome, which is horizontal in the ground, very knotty 
and crooked, from the size of a quill to an inch in diameter, and has a 
very thin bark of a dingy yellowish-brown color externally, somewhat 
lighter internally, and covering a white tough wood. It is regarded as 
possessing tonic and febrifuge properties and has been used in syphilitic 
complaints with asserted success. 

The whole rhizome was crushed to a coarse powder, macerated with 
alcohol, the tincture concentrated, thrown into water and filtered from 
the yellow resinous precipitate ; the filtrate was somewhat concen- 
trated and well acidulated with hydrochloric acid, when a bright-yellow 
powder was obtained, the warm alcoholic solution of which, treated 
with a dilute solution of iodine in iodide of potassium — being careful 
to avoid excess of iodine — gave a bronze-green precipitate. The 
yellow powder was compared with hydrochlorate of berberina, pre- 

374 The Species of Berber is of the Pacific Coast. { Am Aig" r ;f 7 8 arm ' 

pared from hydrastis, in its behavior to various reagents ; the reactions 
being identical, proved the identity of the substance with berberina. 

On examining the yellow precipitate occasioned in the concentrated 
tincture by water, it was found to contain more berberina, and possibly 
another alkaloid, which, however, was not isolated. 

The powdered rhizome, previously exhausted with strong alcohol, 
was treated with water. The infusion, on being tested with the usual 
reagents for alkaloids, gave no reaction ; it contained, however, gum 
and sugar. 


t By John M. Maisch. 

- The genus Berberis comprises shrubs, which have a more or less 
yellow wood and a yellow inner bark, and produce racemes of yellow 
or yellowish flowers, and several-seeded acidulous berries. As at 
present constituted, about 50 species are known which belong to both 
continents, but are largely South American. One species, Berb. 
vulgaris, Lin., is indigenous to Europe, has been naturalized in New 
England and grows spontaneously in other parts of the United States. 
It has the early leaves reduced to sharp, usually triple spines, from the 
axils of which deciduous, obovate, spatulate, bristly, serrutate leaves with- 
out pointed petioles, are produced. The shrub grows 6 to 8 feet high, 
while the only species indigenous to the eastern section of the United 
States is but 1 to 3 feet high. This is the Berb. canadensis, Pursh, 
which, however, according to Gray, is not indigenous to Canada, but 
grows in the Alleghanies of Virginia and southward ; it has repandly- 
toothed leaves and few-flowered racemes. 

A larger number of species are found in the Western United States, 
in the territory bordering the Pacific. All of them are, however, very 
different in aspect from those noticed above, the differences having 
been considered so important that the plants were arranged by Nuttall 
into a separate genus, Mahonia, which was also adopted by De 
Candolle, but has more recently been regarded merely as a sub genus 
of Berberis, from which it is distinguished by evergreen oddly pinnate 
leaves with sessile spinulously-toothed leaflets, by the absence of 
glandular spots at the base of the petals and by the presence of a tooth 
on each side of the apex of the filament. While the berries of the 
species noticed above are of a bright-red or scarlet color and oblong or 

Leaf, one-half of natural size. Leaflet, natural size. 

376 The Species of Berber is of the Pacific Coast. { Am ^; I ^ rm ' 

oval in shape, the species of our Pacific coast have globular dark-blue 
berries. On that account it seems they are indiscriminately called 
Oregon grape ; it will at least be observed from the statements below > 
that Pursh included Berb. repens in his Berb. aquifolium, to which, it is 
asserted, the name of Oregon grape is usually given, and Mr. Neppach 
informed us that the plant analyzed by him (see page 373) is known 
by the same name in those parts of Oregon where it grows. All the 
species resemble one another so closely, and they all vary in aspect to 
such an extent, that it will be very difficult for others than botanists to 
distinguish them. It appears also that these plants have been used 
indiscriminately on the Pacific coast for many years, and it is not 
unlikely, that they are indiscriminately collected and used as Berberis 

As indigenous medicinal agents, they certainly deserve the attention 
of physicians ; but we doubt that they will be found to possess 
greater efficacy or markedly different properties than the numerous 
drugs which contain notable quantities of berberina. 

Excellent descriptions of these plants are contained in a work 
recently published under the title : " Geological Survey of Cali- 
fornia. Botany, vol. i, Polypetalae : by W. H. Brewer and Sereno 
Watson. Gamopetalae : by Asa Gray." With the annexed plate of 
Berb. repens, Lindl., for the use of which we are indebted to Mr. C, G. 
Lloyd of Cincinnati, we publish the descriptions of all the California, 
species, and merely remark, as to the venation, that the pinnate venation 
is well marked in the plate, and that the leaflets of Berb. nervosa before 
us have, aside from their different shape, one or two veins on each side 
of the mid-rib originating at the very base thereof. The leaflets of 
Berb. aquifolium differ from those figured in being narrowed towards the 

Leaflets Pinnately Veined. 

Berberis repens, Lindl. — A low, somewhat procumbent shrub,, 
less than a foot high ; leaflets 3 to 7, ovate, acute, not acuminate, 1 
to l\ inches long, not shiny above ; racemes few, terminating the 
stems, 1 to 1 J inch long. B. aquifolium, Pursh, mainly and of 
numerous authors. Throughout California, and extending northward 
to British Columbia and eastward to Colorado and New Mexico. 

B. aquifolium, Pursh. — A shrub 2 to 6 feet high, leaflets usually 
7, but often more, the lower pair distant from the stem, ovate to. 
oblong-lanceolate, 1 \ to 4 inches long, acuminate, green and shining 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Aug., 1878. J 

The Volatility of Glycerin. 


above, sinuately dentate with numerous spinose teeth ; racemes to- 
2 inches long, clustered chiefly in the subterminal axils ; fruit nearly 

Frequent in Oregon and northward, where it is known as the " Oregon grape, 
and reported southward in the coast ranges even to Monterey. Pursh's description 
and figure belong mainly to B. repens. 

B. pinnata, Lag. — Very much like the last species, but the leaves 
more crowded and more nearly sessile, the lower pair of leaflets being 
approximate to the base of the petiole ; leaflets usually 5 to 7 ; racemes 
more frequently lateral upon the branches ; fruit oblong, ovoid, 4 lines 
long. Mahonia fascicularis, D. C. 

Hills about San Francisco Bay and eastward to San Diego, thence east to New 
Mexico. Fruit pleasant to the taste and known to the Mexicans as Lena amarilla. 
There has always been much confusion, and is still some uncertainty respecting this 
species and its allies. Lagasca's original description (published in 1803) professedly 
included specimens both from Monterey and from Vancouver Island, while the 
plant cultivated in the gardens from his seeds, and figured under this name, appears 
to have been wholly the Oregon form, which Pursh afterwards included with the 
low B. repens, in his description and figure of B. aquifolium. Humboldt and 
Bonpland afterwards applied the name B. pinnata to a Mexican plant, figured by 
them, and DeCandolle at length included all, the Mexican, Californian and Oregon* 
together, under the name Mahonia fascicularis. The question of synonymy is 
most conveniently solved by retaining what has become the ordinary application of 
the names, B. fascicularis being limited to the Mexican species, which seems distin- 
guishable from the Californian B. pinnata by its more numerous, more acuminative 
and less shining leaflets. 

Leaflets Palmately Nerved. 

B. nervosa, Pursh. — Stems simple, but a few inches high ; petioles 
and peduncles springing from the apex, accompanied by dry glumaceous 
rigidly acuminate bracts ; leaves 1 to 2 feet long, of 11 to 17 ovate 
acuminate leaflets ; racemes elongated ; pedicels short ; fruit larger 
than in the preceding species, 3 to 4 lines in diameter. Mahonia 
glumacea, D. C. 

Near the coast from Monterey to Vancouver Island. 


Cincinnati, June 27th, 1878. 

To the Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : 

In Dr. Squibb's article on " fluid extracts by repercolation," pub- 
lished in the May number of the " Journal," he states that on evap- 
orating to constant weight a mixture of glycerin, alcohol and water,, 

378 The Volatility of Glycerin. { * m ^? 7 h 8 arm ' 

containing 20 per cent, by weight of glycerin, only 16 per cent, of 
residue was obtained, showing that 20 per cent, of the glycerin in the 
mixture had been carried off with the vapor of the alcohol and water. 
This result seemed so at variance with the recognized non-volatile 
character of glycerin that the following experiments were made to test 
it, the results of which do not at all accord with Dr. Squibb's theory. 

A mixture of glycerin, water and alcohol was made in the same 
proportions used by Dr. Squibb. The glycerin was taken from a five 
pound can opened expressly for the purpose, and tested by exposing a 
carefully weighed quantity to the heat of a water bath, for 30 minutes, 
•during which time it lost no appreciable weight, showing that it lost no 
water at this temperature. In this, as in the other experiments, the 
liquid was weighed in a tared watch glass set in a second one, the two 
being used to avoid loss from " creeping " of the liquid over the edge 
of the glass. They were then set, together, in a large porcelain dish, 
heated over boiling water and covered. The temperature of this " air 
bath " was shown to be 170 to i8o°F., by a chemical thermometer. 
Each evaporation was carried to constant weight. The glycerin 
mixture, containing 20 per cent, of glycerin, was kept in a well 
stopped bottle to avoid concentrations by evaporation of the alcohol. 

Four experiments gave residues weighing in per cents, as follows : 
20' 1, 20*5, 20*3, 20*6 ; mean result, 20*4 per cent. The o ! 4 per 
cent, excess is due to the rapid evaporation of the alcohol during 
mixing and weighing, thus concentrating the solution of glycerin. 

Two experiments were made with a mixture of strong alcohol and 
glycerin, with 30*8 per cent, of the latter ; the residue weighed 31*0, 
31*5 ; mean, 31*3 per cent. Excess slightly greater than before. 

Glycerin 167 per cent., water 83*3 per cent, gave, under the same 
treatment, residues weighing 16*5 and 16*5 per cent. 

These results -show no loss of glycerin whatever; the results 
obtained by Dr. Squibb must have been due to some cause other than 
the volatility of glycerin in the presence of alcohol and atfatmospheric 

Nat. W. Lord, E.M., 

Analytical Chemist. 

Am A J u° g u ri8 > 7 h 8 arm *} New Device for Moulding Suppositories. 



By Emlen Painter, Ph.G. 
[Read at a Meeting of the California Pharmaceutical Society, May 29, 1878.) 

It is not my intention to write an elaborate essay on the best mode 
of preparing suppositories, but simply to describe a little device for 
readily moulding the material in a convenient form, and doing it quickly 
and well. Although so much has been written on the subject of sup- 
positories within the past few years, and various are the moulds to be 
found in the marke